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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875523

ABSTRACT

Life cycle stages, including daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and metacercariae, of Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974 (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) have been found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from Aphaedo (Island), Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. The daughter sporocysts were elongated sac-like and 307-570 (av. 395) μm long and 101-213 (av. 157) μm wide. Most of the daughter sporocysts contained 15-20 furcocercous cercariae each. The cercariae measured 112-146 (av. 134) μm in total length and 35-46 (av. 40) μm in width, with 69-92 (av. 85) μm long body and 39-54 (av. 49) μm long tail. The metacercariae were 210-250 (av. 231) μm in length and 170-195 (av. 185) μm in width, and characterized by having a large oral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, strongly suggesting P. duboisi. The metacercariae were experimentally infected to ICR mice, and adults were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The adult flukes were morphologically similar to the metacercariae except in the presence of up to 20 eggs in the uterus. The daughter sporocysts and metacercariae were molecularly (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) analyzed to confirm the species, and the results showed 99.8-99.9% identity with P. duboisi reported from Kyushu, Japan and Gochang, Korea. These results confirmed the presence of various life cycle stages of P. duboisi in the Manila clam, R. philippinarum, playing the role of the first as well as the second intermediate host, on Aphae-do (Island), Shinan-gun, Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903864

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903853

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896160

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896149

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834439

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Since 2007, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been administered for the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. We investigated the status of HPV vaccination among HPV-infected adult women with abnormal cervical cytology before the introduction of National Immunization Program. @*Methods@#From 2010 to 2016, HPV-positive women (age, 20–60 years) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) were enrolled from five hospitals across Korea. Their HPV genotype, epidemiologic, and clinical data, including HPV vaccination history, were obtained. We compared the epidemiological characteristics and prevalence of HPV-16/18 genotypes between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. @*Results@#Among the 1,300 women, approximately 26% had a history of vaccination. Vaccinated patients were significantly younger, unmarried, and had a higher education level than unvaccinated women. For HPV-vaccinated individuals by vaccine dose, there was a significant younger age at vaccination initiation (p=0.025), longer duration from HPV vaccination to Pap test date (p=0.001), and lower proportion of HPV-16/18 (p=0.028) in the women with three doses. There was a significantly lower prevalence of HPV-16/18 genotypes in women who were vaccinated at least 12 months prior than in unvaccinated women(adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.29–0.88). For women with LSIL, the prevalence of the HPV-16/18 genotypes was significantly lower in women who were vaccinated more than 12 months prior than in unvaccinated women (aPR=0.35; 95% CI=0.13–0.96). @*Conclusion@#This study highlighted the status of HPV vaccination and the prevalence of HPV-16/18 genotypes among HPV-infected women with abnormal cervical cytology according to HPV vaccination. It provides preliminary information regarding the status of HPV vaccination among Korean adult women.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833784

ABSTRACT

Gymnophallid metacercariae found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (‘Banjirak’ in Korean) from Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea were morphologically and molecularly confirmed to be Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974. The metacercariae were morphologically characterized by having a large oral sucker, small ventral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, which were all compatible with P. duboisi. Some of the metacercariae were experimentally fed to mice, and adult flukes were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The morphology of the adult flukes was basically the same as that of the metacercariae except for the presence of uterine eggs; the uterus was filled with up to 40 eggs. The nucleotide sequences (1,193 bp) from ITS regions (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2) of the metacercariae showed 99.7% identity with P. duboisi and 75.7% identity with Gymnophalloides seoi deposited in GenBank. These results confirmed the presence of P. duboisi metacercariae in the Manila clam R. philippinarum in an estuary region of Gochang-gun, Korea.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833754

ABSTRACT

Taenia saginata infection has seldom been reported in Cambodia. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in 1,156 residents of Preah Vihear and Stung Treng Provinces in 2018. The results revealed that 26 (2.4%) cases were positive for Taenia spp. eggs. In order to obtain the strobilae of the tapeworms, 2 patients in Preah Vihear were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. The proglottids expelled after the medication were morphologically and molecularly analyzed to determine the species. The main uterine lateral braches in gravid proglottids were >15 in number suggesting that they are either T. saginata or Taenia asiatica. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and 2 nuclear loci, elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-like protein (elp), were identical to the sequences of T. saginata available in GenBank but distant from Taenia solium, T. asiatica, and T. saginata-T. asiatica hybrid. This is the first report of the presence of T. saginata in the northern part of Cambodia bordering Lao PDR based on a molecular confirmation.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903849

ABSTRACT

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. The results revealed a high overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths (61.9%), and the egg positive rate of hookworms was 11.6%. Nine of the hookworm egg positive cases in Preah Vihear Province were treated with 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate followed by purging with magnesium salts, and a total of 65 adult hookworms were expelled in diarrheic stools. The adult hookworms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly to confirm the species. The morphologies of the buccal cavity and dorsal rays on the costa were observed with a light microscope, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. The majority of the hookworm adults (90.7%) were N. americanus, whereas the remaining 9.3% were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a rare hookworm species infecting humans. The results revealed a high prevalence of hookworm infections among people in a northern part of Cambodia, suggesting the necessity of a sustained survey combined with control measures against hookworm infections.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896145

ABSTRACT

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. The results revealed a high overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths (61.9%), and the egg positive rate of hookworms was 11.6%. Nine of the hookworm egg positive cases in Preah Vihear Province were treated with 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate followed by purging with magnesium salts, and a total of 65 adult hookworms were expelled in diarrheic stools. The adult hookworms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly to confirm the species. The morphologies of the buccal cavity and dorsal rays on the costa were observed with a light microscope, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. The majority of the hookworm adults (90.7%) were N. americanus, whereas the remaining 9.3% were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a rare hookworm species infecting humans. The results revealed a high prevalence of hookworm infections among people in a northern part of Cambodia, suggesting the necessity of a sustained survey combined with control measures against hookworm infections.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786631

ABSTRACT

Anisakiasis (anisakidosis) refers to a foodborne zoonosis caused by ingesting raw or undercooked marine fish or cephalopods infected with anisakid larvae. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of anisakid larvae in anchovies (Engraulis japonica) purchased from 2 local markets in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (=Korea), during 2018–2019. Anchovies were transported to our laboratory and examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion technique followed by microscopic observations and molecular analyses. The overall prevalence of anisakid larvae was 19.5% (39/200), from which a total of 51 larvae (av. 1.3 larvae/infected anchovy) were recovered. Sequencing of the larvae targeting the ITS region, including ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2 genes confirmed the species of larvae as Anisakis pegreffii (54.9%; 28/51), Hysterothylacium sinense (23.5%; 12/51), and Hysterothylacium aduncum (21.5%; 11/51). The results suggested that anchovies could be a potential source of human anisakiasis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Cephalopoda , Digestion , Humans , Korea , Larva , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
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