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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875545

ABSTRACT

Background@#Many chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients receiving monotherapy continue to experience symptoms, exacerbations and poor quality of life. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of direct switch from once-daily tiotropium (TIO) 18 μg to indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg once-daily in COPD patients in Korea. @*Methods@#This was a randomized, open-label, parallel group, 12-week trial in mild-to-moderate COPD patients who received TIO 18 μg once-daily for ≥12 weeks prior to study initiation. Patients aged ≥40 years, with predicted postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50%, post-bronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity <0.7 and smoking history of ≥10 pack-years were included. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either IND/GLY or TIO. The primary objective was to demonstrate superiority of IND/GLY over TIO in pre-dose trough FEV1 at week 12. Secondary endpoints included transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD assessment test (CAT) total score, and rescue medication use following the 12-week treatment, and safety assessment. @*Results@#Of the 442 patients screened, 379 were randomized and 347 completed the study. IND/GLY demonstrated superiority in pre-dose trough FEV1 versus TIO at week 12 (least squares mean treatment difference [Δ], 50 mL; p=0.013). Also, numerical improvements were observed with IND/GLY in the TDI focal score (Δ, 0.31), CAT total score (Δ, –0.81), and rescue medication use (Δ, –0.09 puffs/day). Both treatments were well tolerated by patients. @*Conclusion@#A direct switch from TIO to IND/GLY provided improvements in lung function and other patient-reported outcomes with an acceptable safety profile in patients with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite increasing awareness of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, knowledge regarding gender differences in COPD outcomes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether COPD outcomes, including exacerbations, lung , and symptoms differ by gender. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with COPD from two Korean multicenter prospective cohorts. After propensity score matching, the main outcome, the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. We also assessed changes in lung function and symptom scores including the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C), COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score. @*Results@#After propensity score matching, 74 women and 74 men with COPD were included. The incidence rates of exacerbations in women and men were not significantly different (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 2.54). There was no significant difference in the incidence rates adjusted for medication possession ratios of long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting β-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids during the follow-up period (incidence rate ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.52). Rates of decline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity did not differ between women and men during 48 months of follow-up. The changes in scores on the SGRQ-C, CAT, and mMRC Questionnaire in women were also similar to those in men. @*Conclusions@#We observed no gender differences in the rate of exacerbations of COPD in a prospective longitudinal study. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in the general COPD population.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that mitophagy, the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria, mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure and contributes to the development of emphysema in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role of mitophagy in the regulation of CSE-exposed lung bronchial epithelial cell (Beas-2B) death. We also investigated the role of a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, roflumilast, in CSE-induced mitophagy-dependent cell death. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that CSE induces mitophagy in Beas-2B cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and increased the expression levels of the mitophagy regulator protein, PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1), and the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-1-like protein (DRP1). CSE-induced epithelial cell death was significantly increased in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE but was decreased by small interfering RNA-dependent knockdown of DRP1. Treatment with roflumilast in Beas-2B cells inhibited CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy by inhibiting the expression of phospho-DRP1 and -PINK1. Roflumilast protected against cell death and increased cell viability, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase release test and the MTT assay, respectively, in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that roflumilast plays a protective role in CS-induced mitophagy-dependent cell death.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cell Survival , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4 , Emphysema , Epithelial Cells , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lung , Mitochondria , Mitophagy , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Smoke , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a relatively recently identified respiratory virus that induces respiratory symptoms similar to those of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children. The characteristics of hMPV-infected adults are unclear because few cases have been reported. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of hospitalized adult patients with a positive multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay result from 2012 to 2016 at a single tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. We analyzed clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients and divided patients into an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) group and a non-ARDS group. RESULTS: In total, 110 adults were reviewed in this study. Their mean age was 61.4 years, and the majority (n = 105, 95.5%) had comorbidities or were immunocompromised. Most of the patients had pneumonia on chest X-ray (n = 88, 93.6%), 22 (20.0%) had ARDS, and 12 (10.9%) expired during hospitalization. The mortality rate for patients with ARDS was higher than that of the other patients (36.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.001). The risk factor for hMPV-associated ARDS was heart failure (odds ratio, 5.24; P = 0.044) and laboratory values were increased blood urea nitrogen and increased C-reactive protein. The acquisition site of infection was divided into community vs. nosocomial; 43 patients (39.1%) had a nosocomial infection. The risk factors for nosocomial infection were an immunocompromised state, malignancy and immunosuppressive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that hMPV is one of the important respiratory pathogens important respiratory pathogen that causes pneumonia/ARDS in elderly, immunocompromised individuals and that it may be transmitted via the nosocomial route.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Comorbidity , Cross Infection , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Metapneumovirus , Mortality , Pneumonia , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Thorax
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174157

ABSTRACT

Several recent clinical trials reported that intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT) for some allergens, such as cat dander and pollen, induce tolerance more rapidly than conventional subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy, have a comparable duration of effect after only 3 injections, and do not provoke serious local or systemic reactions. However, the efficacy and safety of ILIT are using Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), and dog, which are indoor allergens that are commonly found globally, need to be evaluated. Furthermore, use of multiple allergens in ILIT should be investigated. We assessed the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of ILIT using aqueous Df, Dp, dog, and cat allergens or mixtures thereof in patients with allergic rhinitis. A total of 11 subjects with AR sensitized to Df, Dp, cat, and/or dog allergens received 3 intralymphatic inguinal injections of sensitized allergen extract (HollisterStier, New Orleans, LA, USA). Clinical parameters were assessed before ILIT, and 4 months and 1 year after the first injection. Rhinitis symptoms were alleviated and quality of life was improved 4 months after ILIT (P=0.012 and P=0.007, respectively), and these improvements lasted for 1 year after ILIT (P=0.047 and P=0.009, respectively). However, we observed 2 cases of anaphylaxis, one case of a moderate-to-severe systemic hypersensitivity reaction and the other case of a severe local reaction at the injection site after ILIT. In conclusion, ILIT can rapidly improve allergy symptoms and quality of life, and this effect lasts for 1 year. In hypersensitized patients, however, ILIT can provoke severe systemic and/or local hypersensitivity reactions when performed using aqueous allergen extracts.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Animals , Cats , Dander , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Dogs , Dust , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunotherapy , Pilot Projects , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Quality of Life , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sublingual Immunotherapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a relatively recently identified respiratory virus that induces respiratory symptoms similar to those of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children. The characteristics of hMPV-infected adults are unclear because few cases have been reported. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of hospitalized adult patients with a positive multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay result from 2012 to 2016 at a single tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. We analyzed clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients and divided patients into an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) group and a non-ARDS group. RESULTS: In total, 110 adults were reviewed in this study. Their mean age was 61.4 years, and the majority (n = 105, 95.5%) had comorbidities or were immunocompromised. Most of the patients had pneumonia on chest X-ray (n = 88, 93.6%), 22 (20.0%) had ARDS, and 12 (10.9%) expired during hospitalization. The mortality rate for patients with ARDS was higher than that of the other patients (36.4% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.001). The risk factor for hMPV-associated ARDS was heart failure (odds ratio, 5.24; P = 0.044) and laboratory values were increased blood urea nitrogen and increased C-reactive protein. The acquisition site of infection was divided into community vs. nosocomial; 43 patients (39.1%) had a nosocomial infection. The risk factors for nosocomial infection were an immunocompromised state, malignancy and immunosuppressive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that hMPV is one of the important respiratory pathogens important respiratory pathogen that causes pneumonia/ARDS in elderly, immunocompromised individuals and that it may be transmitted via the nosocomial route.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Comorbidity , Cross Infection , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Metapneumovirus , Mortality , Pneumonia , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Thorax
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170078

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed versus gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced (stage IIIB or IV) or recurrent NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg/m(2) of pemetrexed intravenously every 3 weeks or gefitinib 250 mg/day orally. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients were enrolled (47 for pemetrexed and 48 for gefitinib). Most patients were male (72%) and current/ex-smokers (69%), and 80% had non-squamous cell carcinoma. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status was determined in 38 patients (40%); one patient per each arm was positive for EGFR mutation. The 6-month PFS rates were 22% and 15% for pemetrexed and gefitinib, respectively (p=0.35). Both arms showed an identical median PFS of 2.0 months and a median overall survival (OS) of 8.5 months. In EGFR wild-type patients, higher response rate (RR) and longer PFS as well as OS were achieved via pemetrexed compared with gefitinib, although there were no significant differences (RR: 39% vs. 9%, p=0.07; median PFS: 6.6 months vs. 3.1 months, p=0.45; median OS: 29.6 months vs. 12.9 months, p=0.62). Toxicities were mild in both treatment arms. Frequently reported toxicities were anemia and fatigue for pemetrexed, and skin rash and anorexia for gefitinib. CONCLUSION: Both pemetrexed and gefitinib had similar efficacy with good tolerability as second-line treatment in unselected patients with advanced NSCLC. However, pemetrexed is considered more effective than gefitinib for EGFR wild-type patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anorexia , Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exanthema , Fatigue , Humans , Male , ErbB Receptors
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Veterinary researchers are exposed to variable animal allergens. However, sensitization to them and allergic symptoms during exposure to them in this group are not sufficiently evaluated worldwide, especially in Korea. The objective of this study is to evaluate sensitization to animal allergens and allergic symptoms during exposure to them in Korean veterinary researchers. METHODS: Thirty-two veterinary researchers who participated in the 2016 annual symposium of the Korean Society of Veterinary Science were asked to answer questionnaires regarding allergic symptoms during animal exposure and underwent skin prick tests for animal allergens. Animal allergens consisted of chicken feather and 10 mammals, epithelia as well as cow's milk, hen's egg, and 7 animal types of meat. RESULTS: There were 13 subjects who complained of allergic symptoms during exposure to certain animal epithelia and 19 who did not. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in age, sex, underlying allergic disease, family history of allergy, current occupation and its duration, numbers and specie of contact animals, or daily contact time. Meanwhile, the sensitization rates to mouse, horse, rabbit, and guinea pig were significantly higher in the symptomatic group. Rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were the most common allergic symptoms related to animal exposure were most common followed by dermatologic symptom, and symptom of lower respiratory tract. CONCLUSION: We found that sensitizations to some animal epithelia were more frequent in Korean veterinary researchers with allergic symptoms during exposure to animal compared to those without it, and their most common symptoms were rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Chickens , Feathers , Guinea Pigs , Horses , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Mammals , Meat , Mice , Milk , Occupations , Ovum , Respiratory System , Skin
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18289

ABSTRACT

Abalone is popular seafood in Asia; however, allergy to abalone was rarely reported. We report a case of anaphylaxis after consumption of abalone. A 24-year-old female visited an Emergency Department, complaining of cough, dyspnea, rhinorrhea, generalized urticaria, facial edema, and wheezing that had developed 1 hour after consumption of abalone. She was discharged when her symptoms subsided after antihistamine and dexamethasone were given. One month later, she was referred to our outpatient clinic. We performed skin prick tests, measurement of serum specific IgE antibody level, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with IgE immunoblotting. Both skin prick and specific IgE antibody tests were positive for abalone crude extract. In SDS-PAGE with IgE immunoblotting, we identified possible antigens sized 55, 100, and 25 kDa, respectively. This is the first case of abalone-induced anaphylaxis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anaphylaxis , Asia , Cough , Dexamethasone , Dyspnea , Edema , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Respiratory Sounds , Seafood , Shellfish , Skin , Sodium , Urticaria , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83616

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic and complained of fever, poor oral intake, and weight loss. A chest X-ray demonstrated streaky and fibrotic lesions in both lungs, and chest CT revealed multifocal peribronchial patchy ground-glass opacities with septated cystic lesions in both lungs. Cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocyte-dominant leukocytosis, and further analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed a predominance of cytotoxic T cells and few T helper cells. Video-assisted wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed, and the histologic examination was indicative of a Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was orally administered for 3 weeks; however, the patient complained of cough, and the pneumonia was aggravated in the follow-up chest X-ray and chest CT. Molecular studies demonstrated mutations at codons 55 and 57 of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene, which is associated with the resistance to TMP-SMX. Clindamycin-primaquine was subsequently administered for 3 weeks replacing the TMP-SMX. A follow-up chest X-ray showed that the pneumonia was resolving, and the cough was also alleviated. A positive result of HIV immunoassay and elevated titer of HCV RNA indicated HIV infection as an underlying condition. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring of patients with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) during the course of treatment, and the molecular study of DHPS mutations. Additionally, altering the anti-PCP drug utilized as treatment must be considered when infection with drug-resistant P. jirovecii is suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMP-SMX-resistant PCP described in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumocystis carinii/drug effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Sulfamethoxazole/administration & dosage , Trimethoprim/administration & dosage
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast, appear to be more frequent in clinical practice than what was observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinical trials. Thus, we designed this study to determine whether adverse effects could be reduced by starting roflumilast at half the dose, and then increasing a few weeks later to 500 microg daily. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 85 patients with COPD who had taken either 500 microg roflumilast, or a starting dose of 250 microg and then increased to 500 microg. We analyzed all adverse events and assessed differences between patients who continued taking the drug after dose escalation and those who had stopped. RESULTS: Adverse events were reported by 22 of the 85 patients (25.9%). The most common adverse event was diarrhea (10.6%). Of the 52 patients who had increased from a starting dose of 250 microg roflumilast to 500 microg, 43 (82.7%) successfully maintained the 500 microg roflumilast dose. No difference in factors likely to affect the risk of adverse effects, was detected between the dose-escalated and the discontinued groups. Of the 26 patients who started with the 500 microg roflumilast regimen, seven (26.9%) discontinued because of adverse effects. There was no statistically significant difference in discontinuation rate between the dose-escalated and the control groups (p=0.22). CONCLUSION: Escalating the roflumilast dose may reduce treatment-related adverse effects and improve tolerance to the full dose. This study suggests that the dose-escalated regimen reduced the rate of discontinuation. However, longer-term and larger-scale studies are needed to support the full benefit of a dose escalation strategy.


Subject(s)
Clinical Protocols , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4 , Diarrhea , Humans , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have different pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and outcomes than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The intention of this study was to identify unknown differences between CPFE and IPF by a retrospective comparison of clinical data including baseline and annual changes in pulmonary function, comorbidities, laboratory findings, clinical characteristics and cause of hospitalization. METHODS: This study retrospectively enrolled patients with CPFE and IPF who had undergone PFTs once or several times per year during a follow-up period of three years. Baseline clinical characteristics and the annual changes in the pulmonary function during the follow-up period were compared between 26 with CPFE and 42 patients with IPF. RESULTS: The baseline ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) in patients with CPFE was lower than that in patients with IPF (78.6+/-1.7 vs. 82.9+/-1.1, p=0.041). The annual decrease in FEV1/FVC in the CPFE was significantly higher than in the IPF. The annual decreases in diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide and FVC showed no significant differences between the two groups. The symptom durations of cough and sputum were in the CPFE significantly lower than in the IPF. The serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate level at the acute stage was significantly higher than in the IPF. There were no significant differences in the hospitalization rate and pneumonia was the most common cause of hospitalization in both study groups. CONCLUSION: The annual decrease of FEV1/FVC was in patients with CPFE significantly higher than in the patients with IPF.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Carbon Monoxide , Comorbidity , Cough , Diffusion , Emphysema , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Intention , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Emphysema , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Vital Capacity
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have different pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and outcomes than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The intention of this study was to identify unknown differences between CPFE and IPF by a retrospective comparison of clinical data including baseline and annual changes in pulmonary function, comorbidities, laboratory findings, clinical characteristics and cause of hospitalization. METHODS: This study retrospectively enrolled patients with CPFE and IPF who had undergone PFTs once or several times per year during a follow-up period of three years. Baseline clinical characteristics and the annual changes in the pulmonary function during the follow-up period were compared between 26 with CPFE and 42 patients with IPF. RESULTS: The baseline ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) in patients with CPFE was lower than that in patients with IPF (78.6+/-1.7 vs. 82.9+/-1.1, p=0.041). The annual decrease in FEV1/FVC in the CPFE was significantly higher than in the IPF. The annual decreases in diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide and FVC showed no significant differences between the two groups. The symptom durations of cough and sputum were in the CPFE significantly lower than in the IPF. The serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate level at the acute stage was significantly higher than in the IPF. There were no significant differences in the hospitalization rate and pneumonia was the most common cause of hospitalization in both study groups. CONCLUSION: The annual decrease of FEV1/FVC was in patients with CPFE significantly higher than in the patients with IPF.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Carbon Monoxide , Comorbidity , Cough , Diffusion , Emphysema , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Intention , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Emphysema , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Vital Capacity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69011

ABSTRACT

Severe adenovirus pneumonia that causes acute respiratory failure can occur in infants, children, and immunocompromised patients. However, severe adenovirus pneumonia is rare in adults with a normal immune system. Adenovirus pneumonia may progress to acute respiratory failure in a few hours or a few days, and its clinical course cannot be predicted. In addition, the mortality rate is very high (range, 50% to 66%). However, the optimal treatment of adenovirus pneumonia has not been established. Herein, we report the successful treatment of acute respiratory failure due to adenovirus pneumonia with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adult , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Immune System , Immunocompromised Host , Infant , Mortality , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121770

ABSTRACT

Methotrexate (MTX) has been established as a standard disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug. If adequate disease control is achieved for a reasonable period of time, tapering the MTX dosage is recommended because the chronic use of MTX can result in opportunistic infection. We present here a case of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis taking MTX, and the woman developed actively caseating endobronchial Mycobacterium intracellulare disease with pulmonary infiltrations. After discontinuing the MTX, the patient was able to tolerate 18 months of antimycobacterial treatment without flare ups of rheumatoid arthritis, and she completely recovered from nontuberculous mycobacterial respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Bronchial Diseases , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases , Methotrexate , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Opportunistic Infections , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of adult pertussis infections are available in Korea. METHODS: Thirty-one hospitals and the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated to investigate the incidence and clinical characteristics of pertussis infections among adults with a bothersome cough in non-outbreak, ordinary outpatient settings. Nasopharyngeal aspirates or nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture tests. RESULTS: The study enrolled 934 patients between September 2009 and April 2011. Five patients were diagnosed as confirmed cases, satisfying both clinical and laboratory criteria (five positive PCR and one concurrent positive culture). Among 607 patients with cough duration of at least 2 weeks, 504 satisfied the clinical criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (i.e., probable case). The clinical pertussis cases (i.e., both probable and confirmed cases) had a wide age distribution (45.7+/-15.5 years) and cough duration (median, 30 days; interquartile range, 18.0~50.0 days). In addition, sputum, rhinorrhea, and myalgia were less common and dyspnea was more common in the clinical cases, compared to the others (p=0.037, p=0.006, p=0.005, and p=0.030, respectively). CONCLUSION: The positive rate of pertussis infection may be low in non-outbreak, ordinary clinical settings if a PCR-based method is used. However, further prospective, well-designed, multicenter studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Distribution , Cough , Dyspnea , Humans , Incidence , Outpatients , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sputum , Whooping Cough
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide as well as its clinical importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and clinical significance of NTM that has been isolated from respiratory specimens during a recent two-year period at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: We analyzed respiratory samples that were obtained between January 2009 and December 2010 for AFB culture. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of these patients to obtain both clinical and radiologic information. NTM pulmonary disease was defined by using the guidelines provided by the America Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America. RESULTS: Among the 1,601 specimens that resulted in a positive AFB culture, 310 (19.4%) were NTM. In 189 patients, the most common isolate was M. avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) (127, 67.2%), which was then followed by M. abscessus (31, 16.4%), M. fortuitum (10, 5.3%), M. kansasii (9, 4.8%), and other NTM species. Of these, 93 (49.2%) patients were diagnosed with NTM pulmonary disease. MAC, M. abscessus, and M. kansasii were more virulent than the other species. None of the cases of NTM pulmonary disease were caused by M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. peregrinum, M. terrae complex, or M. gordonae. CONCLUSION: In Korea, the prevalence of NTM isolates is increasing, as are the cases of pulmonary disease. The pathogenic potential of NTM differs enormously by species and as a result the treatment of NTM lung disease depends on which species has caused the infection. The isolation and identification of NTM isolated from respiratory specimens are mandatory in order for clinical microbiology laboratories to make an accurate diagnosis and suggest the proper treatment of the NTM disease.


Subject(s)
Americas , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Korea , Lung Diseases , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian dust storms can be transported across eastern Asia. In vitro, Asian dust particle-induced inflammation and enhancement of the allergic reaction have been observed. However, the fibrotic effects of Asian dust particles are not clear. Production of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibronectin were investigated in the bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Asian dust particulate matter (AD-PM10). METHODS: During Asian dust storm periods, air samples were collected. The bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to AD-PM10 with and without the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Then TGF-beta1 and fibronectin were detected by Western blotting. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by the measurement of dicholorodihydrofluorescin (DCF), using a FACScan, and visualized by a confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The expression of TGF-beta1, fibronectin and ROS was high after being exposed to AD-PM10, compared to the control. NAC attenuated both TGF-beta1 and fibronectin expression in the AD-PM10-exposed the bronchial epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: AD-PM10 may have fibrotic potential in the bronchial epithelial cells and the possible mechanism is AD-PM10-induced intracellular ROS.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Air Pollutants , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blotting, Western , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Far East , Fibronectins , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Particulate Matter , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7836

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to the new IPF guidelines, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential means of diagnosing IPF. We investigated the relationship between IPF and DM in patients treated between 2003 and 2007. Newly diagnosed IPF patients in large university teaching hospitals in Korea were enrolled from January 2003 to December 2007. We retrospectively analyzed 1,685 patients using the interstitial lung disease (ILD) registry. In total, 299 IPF patients (17.8%) also had DM. The mean age of our subjects was 68.0 +/- 9.4 yr. HRCT showed significantly more reticular and honeycomb patterns in IPF patients with DM than in IPF patients without DM (P = 0.014, P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher incidences of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and other malignancies (except lung cancer) were found in IPF patients with DM than in IPF patients without DM. In conclusion, IPF patients with DM are more likely to have the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, including reticular and honeycomb patterns, on HRCT than are those without DM.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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