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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220330


Background and Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with high-risk patients requiring effective management to reduce their risk of cardiovascular events. Bempedoic acid is a novel therapeutic agent recently approved as an add-on therapy to statins in patients with uncontrolled LDL-c. Bempedoic acid inhibits cholesterol synthesis in the liver, which ultimately reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid in patients with uncontrolled LDL-c (Previously on moderate or high-intensity statins) with a high risk of CVD in real-world settings. Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective, observational study on the data of high-risk-CVD patients collected from Bempedoic Acid on Efficacy and Safety in patients (BEST) Registry. The clinical data of 140 patients who were already on statin therapy and were receiving Bempedoic acid at a dose of 180 mg, along with measurements of the level of LDL-c, HbA1c, HDL, TG, TC, PPPG, FPG, AST, ALT, serum creatinine was taken into consideration. The primary outcome includes a change in LDL-c level, and secondary outcomes involve a change in the level of HbA1c, HDL, TG, TC, PPPG, FPG, AST, ALT, and serum creatinine at week 12 and 24. Adverse events were reported at both time points. Results: A total of 140 patients were included in the present study with a mean age of 51.8 ± 9.2 years and had primary confirmed diagnosis of dyslipidemia with uncontrolled LDL-c. The mean levels of LDL-c decreased from the mean baseline value of 142.67 ± 46.49 mg/dL, to 106.78 ±33.92 mg/d; a statistically significant reduction by 23.23% (p < 0.01) at week 12. Similarly, at week 24, the mean LDL-c value reduced to 90.39 ± 38.89 mg/dL. A 33.38 % decrease was observed (p < 0.01). Other parameters such as non-HDL, FPG, PPPG, AST and serum creatinine also showed statistically significant reduction at week 12 and week 24. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that bempedoic acid is an effective add-on medication in lowering LDL-c levels in high-risk CVD patients with uncontrolled LDL-c.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118525


BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum is common in the Indian subcontinent. Studies conducted elsewhere have suggested that malarial infection causes intense immunostimulation. We screened patients with malarial infection for autoantibodies and measured the immunoglobulin, circulating immune complex and complement levels to determine the extent of immunological alterations in these patients. METHODS: One hundred adults with acute malarial infection confirmed by examination of the peripheral blood smear and 25 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. An autoantibody screen and serum immunoglobulin complement (C3 and C4) and circulating immune complex levels were measured at the time of admission and 4 weeks after they became afebrile. A direct Coomb's test was also done. RESULTS: Anti-ssDNA, anti-dsDNA and rheumatoid factor were positive at the time of admission in 51, 30 and 38 patients respectively. None of the controls were positive for these autoantibodies except for one who was positive for rheumatoid factor. The IgM, IgG and IgA levels were raised in 16, 25 and 36 patients respectively. Circulating immune complex levels were raised in 32 patients and complement C3 and C4 were low in 8 and 31 patients. Follow up studies at 4 weeks in 19 patients showed that the autoantibodies were negative. However, the immunoglobulin, C4 and circulating immune complex levels remained elevated. Six per cent of patients had a positive direct Coomb's test with reticulocytosis at the time of presentation. CONCLUSION: Acute malarial infection can cause false-positive results for anti-ssDNA, anti-dsDNA and rheumatoid factor and may also cause a rise in the serum immunoglobulin, complement and circulating immune complex levels.

Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Antinuclear/analysis , Antigen-Antibody Complex/analysis , Autoantibodies/analysis , Complement System Proteins/analysis , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/analysis , India , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-87441


The present study reports results of modified Widal test carried out on 96 cases of acute malaria and 25 healthy controls. Out of the 96 patients studied, 30 had complicated P.falciparum (CPF), 36 had uncomplicated P.falciparum (UPF) and 30 had P.vivax (pv) malaria. Modified widal test was done to know the Widal titers due to Igm type of anti-salmonella antibodies, which is considered very specific for diagnosis of recent enteric fever. This test was positive in 14.58% and 10.41% of malaria patients for salmonella 'o' and 'H' titers respectively. On four weeks follow up most of the positive test become negative. Non-specific polyclonal B lymphocyte stimulation due to malaria was postulated to be responsible for this phenomenon.

Acute Disease , Adult , Agglutination Tests , Case-Control Studies , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis