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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 904-912, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903241

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Several predictors of unfavorable pharmacological treatment response (PTR) in panic disorder (PD) patients have been suggested, such as the duration of the illness, presence of agoraphobia, depression, being a woman, and early trauma. This study aimed to examine whether pathological worry is associated with PTR in PD patients. @*Methods@#This study included 335 PD patients and 418 healthy controls (HCs). The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) were administered. We measured the PTR at 8 weeks and 6 months. Student t-test, chisquare tests, Pearson’s correlation analyses, and binary logistic regression model were used. @*Results@#Our results showed that the total scores of the PSWQ correlated with the ETISR-SF, BDI, and ASI-R were significantly higher in patients with PD compared with HCs. The PSWQ and BDI could predict unfavorable PTR at 6 months in PD patients. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study to demonstrate that pathological worry may contribute to poor long-term PTR in PD patients. Therefore, our research suggests that clinicians must be aware of worry to optimize PTR for PD patients.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 434-442, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903225

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anxiety and depression and sociodemographic factors such as age, gender, education level, income, and marital status among people with panic disorder (PD) are associated with functional impairment in the areas of work, social, and family. Although both PD-specific scales such as the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) and early trauma have been investigated, their relationship with functional impairment in PD patients has not been clarified. @*Methods@#This study included 267 PD patients. The PDSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), ASI-R, and Early Trauma Inventory were used. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was administered to assess the functional impairment level in PD patients. @*Results@#Our findings showed that high levels of PDSS, BDI, and ASI-R were significantly correlated with the functional impairment among PD patients. Multiple regression analyses showed that PDSS, BDI, and ASI-R can predict the functional impairment levels, and PDSS and ASI-R were significantly associated with lost and underproductive days in PD patients. @*Conclusion@#Panic-specific symptoms, depression, and AS are associated with functional impairment level in PD patients. Elevated symptom severity can play a role by affecting productivity and daily responsibilities in PD patients.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 249-256, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903212

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Pharmacotherapy is established as an effective method for reducing symptoms of panic disorder (PD). However, about 20–40% of PD patients are treatment-resistant. Predictors of pharmacotherapy outcomes for PD patients are needed. @*Methods@#This study included 152 PD patients to measure the clinical severities of PD symptoms and used the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) to measure early trauma. Treatment response was defined as a 40% reduction in the total Panic Disorder Severity Scale score from baseline. We measured the treatment responses at 8 weeks and 6 months. Binary logistic regression was used to predict treatment response after controlling for confounding variables. @*Results@#Early sexual trauma alone was associated with poor treatment response at 8 weeks. However, at 6 months, the total ETI score was associated with an unfavorable treatment response. @*Conclusion@#Therefore, our study suggests that clinicians need to be aware of a history of early trauma to optimize treatment outcomes for PD patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902654

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901076

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the factors associated with postoperative strabismus by endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective chart review conducted using the data from 35 patients with TAO (13 with postoperative strabismus and 22 with postoperative non-strabismus) who underwent endoscopic orbital decompression. Hertel exophthalmometry, prism strabismus test, and thyroid-related autoantibody test were performed, and extraocular muscle (EOM) area was calculated using orbital computed tomography. @*Results@#Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that all EOM areas were significantly different between the postoperative strabismus group and non-strabismus group (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis including borderline significant (p < 0.1) variables (age and sex) showed that male sex (β = -3.346, p = 0.031) and left lateral rectus area (β = 0.181, p = 0.046) were associated with postoperative strabismus. In the postoperative strabismus group, there were nine patients with horizontal strabismus and four patients with complex strabismus. In the horizontal strabismus group, the angle of strabismus was positively correlated with the left medial rectus (LMR) area (r = 0.749, p = 0.020). In the complex strabismus group, the vertical angle of strabismus was positively correlated with the left inferior rectus (LIR) area (r = 0.949, p = 0.048). @*Conclusions@#Sex and lateral rectus muscle area were associated with postoperative strabismus by endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with TAO. The areas of LMR and LIR, in particular, were positively correlated with horizontal and vertical angles, respectively. These results could be considered predictive of strabismus after endoscopic orbital decompression.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900702

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To investigate the relationship between brain structure and empathy in early adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). @*Methods@#Nineteen early adolescents with ADHD and 20 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. All the participants were assessed for different aspects of empathy using measures including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Empathy Quotient. Cortical thickness and subcortical structural volume based on T1-weighted scans were analyzed using FreeSurfer. @*Results@#Cognitive empathy (t=-2.52, p=0.016) and perspective taking (t=-2.10, p=0.043) were impaired in the ADHD group compared with the control group. The cluster encompassing the left posterior insular, supramarginal, and transverse temporal cortices [cluster-wise p-value (CWP)=0.001], which are associated with emotional empathy, was significantly smaller in the ADHD group, and the volume of the left nucleus accumbens was greater than that of the control group (F=10.12, p=0.003, effect size=0.22). In the control group, the left superior temporal (CWP=0.002) and lingual cortical (CWP=0.035) thicknesses were positively associated with cognitive empathy, while the right amygdala volume was positively associated with empathic concern (Coef=14.26, t=3.92, p=0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between empathy and brain structure in the ADHD group. @*Conclusion@#The ADHD group had a smaller volume of the cortical area associated with emotional empathy than the control group, and there was no brain region showing significant correlation with empathy, unlike in the control group.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899556

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. @*Methods@#The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beverage (Group 2). The prepared specimens were immersed in the experimental solution to analyze the effects of the test fluid on the surfaces of the composite resin specimens. The degree of microhardness on each specimen surface was subsequently measured. The results were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. @*Results@#The pH values of the experimental solutions in an increasing order were: Group 2 (2.34 ±0.08), Group 3 and Group 5 (3.45±0.03), Group 4 and Group 6 (4.04±0.06), and Group 1 (7.72 ±0.17). Significant differences in the Vickers hardness number (△VHN) were found between the groups when measured before and after immersion in the experimental solution in the following order: -11.48±1.45 (Group 2), -9.54±1.15 (Group 3), -9.21±1.21 (Group 4), -8.14±0.84 (Group 6), -8.10±0.92 (Group 5), and -1.71±0.57 (Group 1) (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy findings of the composite resin surfaces in Groups 5 and 6 revealed smooth surfaces similar to those in Group 1 ( negative control). In contrast, Groups 3 and 4 showed rough surfaces with severe cracks between the crystals, similar to those of Group 2 (positive control). @*Conclusions@#The intake of fermented milk may attenuate the surface microhardness of composite resins. To slow down the reduction in microhardness following fermented milk consumption, coating the composite resin surfaces with fluoride and adding calcium supplement to the fermented milk could be considered.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898212

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nature and role of the mitochondrial stress response in adipose tissue in relation to obesity are not yet known. To determine whether the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in adipose tissue is associated with obesity in humans and rodents. @*Methods@#Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was obtained from 48 normoglycemic women who underwent surgery. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins were measured for mitochondrial chaperones, intrinsic proteases, and components of electron-transport chains. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed metabolic phenotypes with a large panel of isogenic BXD inbred mouse strains and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data. @*Results@#In VAT, expression of mitochondrial chaperones and intrinsic proteases localized in inner and outer mitochondrial membranes was not associated with body mass index (BMI), except for the Lon protease homolog, mitochondrial, and the corresponding gene LONP1, which showed high-level expression in the VAT of overweight or obese individuals. Expression of LONP1 in VAT positively correlated with BMI. Analysis of the GTEx database revealed that elevation of LONP1 expression is associated with enhancement of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in VAT. Mice with higher Lonp1 expression in adipose tissue had better systemic glucose metabolism than mice with lower Lonp1 expression. @*Conclusion@#Expression of mitochondrial LONP1, which is involved in the mitochondrial quality control stress response, was elevated in the VAT of obese individuals. In a bioinformatics analysis, high LONP1 expression in VAT was associated with enhanced glucose and lipid metabolism.

9.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 292-296, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896645

ABSTRACT

Since the first description of this disease in 1887, there are rare reports on osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) found in the glenoid cavity by way of anthropological studies. During an excavation project for recovery of the remains of Korean War casualties, a skeletonized soldier was found inside a cave fort at the Arrowhead Ridge of the demilitarized zone (DMZ), South Korea. In our recovery and examination of a Korean War casualty in DMZ, we identified a possible OCD in the individual’s glenoid cavity of a right-sided scapula by radiological analysis and computed tomography reconstruction. This is a rare case of scapular OCD discovered in an archaeologically investigated skeleton.

10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 904-912, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Several predictors of unfavorable pharmacological treatment response (PTR) in panic disorder (PD) patients have been suggested, such as the duration of the illness, presence of agoraphobia, depression, being a woman, and early trauma. This study aimed to examine whether pathological worry is associated with PTR in PD patients. @*Methods@#This study included 335 PD patients and 418 healthy controls (HCs). The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) were administered. We measured the PTR at 8 weeks and 6 months. Student t-test, chisquare tests, Pearson’s correlation analyses, and binary logistic regression model were used. @*Results@#Our results showed that the total scores of the PSWQ correlated with the ETISR-SF, BDI, and ASI-R were significantly higher in patients with PD compared with HCs. The PSWQ and BDI could predict unfavorable PTR at 6 months in PD patients. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study to demonstrate that pathological worry may contribute to poor long-term PTR in PD patients. Therefore, our research suggests that clinicians must be aware of worry to optimize PTR for PD patients.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 434-442, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895521

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anxiety and depression and sociodemographic factors such as age, gender, education level, income, and marital status among people with panic disorder (PD) are associated with functional impairment in the areas of work, social, and family. Although both PD-specific scales such as the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R) and early trauma have been investigated, their relationship with functional impairment in PD patients has not been clarified. @*Methods@#This study included 267 PD patients. The PDSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), ASI-R, and Early Trauma Inventory were used. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was administered to assess the functional impairment level in PD patients. @*Results@#Our findings showed that high levels of PDSS, BDI, and ASI-R were significantly correlated with the functional impairment among PD patients. Multiple regression analyses showed that PDSS, BDI, and ASI-R can predict the functional impairment levels, and PDSS and ASI-R were significantly associated with lost and underproductive days in PD patients. @*Conclusion@#Panic-specific symptoms, depression, and AS are associated with functional impairment level in PD patients. Elevated symptom severity can play a role by affecting productivity and daily responsibilities in PD patients.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 249-256, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895508

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Pharmacotherapy is established as an effective method for reducing symptoms of panic disorder (PD). However, about 20–40% of PD patients are treatment-resistant. Predictors of pharmacotherapy outcomes for PD patients are needed. @*Methods@#This study included 152 PD patients to measure the clinical severities of PD symptoms and used the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) to measure early trauma. Treatment response was defined as a 40% reduction in the total Panic Disorder Severity Scale score from baseline. We measured the treatment responses at 8 weeks and 6 months. Binary logistic regression was used to predict treatment response after controlling for confounding variables. @*Results@#Early sexual trauma alone was associated with poor treatment response at 8 weeks. However, at 6 months, the total ETI score was associated with an unfavorable treatment response. @*Conclusion@#Therefore, our study suggests that clinicians need to be aware of a history of early trauma to optimize treatment outcomes for PD patients.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894950

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893372

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the factors associated with postoperative strabismus by endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective chart review conducted using the data from 35 patients with TAO (13 with postoperative strabismus and 22 with postoperative non-strabismus) who underwent endoscopic orbital decompression. Hertel exophthalmometry, prism strabismus test, and thyroid-related autoantibody test were performed, and extraocular muscle (EOM) area was calculated using orbital computed tomography. @*Results@#Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that all EOM areas were significantly different between the postoperative strabismus group and non-strabismus group (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis including borderline significant (p < 0.1) variables (age and sex) showed that male sex (β = -3.346, p = 0.031) and left lateral rectus area (β = 0.181, p = 0.046) were associated with postoperative strabismus. In the postoperative strabismus group, there were nine patients with horizontal strabismus and four patients with complex strabismus. In the horizontal strabismus group, the angle of strabismus was positively correlated with the left medial rectus (LMR) area (r = 0.749, p = 0.020). In the complex strabismus group, the vertical angle of strabismus was positively correlated with the left inferior rectus (LIR) area (r = 0.949, p = 0.048). @*Conclusions@#Sex and lateral rectus muscle area were associated with postoperative strabismus by endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with TAO. The areas of LMR and LIR, in particular, were positively correlated with horizontal and vertical angles, respectively. These results could be considered predictive of strabismus after endoscopic orbital decompression.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892998

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To investigate the relationship between brain structure and empathy in early adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). @*Methods@#Nineteen early adolescents with ADHD and 20 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. All the participants were assessed for different aspects of empathy using measures including the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Empathy Quotient. Cortical thickness and subcortical structural volume based on T1-weighted scans were analyzed using FreeSurfer. @*Results@#Cognitive empathy (t=-2.52, p=0.016) and perspective taking (t=-2.10, p=0.043) were impaired in the ADHD group compared with the control group. The cluster encompassing the left posterior insular, supramarginal, and transverse temporal cortices [cluster-wise p-value (CWP)=0.001], which are associated with emotional empathy, was significantly smaller in the ADHD group, and the volume of the left nucleus accumbens was greater than that of the control group (F=10.12, p=0.003, effect size=0.22). In the control group, the left superior temporal (CWP=0.002) and lingual cortical (CWP=0.035) thicknesses were positively associated with cognitive empathy, while the right amygdala volume was positively associated with empathic concern (Coef=14.26, t=3.92, p=0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between empathy and brain structure in the ADHD group. @*Conclusion@#The ADHD group had a smaller volume of the cortical area associated with emotional empathy than the control group, and there was no brain region showing significant correlation with empathy, unlike in the control group.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891852

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The present study was carried out to identify the effects of commercially available fermented milk on the surfaces of composite resins. @*Methods@#The experiment included 6 groups: Fermented milk (Group 3), fermented milk supplemented with 3% calcium (Group 4), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk (Group 5), specimens coated with fluoride and then treated with fermented milk supplemented with calcium (Group 6), mineral water (Group 1), and carbonated beverage (Group 2). The prepared specimens were immersed in the experimental solution to analyze the effects of the test fluid on the surfaces of the composite resin specimens. The degree of microhardness on each specimen surface was subsequently measured. The results were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. @*Results@#The pH values of the experimental solutions in an increasing order were: Group 2 (2.34 ±0.08), Group 3 and Group 5 (3.45±0.03), Group 4 and Group 6 (4.04±0.06), and Group 1 (7.72 ±0.17). Significant differences in the Vickers hardness number (△VHN) were found between the groups when measured before and after immersion in the experimental solution in the following order: -11.48±1.45 (Group 2), -9.54±1.15 (Group 3), -9.21±1.21 (Group 4), -8.14±0.84 (Group 6), -8.10±0.92 (Group 5), and -1.71±0.57 (Group 1) (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy findings of the composite resin surfaces in Groups 5 and 6 revealed smooth surfaces similar to those in Group 1 ( negative control). In contrast, Groups 3 and 4 showed rough surfaces with severe cracks between the crystals, similar to those of Group 2 (positive control). @*Conclusions@#The intake of fermented milk may attenuate the surface microhardness of composite resins. To slow down the reduction in microhardness following fermented milk consumption, coating the composite resin surfaces with fluoride and adding calcium supplement to the fermented milk could be considered.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890508

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nature and role of the mitochondrial stress response in adipose tissue in relation to obesity are not yet known. To determine whether the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in adipose tissue is associated with obesity in humans and rodents. @*Methods@#Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was obtained from 48 normoglycemic women who underwent surgery. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins were measured for mitochondrial chaperones, intrinsic proteases, and components of electron-transport chains. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed metabolic phenotypes with a large panel of isogenic BXD inbred mouse strains and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data. @*Results@#In VAT, expression of mitochondrial chaperones and intrinsic proteases localized in inner and outer mitochondrial membranes was not associated with body mass index (BMI), except for the Lon protease homolog, mitochondrial, and the corresponding gene LONP1, which showed high-level expression in the VAT of overweight or obese individuals. Expression of LONP1 in VAT positively correlated with BMI. Analysis of the GTEx database revealed that elevation of LONP1 expression is associated with enhancement of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in VAT. Mice with higher Lonp1 expression in adipose tissue had better systemic glucose metabolism than mice with lower Lonp1 expression. @*Conclusion@#Expression of mitochondrial LONP1, which is involved in the mitochondrial quality control stress response, was elevated in the VAT of obese individuals. In a bioinformatics analysis, high LONP1 expression in VAT was associated with enhanced glucose and lipid metabolism.

18.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 307-319, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918407

ABSTRACT

Background@#To determine whether the background of BALB/c substrains affects the response to anti-tumor drugs, we measured for alterations in tumor growth, histopathological structure of the tumor, and expressions of tumorrelated proteins in three BALB/c substrains derived from different sources (BALB/cKorl, BALB/cA and BALB/cB), after exposure to varying concentrations of cisplatin (0.1, 1 and 5 mg/kg). @*Results@#Cisplatin treatment induced similar responses for body and organ weights, serum analyzing factors, and blood analyzing factors in all BALB/c substrains with CT26 syngeneic tumor. Few differences were detected in the volume and histopathological structure of the CT26 tumor. Growth inhibition of CT26 tumors after exposure to cisplatin was greater in the BALB/cB substrain than BALB/cKorl and BALB/cA substrains, and a similar pattern was observed in the histopathological structure of tumors. However, the expression levels of other tumor-related factors, including Ki67, p27, p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), caspase-3 (Cas-3), matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins, were constantly maintained in the tumors of all three substrains after cisplatin treatment. A similar decrease pattern was observed for the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, in the CT26 tumors of the three BALB/c substrains. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, results of the present study indicate that the genetic background of the three BALB/c substrains has no major effect on the therapeutic responsiveness of cisplatin, except growth and histopathology of the CT26 syngeneic tumor.

19.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 285-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918403

ABSTRACT

Background@#The oral administration of polystyrene-microplastics (PS-MPs) causes chronic constipation of ICR mice, but there are no reports on their effects on the inflammatory response in the colon. To determine if the oral administration of MPs causes inflammation in the colon, the changes in the apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-inflammasome pathway, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and inflammatory cytokine expression were evaluated in the mid colon of ICR mice treated with 0.5 μm size PS-MPs for two weeks. @*Results@#The thicknesses of the mucosa, muscle, flat luminal surface, and crypt layer were decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the mid colon of the MPs treated group compared to the Vehicle treated group. On the other hand, a remarkable increase in the expression levels of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein (NLRP) 3, ASC, and Cleaved Caspase (Cas)-1 protein was observed in the MPs treated group. In addition, similar increasing pattern in the levels of p-NF-κB and phospho-inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (p-IkB) α protein was detected. Four inflammatory cytokines, including NF-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, showed an increased expression level after the MPs treatment. @*Conclusions@#Therefore, the present study suggests that PS-MPs can be a novel cause of an inflammatory response in the mid colon of ICR mice.

20.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 294-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918402

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivities of mice strains during tumor induction by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-mediated Trp53 mutant gene. Alterations of their tumorigenic phenotypes including survival rate, tumor formation and tumor spectrum, were assessed in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl and C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl knockout (KO) mice over 16 weeks. @*Results@#Most of the physiological phenotypes factors were observed to be higher in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice, although there were significant differences in the body weight, immune organ weight, number of red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), total bilirubin (Bil-T) and glucose (Glu) levels in the KO mice relative to the wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, numerous solid tumors were also observed in various regions of the surface skin of FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice, but were not detected in C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice. The most frequently observed tumor in both the Trp53 KO mice was malignant lymphoma, while soft tissue teratomas and hemangiosarcomas were only detected in the FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice. @*Conclusions@#Our results indicate that the spectrum and incidence of tumors induced by the TALEN-mediated Trp53 mutant gene is greater in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice over 16 weeks.

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