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The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S114-S122, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875490


Background/Aims@#Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there have been concerns about the association between exposure to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors and the risk and severity of COVID-19. @*Methods@#We performed a case-control study that utilized up-to-date data on the South Korean population provided by the Korean National Health Insurance System. Of the 62,909 patients with hypertension or heart failure tested for COVID-19, there were 1,644 (2.6%) confirmed cases. After case-control matching, multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. @*Results@#Comparison between patients exposed to RAAS inhibitors and those not exposed to RAAS inhibitors revealed that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for COVID-19 infection and death were 0.981 (95% CI, 0.849 to 1.135) and 0.875 (95% CI, 0.548 to 1.396), respectively. Subgroup analysis for the major confounders, age and region of diagnosis, resulted in OR of 0.912 (95% CI, 0.751 to 1.108) and 0.942 (95% CI, 0.791 to 1.121), respectively. @*Conclusions@#The present study demonstrated no evidence of association between RAAS inhibitor exposure and risk and severity of COVID-19.

Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 478-483, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938645


Prokinetics are medications that enhance gastrointestinal contractility; they improve the symptoms of patients with delayed gastrointestinal motility. Prokinetics have conventionally been used to stimulate gastrointestinal propulsion and to treat symptoms correlated with motility problems, including gastroparesis and constipation. 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4) agonists, such as cisapride, very effectively increased human gastrointestinal tract motility. However, cisapride sometimes induced serious tachyarrhythmia; the drug was thus withdrawn from the market. Thereafter, many prokinetics have been developed to treat delayed gastrointestinal motility. However, some exhibit serious side-effects. Recently, a new, highly selective serotonin receptor agonist, prucalopride, has been introduced; there is as yet no evidence of serious cardiac side- effects. The drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat chronic constipation. Thus, recently introduced, highly selective agents appear to show promise as treatments for gastrointestinal dysmotility; there seem to be no serious side-effects.

Blood Research ; : 200-206, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185278


BACKGROUND: Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) is one of the effective chemotherapeutic regimens for patients with advanced stage marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). However, prognostic factors that affect the outcome of treatment for MZL are not well understood. METHODS: Between August 2006 and June 2013, patients with newly diagnosed stage III and IV MZL treated with R-CVP as a first-line therapy from 15 institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' clinical and laboratory data at diagnosis were collected by review of medical records. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients were analyzed. Bone marrow involvement was observed in 30% cases. Twelve patients (15%) had nodal MZL, and 41.3% patients exhibited multiple mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue sites. Overall response rate was 91.3%, including 73.8% achieving complete response. Advanced MZL patients treated with R-CVP showed a 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 69.6%. Prognostic markers significantly affecting PFS in univariate analysis were platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR, 3.9 g/dL, P=0.008), and the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (1 vs. 2–4, P=0.032). In multivariate analysis, only PLR (<95 vs. ≥95, HR 0.367, 95% CI, 0.139–0.971, P=0.043) was an independent risk factor for PFS. CONCLUSION: PLR ≥95 at diagnosis is an independent prognostic marker for PFS in advanced stage MZL patients treated with R-CVP. This marker may aid clinicians in predicting the response to R-CVP chemotherapy in stage III and IV MZL patients.

Humans , Blood Platelets , Bone Marrow , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisone , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Serum Albumin , Vincristine