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1.
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine ; : 170-176, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999902

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Autophagy is highly active in ovariectomized mice experiencing hormone deprivation, especially in the uterine mesenchyme. Autophagy is responsible for the turnover of vasoactive factors in the uterus, which was demonstrated in anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 receptor (Amhr2)-Cre-driven autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) knockout (Amhr-Cre/Atg7f/f mice). In that study, we uncovered a striking difference in the amount of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) accumulation between virgin mice and breeder mice with the same genotype. Herein, we aimed to determine whether repeated breeding changed the composition of mesenchymal cell populations in the uterine stroma. @*Methods@#All female mice used in this study were of the same genotype. Atg7 was deleted by Amhr2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase in the uterine stroma and myometrium, except for a triangular stromal region on the mesometrial side. Amhr-Cre/Atg7f/f female mice were divided into two groups: virgin mice with no mating history and aged between 11 and 12 months, and breeder mice with at least 6-month breeding cycles with multiple pregnancies and aged around 12 months. The uteri were used for Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. @*Results@#SQSTM1 accumulation, representing Atg7 deletion and halted autophagy, was much higher in virgin mice than in breeders. Breeders showed reduced accumulation of several vasoconstrictive factors, which are potential autophagy targets, in the uterus, suggesting that the uterine stroma was repopulated with autophagy-intact cells during repeated pregnancies. @*Conclusion@#Multiple pregnancies seem to have improved the uterine environment by replacing autophagy-deficient cells with autophagy-intact cells, providing evidence of cell mixing.

2.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 448-452, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968433

ABSTRACT

We report the results of investigating and managing a tuberculosis (TB) exposure in a postpartum care center. Among the contacts exposed to a nursing assistant with subclinical TB, 5 of 44 neonates (11.4%) had positive tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) at 3 months of age, and all the TST-positive neonates received the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Seven of 28 healthcare workers (25.0%) and 1 of 3 household contacts (33.3%) were positive in the initial or repeated interferon-gamma release assay. None of the contacts developed TB disease during the study period. Annual TB examinations of healthcare personnel at a postpartum care center under the Tuberculosis Prevention Act in South Korea enabled the early detection of subclinical TB, which reduced the risk of transmission to neonates under strict coronavirus disease 2019 prevention measures.

3.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration ; : 499-510, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967281

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the factors that affect post-traumatic growth among frontline nurses during a COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#This study included 187 nurses working in nationally designated infectious disease hospitals as participants. Data were collected from January 11 to March 2, 2021 using structured questionnaires. Independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to examine influencing factors of post-traumatic growth. @*Results@#Posst-traumatic growth was positively correlated with traumatic event experience (r=.26, p<.001), post-traumatic stress (r=.32, p<.001), supervisor support (r=.39, p<.001), and colleague support (r=.36, p<.001). Factors affecting post-traumatic growth were emotional support of supervisors (β=.76, p<.001) and evaluative support of colleagues (β=.46, p<.018). Overall, approximately 40.0% of the variability in post-traumatic growth was explained by these two variables. @*Conclusion@#To increase emotional support of supervisors and evaluative support of colleagues, the most influential factors for post-traumatic growth of frontline nurses who fought against COVID-19, a positive culture must be established. This includes horizontal communication, a safe working environment, and securing of appropriate nurse to patient ratio.

4.
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine ; : 16-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925741

ABSTRACT

In mammalian species, females are born with a number of oocytes exceeding what they release via ovulation. In humans, an average girl is born with over a thousand times more oocytes than she will ovulate in her lifetime. The reason for having such an excessive number of oocytes in a neonatal female ovary is currently unknown. However, it is well established that the oocyte number decreases throughout the entire lifetime until the ovary loses them all. In this review, data published in the past 80 years were used to assess the current knowledge regarding the changing number of oocytes in humans and mice, as well as the reported factors that contribute to the decline of oocyte numbers. Briefly, a collective estimation indicates that an average girl is born with approximately 600,000 oocytes, which is 2,000 times more than the number of oocytes that she will ovulate in her lifetime. The oocyte number begins to decrease immediately after birth and is reduced to half of the initial number by puberty and almost zero by age 50 years. Multiple factors that are either intrinsic or extrinsic to the ovary contribute to the decline of the oocyte number. The inflammation caused by the ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge is discussed as a potential contributing factor to the decline of the oocyte pool during the reproductive lifespan.

5.
Immune Network ; : e10-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874619

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a global infectious disease with rapid spread. Some patients have severe symptoms and clinical signs caused by an excessive inflammatory response, which increases the risk of mortality. In this study, we reanalyzed scRNA-seq data of cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with COVID-19 with mild and severe symptoms, focusing on Ab-producing cells. In patients with severe disease, B cells seemed to be more activated and expressed more immunoglobulin genes compared with cells from patients with mild disease, and macrophages expressed higher levels of the TNF superfamily member B-cell activating factor but not of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand). In addition, macrophages from patients with severe disease had increased pro-inflammatory features and pathways associated with Fc receptor-mediated signaling, compared with patients with mild disease. CCR2-positive plasma cells accumulated in patients with severe disease, probably because of increased CCL2 expression on macrophages from patients with severe disease.Together, these results support the hypothesis that different characteristics of B cells might be associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 51-59, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831088

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Mutation of the Kirsten Ras (KRAS) oncogene is present in 30%-40% of colorectal cancers and has prognostic significance in rectal cancer. In this study, we examined the ability of radiomics features extracted from T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images to differentiate between tumors with mutant KRAS and wild-type KRAS. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty patients with primary rectal cancer (25 with mutant KRAS, 35 with wild-type KRAS) were retrospectively enrolled. Texture analysis was performed in all regions of interest on MR images, which were manually segmented by two independent radiologists. We identified potentially useful imaging features using the two-tailed t test and used them to build a discriminant model with a decision tree to estimate whether KRAS mutation had occurred. @*Results@#Three radiomic features were significantly associated with KRASmutational status (p < 0.05). The mean (and standard deviation) skewness with gradient filter value was significantly higher in the mutant KRAS group than in the wild-type group (2.04±0.94 vs. 1.59±0.69). Higher standard deviations for medium texture (SSF3 and SSF4) were able to differentiate mutant KRAS (139.81±44.19 and 267.12±89.75, respectively) and wild-type KRAS (114.55±29.30 and 224.78±62.20). The final decision tree comprised three decision nodes and four terminal nodes, two of which designated KRAS mutation. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the decision tree was 84%, 80%, and 81.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Using MR-based texture analysis, we identified three imaging features that could differentiate mutant from wild-type KRAS. T2-weighted images could be used to predict KRAS mutation status preoperatively in patients with rectal cancer.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 599-607, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#A high body mass index (BMI) is known to correlate with better survival in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the impacts of body composition and sarcopenia on survival have not been well studied in this population.@*METHODS@#One hundred and forty-two prevalent HD patients were recruited and followed prospectively for up to 4.5 years. Low muscle mass (measured using a portable, whole-body, bioimpedance spectroscopic device) was defined as a lean tissue index (LTI) two standard deviations (SD) or more below the normal gender-specific mean for young people. Low muscle strength was a handgrip strength (HGS) of less than 30 kg in males and less than 20 kg in females. Sarcopenia was considered present when both LTI and HGS were reduced.@*RESULTS@#The mean age was 59.8 ± 13.1 years; 57.0% were male and 47.2% had diabetes. Forty-seven patients (33.1%) had sarcopenia. During follow-up, 28 patients (19.7%) died, and low LTI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 6.97) and low HGS (HR 5.65; 95% CI, 1.99 to 16.04) were independently associated with mortality. Sarcopenia was a significant predictor for death (HR, 6.99; 95% CI, 1.84 to 26.58; p = 0.004) and cardiovascular events (HR, 4.33; 95% CI, 1.51 to 12.43; p = 0.006).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Sarcopenia was strongly associated with long-term mortality and cardiovascular events in HD patients. Assessment of muscle strength and muscle mass may provide additional prognostic information to survival in patients with end-stage renal disease.

8.
Immune Network ; : e12-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740216

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow are pluripotent cells that can constitute the hematopoiesis system through self-renewal and differentiation into immune cells and red blood cells. To ensure a competent hematopoietic system for life, the maintenance of HSCs is tightly regulated. Although autophagy, a self-degradation pathway for cell homeostasis, is essential for hematopoiesis, the role of autophagy key protein Atg5 in HSCs has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we found that Atg5 deficiency in hematopoietic cells causes survival defects, resulting in severe lymphopenia and anemia in mice. In addition, the absolute numbers of HSCs and multiple-lineage progenitor cells were significantly decreased, and abnormal erythroid development resulted in reduced erythrocytes in blood of Vav_Atg5(−/−) mice. The proliferation of Lin⁻Sca-1⁺c-Kit⁺ HSCs was aberrant in bone marrow of Vav_Atg5(−/−) mice, and mature progenitors and terminally differentiated cells were also significantly altered. Furthermore, the reconstitution ability of HSCs in bone marrow chimeric mice was significantly decreased in the presence of Atg5 deficiency in HSCs. Mechanistically, impairment of autophagy-mediated clearance of damaged mitochondria was the underlying cause of the HSC functional defects. Taken together, these results define the crucial role of Atg5 in the maintenance and the reconstitution ability of HSCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anemia , Autophagy , Bone Marrow , Erythrocytes , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hematopoietic System , Homeostasis , Lymphopenia , Mitochondria , Stem Cells
9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 714-726, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Experimental protocols for remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) utilize models in which a tourniquet is placed around the hindlimb or effluent is collected from an isolated heart. In analyzing the humoral factors that act as signal transducers in these models, sampled blood can be influenced by systemic responses, while the effluent from an isolated heart might differ from that of the hindlimb. Thus, we designed a new isolated hindlimb model for RIC and tested whether the effluent from this model could affect ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and if the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) and survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE) pathways are involved in RIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After positioning needles into the right iliac artery and vein of rats, Krebs-Henseleit buffer was perfused using a Langendorff apparatus, and effluent was collected. The RIC protocol consisted of 3 cycles of IR for 5 minutes. In the RIC effluent group, collected effluent was perfused in an isolated heart for 10 minutes before initiating IR injury. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the infarct area in the RIC effluent group was significantly smaller (31.2%±3.8% vs. 20.6%±1.8%, p<0.050), while phosphorylation of signal transducer and activation of transcription-3 (STAT-3) was significantly increased. However, there was a trend of increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in this group. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to investigate the effect of effluent from a new isolated hindlimb model after RIC on IR injury in an isolated heart model. The RIC effluent was effective in reducing the IR injury, and the cardioprotective effect was associated with activation of the SAFE pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Heart , Hindlimb , Iliac Artery , Models, Animal , Needles , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Reperfusion Injury , Survivors , Tourniquets , Transducers , Veins
10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 93-98, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic impairment of beta-adrenergic receptor signaling increases cardiac apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether isoproterenol (ISO), an agonist of the adrenergic receptor, can enhance tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HEK 293 cells were treated with ISO and/or TRAIL for 24 hours. Cell viability was evaluated by microscopy and an established viability assay, and apoptotic cell death was analyzed by staining with fluorescein isothiocynate-annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) and caspase activation. To confirm the mechanism of cell death induced by co-treatment with ISO and TRAIL, expression of TRAIL receptor 2 (death receptor 5, DR5) was evaluated by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Although ISO or TRAIL treatment decreased HEK 293 cell viability by 13% and 17%, respectively, co-treatment with ISO and TRAIL resulted in a markedly higher death rate of 35% after 24 hours. Increases were evident in early apoptotic cells (i.e., annexin-V positive/PI negative; 19.4%), late apoptotic cells (i.e., annexin-V positive/PI positive; 6.3%) and dead cells (i.e., annexin-V negative/PI positive; 1.1%) when cells were co-treated with ISO and TRAIL, compared to cells treated with either ISO or TRAIL. In addition, marked increases of cleaved cas-3, cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase and DR5 were observed in HEK 293 cells co-treated with ISO and TRAIL. CONCLUSION: Treatments combining ISO with TRAIL may be responsible for death of HEK 293 cells through DR5 up-regulation. Activation of adrenergic receptors is responsible for the synergistic cell death observed with TRAIL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Fibrosis , Fluorescein , HEK293 Cells , Hypertrophy , Immunoblotting , Isoproterenol , Kidney , Microscopy , Mortality , Necrosis , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand , Up-Regulation
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 509-517, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dose-limiting toxicities of docetaxel are widely considered to be neutropenia, anemia, skin toxicity, and nausea. One of the factors that limit the use of docetaxel is its unpredictability of inter-individual variation in toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to identify the genetic factors that affect the risk of docetaxel-induced toxicities, we recruited patients who received docetaxel chemotherapy. We genotyped 92 patients with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 genes: CYP3A4 (CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*18, and CYP3A4*3), CYP3A5 (CYP3A5*2 and CYP3A5*3), ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677G/T, and C3435T), SLCO1B3 (rs11045585), and ABCC2 (rs12762549). RESULTS: Out of 92 patients, 70 had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; 4 had grade 1 or 2; and 18 had no toxicity (76.1%, 4.3%, and 19.6%, respectively). The findings of the SNP analysis showed that patients with TT genotype of ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism showed significantly higher risk of neutropenia and anemia (p=0.029 and p=0.044, respectively). There were significant associations between docetaxel-induced leucopenia and 2677G/T of ABCB1 and rs12762549 of ABCC2 (p=0.025 and p=0.028, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, we observed that patients carrying 2677G>T in ABCB1might be associated with higher risk of chemo-resistance when treated with docetaxel (odds ratio [OR], 6.48; confidence interval, 1.92 to 21.94; p=0.003). In a subgroup analysis of non-small cell lung cancer patients, a significant association of tumor response with G2677T/A (OR, 4.54) in ABCB1 and SLCO1B3 (OR, 9.44) was observed. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ABCB1 (2677G/T) and SLCO1B3 (rs11055585) might be major genetic predictors of docetaxel-related toxicities in patients receiving docetaxel chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Multivariate Analysis , Nausea , Neutropenia , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Skin
12.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 519-529, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218288

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in Korean elderly and to analyze the health status as well as food and nutrient intakes according to food insecurity status. METHODS: A total of 939 elderly subjects (over 65 years old) were used in our analysis from the fifth 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1). The variables consisted of general characteristics, physical and mental health, nutrient intake, rate of deficient intake of energy and nutrients compared with Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) and food quality and diversity according to the status of food insecurity. Food insecurity status was measured using a self-reported food security questionnaire on the dietary situation in the previous year, and participants were classified according to three groups: food secure group, mildly food insecure group, and moderately/severely food insecure group. RESULTS: The proportion of the food insecure group was approximately 67% and the food insecure group had lower income and educational status than the food secure group. Food insecurity was associated with worse physical and mental health status after adjusting potentially confounding variables. The results showed that food insecurity in Korean elderly significantly affected mental health (including stress cognition, depression experience, and suicide thoughts) which exceeded stages of physical health. In addition, food insecurity showed significant association with low nutrient intake and high rate of deficient intakes of energy and nutrients compared with KDRIs, and a reduction of dietary quality and diversity was indicated in the food insecure group. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that the prevalence of food insecurity may affect the physical and mental health as well as dietary intake of the elderly Korean population. Therefore, food insecurity should be considered as an important public health issue in Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cognition , Depression , Educational Status , Food Quality , Food Supply , Korea , Mental Health , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Public Health , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Suicide
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 957-964, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70750

ABSTRACT

It is known that blood pressure variability (BPV) can independently affect target organ damage (TOD), even with normal blood pressure. There have been few studieson chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We evaluated the relationship between BPV and TOD in a cross-sectional, multicenter study on hypertensive CKD patients. We evaluated 1,173 patients using 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. BPV was defined as the average real variability, with a mean value of the absolute differences between consecutive readings of systolic blood pressure. TOD was defined as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (by the Romhilt-Estes score > or =4 in electrocardiography) and kidney injury (as determined from an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria).The mean BPV of the subjects was 15.9+/-4.63 mmHg. BPV displayed a positive relationship with LVH in a univariate analysis and after adjustment for multi-variables (odds ratio per 1 mmHg increase in BPV: 1.053, P=0.006). In contrast, BPV had no relationship with kidney injury. These data suggest that BPV may be positively associated with LVH in hypertensive CKD patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrocardiography , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Kidney/injuries , Odds Ratio , Proteinuria/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications
14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 368-372, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of propofol and midazolam for sedation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 62 children who underwent ambulatory diagnostic EGD during 1-year period. Data were collected from 34 consecutive patients receiving propofol alone. Twenty-eight consecutive patients who received sedation with midazolam served as a comparison group. Outcome variables were length of procedure, time to recovery and need for additional supportive measures. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in age, weight, sex, and the length of endoscopic procedure. The recovery time from sedation was markedly shorter in propofol group (30+/-16.41 minutes) compared with midazolam group (58.89+/-17.32 minutes; p<0.0001). During and after the procedure the mean heart rate was increased in midazolam group (133.04+/-19.92 and 97.82+/-16.7) compared with propofol group (110.26+/-20.14 and 83.26+/-12.33; p<0.0001). There was no localized pain during sedative administration in midazolam group, though six patients had localized pain during administration of propofol (p<0.028). There was no serious major complication associated with any of the 62 procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous administered propofol provides faster recovery time and similarly safe sedation compared with midazolam in pediatric patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Heart Rate , Hospital Records , Midazolam , Propofol , Retrospective Studies
15.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 423-426, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727501

ABSTRACT

Females are more often affected by constipation than males, especially during pregnancy, which is related to the menstrual cycle. Although still controversial, alterations of progesterone and estrogen may be responsible. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to determine whether the female sex steroid hormone itself is responsible for development of constipation in both female and male mice. Administration of estrogen resulted in a decrease in weight of accumulated feces on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 in male mice and on day 5 in female mice, compared with the control group, but progesterone administration did not. Administration of estrogen resulted in a decrease in gastrointestinal movement, compared to normal; however, no significant change was observed by administration of progesterone. In conclusion, estrogen, rather than progesterone, may be a detrimental factor of constipation via decreased bowel movement in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Constipation , Estrogens , Feces , Menstrual Cycle , Progesterone
16.
Immune Network ; : 1-9, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13004

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process in eukaryotic cells for maintaining homeostasis by degrading cellular proteins and organelles. Recently, the roles of autophagy have been expanded to immune systems, which in turn modulate innate immune responses. More specifically, autophagy acts as a direct effector for protection against pathogens, as well as a modulator of pathogen recognition and downstream signaling in innate immune responses. In addition, autophagy controls autoimmunity and inflammatory disorders by negative regulation of immune signaling. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the role of autophagy in innate immune systems.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , Autophagy , Eukaryotic Cells , Homeostasis , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Organelles , Proteins , Toll-Like Receptors
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 241-247, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154822

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a specialized cellular pathway involved in maintaining homeostasis by degrading long-lived cellular proteins and organelles. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is utilized by immune systems to protect host cells from invading pathogens and regulate uncontrolled immune responses. During pathogen recognition, induction of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors leads to the promotion or inhibition of consequent signaling pathways. Furthermore, autophagy plays a role in the delivery of pathogen signatures in order to promote the recognition thereof by pattern recognition receptors. In addition to innate recognition, autophagy has been shown to facilitate MHC class II presentation of intracellular antigens to activate CD4 T cells. In this review, we describe the roles of autophagy in innate recognition of pathogens and adaptive immunity, such as antigen presentation, as well as the clinical relevance of autophagy in the treatment of human diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Autophagy/immunology , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology
18.
Journal of the Korean Balance Society ; : 8-13, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nitroglycerin (NTG), a donor of nitric oxide, is known to provoke migraine attacks in patients with migraine. However, this effect was not explored in patients with benign recurrent vertigo (BRV). To infer the mechanism of BRV, we evaluated provocative effects of NTG in patients with vestibular migraine (VM) and BRV compared with normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with recurrent vertigo, 8 with VM and 5 with BRV, and 5 healthy controls received intravenous infusion of 0.5 microg/kg/min NTG over 20 minutes. Headache intensity (visual analog scale) and associated symptoms were recorded at baseline and every 10 minutes for an hour. And the subjects were also asked to complete a headache diary every hour for another 12 hours. RESULTS: In contrast to normal controls (2/5, 40%, p=0.035) and the patients with BRV (1/5, 20%, p=0.007), all patients with VM (8/8, 100%) had migraine attacks after NTG injection. However, there was no difference in the proportion of the patients with migraine attacks after NTG injection between normal controls and the patients with BRV. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the patients with VM, patients with BRV are not sensitive to nitric oxide. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of BRV may be different from that of VM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Headache , Infusions, Intravenous , Migraine Disorders , Nitric Oxide , Nitroglycerin , Tissue Donors , Vertigo
19.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 123-129, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular risk factors are considered to also be risk factors for dementia. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction is high in patients with cardiac diseases. However, few studies have investigated the influence of cardiac function on cognition and brain structural changes in dementia. The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between cardiac and cognitive function, and to characterize any structural changes in the brain that could be caused by cardiac function in patients with dementia. METHODS: Dementia patients (n=93) were recruited prospectively with checking for the presence of vascular risk factors such as hypertension. Cognitive function was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination, modified Mini-Mental State test, and Korean version of the Dementia Rating Scale. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was conducted to evaluate the cerebral white-matter changes (WMC), ventricular dilation, and cortical and hippocampal atrophy. Cardiac function was evaluated using two-dimensional echocardiography. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence (+) or absence (-) of WMC. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, the size of the left atrium (LA) was positively correlated with the degree of WMC, irrespective of age (p<0.05). The LA was larger in the WMC (+) group (n=42) than in the WMC (-) group. General cognitive function was significantly lower in the WMC (+) group than in the WMC (-) group. Subjects with an enlarged LA tended to exhibit lower cognitive function and more-severe cerebral WMC. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac dysfunction represented by LA enlargement could be related to cognitive decline and WMC of the brain resulting from impairment of the cerebral hemodynamic process in dementia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Brain , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Echocardiography , Heart Atria , Heart Diseases , Hemodynamics , Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 88-92, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: As the population ages, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) is being used increasingly as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for elderly patients with pancreatobiliary disease. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes, safety and complications associated with ERCP performed in the elderly patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 596 patients who were 50 years of age or older and underwent ERCP from January 2005 to September 2010. The patients were classified into two groups according to the age: non-elderly, 50-74 years old and elderly, > or =75 years old. Comparisons were made between two groups. RESULTS: Five hundred and ninety-six patients (132 elderly and 464 non-elderly patients) were enrolled. The success rate of ERCP was 89.4% in the elderly and 91.9% in the non-elderly. The major complications were occurred in 11 patients of the elderly and 16 of the non-elderly, and the complication rate was significantly higher in the elderly compared to the non-elderly (8.3% vs. 3.4%, p=0.011). Pancreatitis occurred in 2 elderly patients and 10 non-elderly patients (1.5% vs. 2.1%, p=1.0). There was a higher rate of bleeding in the elderly patients (4.5% vs. 1.3%, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ERCP is effective and safe even in elderly patients. Outcomes of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP in the elderly patients were similar to those in non-elderly patients. Elderly patients undergoing ERCP carried similar risk of pancreatitis but a higher risk of bleeding and perforation compared to non-elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology , Pancreatitis/etiology
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