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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891462

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeTo determine the diagnostic value of straight head hanging (SHH) in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the posterior semicircular canal (PC-BPPV). @*Methods@#We retrospectively included 62 patients (age=56.2±15.0 years, 47 female) with unilateral PC-BPPV who underwent both the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and SHH before receiving canalith repositioning therapy (CRT) between September 2017 and July 2020 at the Dizziness Center of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in South Korea (16 patients, 25.8%) or the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of Aerospace Central Hospital in China (46 patients, 74.2%). SHH was performed before (n=29, group A) or after (n=33, group B) the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. @*Results@#Torsional upbeat nystagmus typical of PC-BPPV was induced during SHH in 52 (83.9%) patients, and the incidence of this type of positional nystagmus did not differ between the groups A and B (79.3% vs. 87.9%, p=0.569). The maximum slow-phase velocity of the induced upbeat nystagmus was higher during SHH than during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver toward the lesion side [range=2.0–60.0°/s (median=18.5°/s) vs. range=2.7–40.0°/s (median=13.4°/s), p<0.001]. Reversal of the positional nystagmus was observed upon resuming the sitting position after SHH in 47 (75.8%) patients and after the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 54 (87.7%) patients, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.082). @*Conclusions@#SHH is effective for diagnosing PC-BPPV. Given its simplicity, SHH may be performed before the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, and CRT may be attempted thereafter when the typical positional nystagmus for unilateral PC-BPPV is induced during SHH.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899166

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeTo determine the diagnostic value of straight head hanging (SHH) in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the posterior semicircular canal (PC-BPPV). @*Methods@#We retrospectively included 62 patients (age=56.2±15.0 years, 47 female) with unilateral PC-BPPV who underwent both the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and SHH before receiving canalith repositioning therapy (CRT) between September 2017 and July 2020 at the Dizziness Center of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in South Korea (16 patients, 25.8%) or the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of Aerospace Central Hospital in China (46 patients, 74.2%). SHH was performed before (n=29, group A) or after (n=33, group B) the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. @*Results@#Torsional upbeat nystagmus typical of PC-BPPV was induced during SHH in 52 (83.9%) patients, and the incidence of this type of positional nystagmus did not differ between the groups A and B (79.3% vs. 87.9%, p=0.569). The maximum slow-phase velocity of the induced upbeat nystagmus was higher during SHH than during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver toward the lesion side [range=2.0–60.0°/s (median=18.5°/s) vs. range=2.7–40.0°/s (median=13.4°/s), p<0.001]. Reversal of the positional nystagmus was observed upon resuming the sitting position after SHH in 47 (75.8%) patients and after the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 54 (87.7%) patients, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.082). @*Conclusions@#SHH is effective for diagnosing PC-BPPV. Given its simplicity, SHH may be performed before the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, and CRT may be attempted thereafter when the typical positional nystagmus for unilateral PC-BPPV is induced during SHH.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833670

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes transient visual field defects, but only scattered anecdotes are available in the literature. @*Methods@#We report a patient with homonymous superior quadrantanopsia due to nonketotic hyperglycemia and provide a systematic literature review of the clinical features of 40 previously reported patients (41 in total, including our case) with homonymous visual field defects in association with nonketotic hyperglycemia. @*Results@#The typical visual field defect was congruous (84.6%), homonymous hemianopsia (87.8%) with macular splitting (61.5%) or sparing (38.5%). It was transient and repetitive in 54.5% of the patients, but it developed as a persistent form in the remainder. Positive visual symptoms such as hallucinations and phosphenes developed in 73.2% of patients. Brain MRI revealed corresponding abnormalities in most patients (84.8%), characterized by a low-intensity white-matter signal or a high-intensity gray-matter signal on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images with diffusion restriction or gadolinium enhancement. Most (97.0%) patients recovered completely, with 48.5% treated by glycemic control alone and the remainder also receiving antiepileptic agents. @*Conclusions@#Nonketotic hyperglycemia should be considered a possible cause of transient visual field defects, especially when it is associated with repetitive positive visual symptoms and typical MRI findings in hyperglycemic patients.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833665

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The findings of ophthalmic examinations have not been systematically investigated in visual snow syndrome. This study reviewed the abnormal neuroophthalmologic findings in a patient cohort with symptoms of visual snow syndrome. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients who were referred for symptoms of visual snow to a tertiary referral hospital from November 2016 to October 2019. We defined the findings of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual field testing, pupillary light reflex, contrast sensitivity, full-field and multifocal electroretinography, and optical coherence tomography. @*Results@#Twenty patients (71%) were finally diagnosed as visual snow syndrome. Their additional visual symptoms included illusionary palinopsia (61%), enhanced entoptic phenomenon (65%), disturbance of night vision (44%), and photophobia (65%). A history of migraine was identified in ten patients (50%). The mean BCVA was less than 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, and electrophysiology showed normal retinal function in all patients. Contrast sensitivity was decreased in two of the seven patients tested. Medical treatment was applied to five patients which all turned out to be ineffective. Among the eight patients who were excluded, one was diagnosed with rod-cone dystrophy and another with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. @*Conclusions@#Neuro-ophthalmologic findings are mostly normal in patients with visual snow syndrome. Retinal or neurological diseases must be excluded as possible causes of visual snow.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833661

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Orbital and cranial form of idiopathic inflammatory pseudotumors (IIPs) are rare disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations. Corticosteroids have been the first-line treatment for IIPs, but they are not always effective. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of three patients with orbital or cranial form of IIP who were treated with tacrolimus as an adjuvant treatment. @*Results@#The three patients showed favorable outcomes with the addition of tacrolimus, which is a calcineurin inhibitor that inhibits T-cell activation and T-cell-dependent B-cell activation. @*Conclusions@#Tacrolimus may be a safe and effective immunosuppressant for refractory or relapsing form of orbital or cranial IIPs.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833601

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThis study was designed to determine the prevalence, pattern, lesion location, and etiology of dissociation in the results of the bithermal caloric test and the horizontal video head impulse test (vHIT) in dizzy patients with various etiologies and disease durations. @*Methods@#We analyzed the results of bithermal caloric tests and vHITs performed over 26 months in 893 consecutive patients who underwent both tests within a 10-day period. @*Results@#Dissociation in the results of the two tests was found in 162 (18.1%) patients. Among them, 123 (75.9%) had abnormal caloric tests (unilateral paresis in 118 and bilateral paresis in 5) but normal vHITs. Peripheral lesions were identified in 105 (85.4%) of these patients, with the main underlying diseases being Meniere's disease (62/105, 59%) and vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis (29/105, 27.6%). In contrast, central pathologies of diverse etiologies were found only in 18 (14.6%) patients. Abnormal vHIT (bilaterally positive in 18, unilaterally positive in 19, and hyperactive in 2) and normal caloric responses were found in 39 patients, with an equal prevalence of central (n=19) and peripheral (n=20) lesions. The peripheral lesions included vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis in seven patients and Meniere's disease in another seven. The central lesions had diverse etiologies. @*Conclusions@#Dissociation in the results between caloric tests and horizontal vHITs is not uncommon. The present patients with abnormal caloric tests and normal vHITs mostly had peripheral lesions, while central lesions were likely to underlie those with abnormal vHITs and normal caloric tests.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a rare case of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated pachymeningitis presenting as bilateral orbital apex syndrome.Case summary: A 79-year-old female presented with a visual acuity decrease and ophthalmoplegia in both eyes from 1 week prior to her visit. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hypertrophy and enhancement of the dura mater near the optic canal and superior orbital fissure causing orbital apex syndrome. The serum titer of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was elevated. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed with pachymeningitis related to perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. The antibody titers decreased and ophthalmoplegia recovered after treatment with high dose intravenous steroid injection, cyclophosphamide, and long-term maintenance therapy with oral azathioprine and prednisolone. However, her visual acuity did not improve in either eye. @*Conclusions@#Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis can present as orbital apex syndrome and should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713880

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Paralysis
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761185

ABSTRACT

Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) may be one of the important clinical tools for evaluation of vestibular function. Cervical VEMP evaluates saccule and reflects the functional status of inferior vestibular nerve combining with vertical head impulse test. Ocular VEMP assesses utricle function and provides superior vestibular nerve function in addition to horizontal head impulse test and caloric test. Currently, the clinical implications of VEMP have been expanded to estimate disease severity and location, differentiate diverse vestibular disorders, and predict the prognosis. In present review, we discuss the findings of VEMP according to the lesion location from peripheral vestibular dysfunction to central vestibulopathy and disease characteristics from monophasic transient disorders to chronic progressive disorders.


Subject(s)
Caloric Tests , Central Nervous System Diseases , Head Impulse Test , Meniere Disease , Prognosis , Saccule and Utricle , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Vestibular Nerve , Vestibular Neuronitis
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44726

ABSTRACT

Peripheral arterial disease is caused by atherosclerosis in the arteries causing an insufficient blood flow to the muscles and tissues. Peripheral arterial disease in the lower limbs is the main cause of intermittent claudication. Less commonly, the etiology of intermittent claudication can be extrinsic to vascular structures such as arterial aneurysm, arterial dissection, embolism, popliteal entrapment syndrome, and adventitial cystic disease. A 69-year-old man was referred to Sanggye Paik Hospital because of intermittent claudication. He had a history of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and he was current smoker. His right ankle brachial index is 0.74. Lower extremity artery computed tomography scan was performed and it revealed the right popliteal cyst compressing the right popliteal artery. We performed the arthroscopic cyst drainage and after the procedure, intermittent claudication resolved completely.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aneurysm , Ankle Brachial Index , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Diabetes Mellitus , Drainage , Dyslipidemias , Embolism , Humans , Intermittent Claudication , Lower Extremity , Muscles , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Popliteal Artery , Popliteal Cyst
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The findings of head impulse tests (HIT) are usually normal in cerebellar lesions. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old male presented with progressive dizziness and imbalance of 3 weeks duration. The patient exhibited catch-up saccades during bedside horizontal HIT to either side, which was more evident during the rightward HIT. However, results of bithermal caloric tests and rotatory chair test were normal. MRI revealed a lesion in the inferior cerebellum near the flocculus. CONCLUSIONS: This case provides additional evidence that damage to the flocculus or its connections may impair the vestibulo-ocular reflex only during high-speed stimuli, especially when the stimuli are applied to the contralesional side. By observing accompanying cerebellar signs, the abnormal HIT findings caused by a cerebellar disorder can be distinguished from those produced by peripheral vestibular disorders.


Subject(s)
Caloric Tests , Cerebellar Diseases , Cerebellum , Dizziness , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades , Vertigo
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11858

ABSTRACT

Acute isolated vestibulopathy could be caused by either viral inflammation or ischemia. However, diagnosing ischemic vestibulopathy is difficult due to the ambiguity of the causal relationship between ischemia and peripheral vestibulopathy. We present here a patient with acute ischemic vestibulopathy without hearing loss caused by internal auditory artery occlusion, indirectly proven by the finding of a simultaneously developed silent cerebellar infarction. The details of this case suggest that patients with acute isolated peripheral vestibulopathy should be carefully evaluated for underlying causes, including vascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Hearing Loss , Humans , Infarction , Inflammation , Ischemia , Risk Factors , Stroke
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90158

ABSTRACT

Post-stroke atrial fibrillation has been frequently reported especially in the patients with right insular infarct as an evidence of cerebrogenic mechanism affecting on cardiac rhythm. However, conversion to normal sinus rhythm after stroke in patients who had atrial fibrillation has not been reported. A 88-year-old men who had untreated atrial fibrillation was admitted to hospital due to left middle cerebral artery territory infarction. During admission, second ischemic attack occurred in right middle cerebral artery territory. At that time, his atrial fibrillation converted spontaneously to normal sinus rhythm. Restored sinus rhythm sustained until he died due to sepsis. This case is evidence supporting a theory that brain is associated with control of cardiac rhythm. If no risk factor is revealed by intensive investigation in patients with acute cerebral infarctions that cardioembolism is strongly suspected as a cause, physicians should concern transformation of atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm after stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Autonomic Nervous System , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Infarction , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Stroke
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48676

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the union time and nonunion rate after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture in adult, we would like to analysis the operation techniques, comminution, contact surface and displacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively 53 patients undergoing femoral intramedullary nailing at least 2 years postoperatively and analysised the union time and nonunion rate by operation techniques, comminution, contact surface and displacement. Patients were operated by either antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing. RESULTS: There were no differences in nonunion rate, the duration of bony union between antegrade and retrograde intramedullary nail groups. Significant differences were found in the duration of bony union between the Winquist and Hansen type I, II and the type III, IV (p<0.05). There were significant differences in the duration of bony union among simple, comminuted, and segmental fracture groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The union time is affected by not operation techniques and fracture displacement, but Winquist-Hansen classification and number of fracture fragments in intramedullary nailing of adult femoral shaft fracture.


Subject(s)
Adult , Displacement, Psychological , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary , Humans , Nails , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24628

ABSTRACT

We designed a study to evaluate the change of the proprioceptive function with joint position sense (JPS) during 1 year follow-up period after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autograft. Thirty-eight men who underwent ACL reconstruction were tested for International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee score, Tegner activity score, Lysholm score, KT-2000 arthrometer, isokinetic strength test, functional performance test (carioca, co-contraction, shuttle run test, one-hop test) and JPS at preoperation, 6 months, and 12 months postoperation. The contralateral healthy knee was used as control. There were no significant differences of JPS between the involved knee and healthy knee at any time period. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the active JPS revealed that there was no significant difference during the follow up periods. The change patterns of passive JPS of extension and flexion were out of accordance with the improving clinical status following ACL reconstruction. Most of the clinical parameters did not show the significant correlation with active and passive JPS at any time period. In conclusion, JPS does not reflect the change of proprioceptive function following ACL reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Joints , Knee , Male , Proprioception
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