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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 131-139, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919566

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to use shear-wave elastography (SWE) to assess testicular stiffness changes during the Valsalva maneuver in adolescents and young adults with varicocele, to compare these changes according to clinical severity, and to evaluate the role of SWE in the diagnosis of varicocele. @*Methods@#This study included patients undergoing testicular ultrasonography for the diagnosis of varicocele or for post-varicocelectomy follow-up between June 2016 and February 2017. Fifty-four testicles of 27 consecutive patients (mean age, 15.9 years) were classified by clinical grade (grade 0-3). Using SWE, mean testicular stiffness (Emean) was measured at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver. The correlations between multiple ultrasonographic parameters (volume asymmetry, Emean at rest, and absolute and percentage changes in Emean during the Valsalva maneuver) and clinical grade were assessed using the Spearman correlation test. @*Results@#The Emean at rest was similar across clinical grades. During the Valsalva maneuver, increased testicular stiffness was frequently observed in patients with grade 2 or 3 varicocele but rarely observed in those with grade 0 or 1 varicocele. The changes in Emean were positively correlated with the clinical grade (all P0.05). @*Conclusion@#A transient, reversible increase in testicular stiffness during the Valsalva maneuver was observed in adolescents with high-grade varicocele, and the degree of stiffness change was correlated with the clinical grade. Stiffness change identified using SWE during the Valsalva maneuver is a potential surrogate indicator of venous congestion.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919208

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels are useful in discriminating tuberculous pleural effusions (TPEs) from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). However, some patients with MPE exhibit high-ADA levels, which may mimic TPEs. There is limited data regarding the differential diagnosis between high-ADA MPE and high-ADA TPE. This study aimed to identify the predictors for distinguishing high-ADA MPEs from high-ADA TPEs. @*Methods@#Patients with TPE and MPE with pleural f luid ADA levels ≥ 40 IU/L were included in this study. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were compared between the two groups. Independent predictors and their diagnostic performance for high-ADA MPEs were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve. @*Results@#A total of 200 patients (high-ADA MPE, n = 30, and high-ADA TPE, n = 170) were retrospectively included. In the multivariate analysis, pleural fluid ADA, pleural f luid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and pleural nodularity were independent discriminators between high-ADA MPE and high-ADA TPE groups. Using pleural ADA level of 40 to 56 IU/L (3 points), pleural CEA level ≥ 6 ng/mL (6 points), and presence of pleural nodularity (3 points) for predicting high-ADA MPEs, a sum score ≥ 6 points yielded a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 82%, negative predictive value of 98%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.965. @*Conclusions@#A scoring system using three parameters may be helpful in guiding the differential diagnosis between high-ADA MPEs and high-ADA TPEs.

3.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 108-115, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for evaluating brain injury and maturation in preterm infants and often requires sedation to acquire images of sufficient quality. Infant sedation is often associated with adverse events, despite extreme precautions. In this study, the swaddling technique was investigated as an alternative non-pharmacological strategy to obtain brain MRIs of sufficient quality. @*Methods@#We applied the feed and swaddle technique during routine brain MRI as a quality improvement project and compared its morbidity with that of sedation in a historic age-matched group. Seventy-nine very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of Ajou University Hospital (Suwon, Korea) were enrolled. Thirty-two (40.5%) infants were in the feed and swaddling group, and 47 (59.5%) were in the sedation group. @*Results@#The morbidity associated with the cardiopulmonary system (swaddling group vs. sedation group: 53.13% [n=17] vs. 63.83% [n=30], P=0.723) and central nervous system (40.63% [n=13] vs. 29.79% [n=14], P=0.217) were not significantly different between groups. The MRI failure rate was not significantly different (swaddling group vs. sedation group: 12.5% [n=4] vs. 4.3% [n=2], P=0.174). The MRI scanning time was longer in the swaddling group than in the sedation group (76.5±20.3 minutes vs. 61.5±13.6 minutes, P=0.001). Cardiopulmonary adverse events were significantly less common in the swaddling group than in the sedation group (3.13% [n=1] vs. 34.04% [n=16], P=0.002). @*Conclusion@#The success rate of MRI was comparable between the swaddling technique and sedation. Furthermore, despite the drawback of prolonged scan time, cardiopulmonary adverse events are fewer with swaddling than with sedative agents. Therefore, swaddling can be an alternative to sedation or anesthesia when performing neonatal MRI scans.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1690-1696, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902494

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the anatomic locations and imaging features of posterior lung herniation in unilateral pulmonary agenesis and aplasia, focusing on radiograph-CT/MRI correlation. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 10 patients (seven with pulmonary agenesis and three with pulmonary aplasia, male:female = 1:9, mean age 7.3 years, age range from 1 month to 20 years) were included. Chest radiographs (n = 9), CT (n = 9), and MRI (n = 1) were reviewed to assess the type of lung underdevelopment, presence of anterior and posterior lung herniation, bronchus origin, supplying artery, and draining vein of the herniated lung. @*Results@#Pulmonary agenesis/aplasia more commonly affected the left lung (n = 7) than the right lung (n = 3). Anterior lung herniation was observed in nine of the 10 patients. Posterior lung herniation was observed in seven patients with left pulmonary agenesis/aplasia. Two patients showed posterior lung herniation crossing the midline but not beyond the aorta, and five patients showed the posteriorly herniated right lower lobe crossing the midline to extend into the left hemithorax farther beyond the descending thoracic aorta through the space between the esophagus and the aorta. This anatomical configuration resulted in a characteristic radiographic finding of a radiolucent area with a convex lateral border and a vertical medial border in the left lower lung zone, revealing a tongue-like projection on CT and MRI. @*Conclusion@#Posterior lung herniation occurs in unilateral left lung agenesis/aplasia. Approximately 70% of the cases of posterior lung herniation reveal a unique radiolucent tongue-like projection in the left lower lung zone on imaging studies, which is caused by the extension of the posteriorly herniated right lung farther beyond the descending aorta.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1697-1707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902493

ABSTRACT

The recent introduction of various high-dimensional modeling methods, such as radiomics and deep learning, has created a much greater diversity in modeling approaches for survival prediction (or, more generally, time-to-event prediction). The newness of the recent modeling approaches and unfamiliarity with the model outputs may confuse some researchers and practitioners about the evaluation of the performance of such models. Methodological literacy to critically appraise the performance evaluation of the models and, ideally, the ability to conduct such an evaluation would be needed for those who want to develop models or apply them in practice. This article intends to provide intuitive, conceptual, and practical explanations of the statistical methods for evaluating the performance of survival prediction models with minimal usage of mathematical descriptions. It covers from conventional to deep learning methods, and emphasis has been placed on recent modeling approaches. This review article includes straightforward explanations of C indices (Harrell’s C index, etc.), timedependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration plot, other methods for evaluating the calibration performance, and Brier score.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1172-1184, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902438

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purposes of this study were to analyze the radiation doses for pediatric abdominopelvic and chest CT examinations from university hospitals in Korea and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) based on the body weight and size. @*Materials and Methods@#At seven university hospitals in Korea, 2494 CT examinations of patients aged 15 years or younger (1625 abdominopelvic and 869 chest CT examinations) between January and December 2017 were analyzed in this study. CT scans were transferred to commercial automated dose management software for the analysis after being de-identified. DRLs were calculated after grouping the patients according to the body weight and effective diameter. DRLs were set at the 75th percentile of the distribution of each institution’s typical values. @*Results@#For body weights of 5, 15, 30, 50, and 80 kg, DRLs (volume CT dose index [CTDIvol]) were 1.4, 2.2, 2.7, 4.0, and 4.7 mGy, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT and 1.2, 1.5, 2.3, 3.7, and 5.8 mGy, respectively, for chest CT. For effective diameters of 24 cm, DRLs (size-specific dose estimates [SSDE]) were 4.1, 5.0, 5.7, 7.1, and 7.2 mGy, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT and 2.8, 4.6, 4.3, 5.3, and 7.5 mGy, respectively, for chest CT.SSDE was greater than CTDIvol in all age groups. Overall, the local DRL was lower than DRLs in previously conducted dose surveys and other countries. @*Conclusion@#Our study set local DRLs in pediatric abdominopelvic and chest CT examinations for the body weight and size.Further research involving more facilities and CT examinations is required to develop national DRLs and update the current DRLs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901395

ABSTRACT

The objective assessment of atrophy and the measurement of brain volume is important in the early diagnosis of dementia and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, several MR-based volumetry software have been developed. For their clinical application, several issues arise, including the standardization of image acquisition and their validation of software. Additionally, it is important to highlight the diagnostic performance of the volumetry software based on expert opinions. We instituted a task force within the Korean Society of Neuroradiology to develop guidelines for the clinical use of MR-based brain volumetry software. In this review, we introduce the commercially available software and compare their diagnostic performances. We suggest the need for a standard protocol for image acquisition, the validation of the software, and evaluations of the limitations of the software related to clinical practice. We present recommendations for the clinical applications of commercially available software for volumetry based on the expert opinions of the Korean Society of Neuroradiology.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 255-261, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875611

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to examine the inter-method reliability and volumetric differences between NeuroQuant (NQ) and Freesurfer (FS) using T1 volume imaging sequence with different slice thicknesses in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study enrolled 80 patients diagnosed with MCI at our memory clinic. NQ and FS were used for volumetric analysis of three-dimensional T1-weighted images with slice thickness of 1 and 1.2 mm. Inter-method reliability was measured with Pearson correlation coefficient (r), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and effect size (ES). @*Results@#Overall, NQ volumes were larger than FS volumes in several locations: whole brain (0.78%), cortical gray matter (5.34%), and white matter (2.68%). Volume measures by NQ and FS showed good-to-excellent ICCs with both 1 and 1.2 mm slice thickness (ICC=0.75–0.97, ES=-1.0–0.73 vs. ICC=0.78–0.96, ES=-0.9–0.77, respectively), except for putamen, pallidum, thalamus, and total intracranial volumes. The ICCs in all locations, except the putamen and cerebellum, were slightly higher with a slice thickness of 1 mm compared to those of 1.2 mm. @*Conclusion@#Inter-method reliability between NQ and FS was good-to-excellent in most regions with improvement with a 1-mm slice thickness. This finding indicates that the potential effects of slice thickness should be considered when performing volumetric measurements for cognitive impairment.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875285

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare two clinically available MR volumetry software, NeuroQuant® (NQ) and Inbrain® (IB), and examine the inter-method reliabilities and differences between them. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 172 subjects (age range, 55–88 years; mean age, 71.2 years), comprising 45 normal healthy subjects, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 42 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed with IB and NQ. Mean differences were compared with the paired t test. Inter-method reliability was evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Effect sizes were also obtained to document the standardized mean differences. @*Results@#The paired t test showed significant volume differences in most regions except for the amygdala between the two methods. Nevertheless, inter-method measurements between IB and NQ showed good to excellent reliability (0.72 < r < 0.96, 0.83 < ICC < 0.98) except for the pallidum, which showed poor reliability (left: r = 0.03, ICC = 0.06; right: r = -0.05, ICC = -0.09). For the measurements of effect size, volume differences were large in most regions (0.05 < r < 6.15). The effect size was the largest in the pallidum and smallest in the cerebellum. @*Conclusion@#Comparisons between IB and NQ showed significantly different volume measurements with large effect sizes.However, they showed good to excellent inter-method reliability in volumetric measurements for all brain regions, with the exception of the pallidum. Clinicians using these commercial software should take into consideration that different volume measurements could be obtained depending on the software used.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874747

ABSTRACT

The cause of epithelioid granulomatous inflammation varies widely depending on the affected organ, geographic region, and whether the granulomas morphologically contain necrosis. Compared with other organs, the etiological distribution and morphological patterns of pleural epithelioid granulomas have rarely been investigated. We evaluated the final etiologies and morphological patterns of pleural epithelioid granulomatous inflammation in a tuberculosis (TB)-prevalent country. Of 83 patients with pleural granulomas, 50 (60.2%) had confirmed TB pleurisy (TB-P) and 29 (34.9%) had probable TBP. Four patients (4.8%) with non-TB-P were diagnosed. With the exception of microbiological results, there was no significant difference in clinical characteristics and granuloma patterns between the confirmed TB-P and non-TB-P groups, or between patients with confirmed and probable TB-Ps. These findings suggest that most pleural granulomatous inflammation (95.2%) was attributable to TB-P in TB-endemic areas and that the granuloma patterns contributed little to the prediction of final diagnosis compared with other organs.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914451

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on that the key function of health technology is improving the quality of healthcare services, our study purports to explore the process of medical device development in detail and to discuss its policy implications. @*Methods@#A total of 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with four groups of industry, hospital, academia, and civil society. All of the interviewees except those from civil society were involved in the new medical device development between 2009 and 2018. We performed a text network analysis and content analysis of the interview data. @*Results@#The frequency and the degree centrality rankings suggested a close association between the utilization issue and the technology development. Similarly, the results of the content analysis showed that the appropriate intervention in the utilization of technology has a direct impact on the progress of development. Under the continuous industrial effort to boost profits by developing new technology, service providers and citizens should be knowledgeable of and make good use of the new technology for the provision of better services. @*Conclusion@#As the development itself would not guarantee the improvement of service quality and better health outcomes, health technology policies should take a more comprehensive view to serve the unmet needs and even to facilitate the technology development.

12.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 133-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913880

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report two rare cases of renal infection. The first case was renal subcapsular urine reflux in a 8-month-old girl with recurrent urinary tract infection and the second was subcapsular abscess in a 14-year-old girl with diabetes, who was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage. It has been suggested that renal subcapsular abscesses could be caused by the direct reflux of urine into the subcapsular space, rather than spread of infection from an existing parenchymal lesion, and that complete recovery can be achieved if percutaneous drainage is performed in a timely manner. We propose primary subcapsular reflux, in which urine directly refluxes upwards into the subcapsular space of the kidney, as one of the mechanisms for development of renal subcapsular abscesses.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913360

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare disease that increases the number of circulating eosinophils in the body. It has many complications, including peripheral polyneuropathy. Peripheral polyneuropathy often does not respond well to conventional therapies. Transcutaneous neurostimulatory treatment, also known as scrambler therapy, is an alternative modality for the treatment of chronic retractable pain. Case: A 47-year-old woman presented with complaints of bilateral calf pain. She had been under treatment for peripheral polyneuropathy induced by hypereosinophilic syndrome for 7 years. Pharmacologic treatment did not affect the patient’s symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Transcutaneous neurostimulatory treatment was administered to the patient. It was effective on her symptoms, and the effect of pain alleviation continued for 3 months.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897406

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896704

ABSTRACT

Background@#Joubert syndrome and mitochondrial disease are rare congenital diseases in which a wide range of symptoms affects multiple organs. Patients with these diseases present characteristic symptoms related to the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurological systems, which make it difficult for anesthesiologists to manage the patient’s airway and choose appropriate anesthetic drugs. Case A 13-year-old male patient with Joubert syndrome and mitochondrial disease underwent elective surgery to insert a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium. An I-gel was inserted to secure the airway; however, the fitting did not work properly, so the patient was intubated. The operation was completed without any major problems, and the intubated patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. @*Conclusions@#Anesthesiologists should determine the method of anesthesia and prepare for unintended complications based on a full understanding of these congenital diseases.

17.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 108-115, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895113

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for evaluating brain injury and maturation in preterm infants and often requires sedation to acquire images of sufficient quality. Infant sedation is often associated with adverse events, despite extreme precautions. In this study, the swaddling technique was investigated as an alternative non-pharmacological strategy to obtain brain MRIs of sufficient quality. @*Methods@#We applied the feed and swaddle technique during routine brain MRI as a quality improvement project and compared its morbidity with that of sedation in a historic age-matched group. Seventy-nine very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of Ajou University Hospital (Suwon, Korea) were enrolled. Thirty-two (40.5%) infants were in the feed and swaddling group, and 47 (59.5%) were in the sedation group. @*Results@#The morbidity associated with the cardiopulmonary system (swaddling group vs. sedation group: 53.13% [n=17] vs. 63.83% [n=30], P=0.723) and central nervous system (40.63% [n=13] vs. 29.79% [n=14], P=0.217) were not significantly different between groups. The MRI failure rate was not significantly different (swaddling group vs. sedation group: 12.5% [n=4] vs. 4.3% [n=2], P=0.174). The MRI scanning time was longer in the swaddling group than in the sedation group (76.5±20.3 minutes vs. 61.5±13.6 minutes, P=0.001). Cardiopulmonary adverse events were significantly less common in the swaddling group than in the sedation group (3.13% [n=1] vs. 34.04% [n=16], P=0.002). @*Conclusion@#The success rate of MRI was comparable between the swaddling technique and sedation. Furthermore, despite the drawback of prolonged scan time, cardiopulmonary adverse events are fewer with swaddling than with sedative agents. Therefore, swaddling can be an alternative to sedation or anesthesia when performing neonatal MRI scans.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1690-1696, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894790

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the anatomic locations and imaging features of posterior lung herniation in unilateral pulmonary agenesis and aplasia, focusing on radiograph-CT/MRI correlation. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 10 patients (seven with pulmonary agenesis and three with pulmonary aplasia, male:female = 1:9, mean age 7.3 years, age range from 1 month to 20 years) were included. Chest radiographs (n = 9), CT (n = 9), and MRI (n = 1) were reviewed to assess the type of lung underdevelopment, presence of anterior and posterior lung herniation, bronchus origin, supplying artery, and draining vein of the herniated lung. @*Results@#Pulmonary agenesis/aplasia more commonly affected the left lung (n = 7) than the right lung (n = 3). Anterior lung herniation was observed in nine of the 10 patients. Posterior lung herniation was observed in seven patients with left pulmonary agenesis/aplasia. Two patients showed posterior lung herniation crossing the midline but not beyond the aorta, and five patients showed the posteriorly herniated right lower lobe crossing the midline to extend into the left hemithorax farther beyond the descending thoracic aorta through the space between the esophagus and the aorta. This anatomical configuration resulted in a characteristic radiographic finding of a radiolucent area with a convex lateral border and a vertical medial border in the left lower lung zone, revealing a tongue-like projection on CT and MRI. @*Conclusion@#Posterior lung herniation occurs in unilateral left lung agenesis/aplasia. Approximately 70% of the cases of posterior lung herniation reveal a unique radiolucent tongue-like projection in the left lower lung zone on imaging studies, which is caused by the extension of the posteriorly herniated right lung farther beyond the descending aorta.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1697-1707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894789

ABSTRACT

The recent introduction of various high-dimensional modeling methods, such as radiomics and deep learning, has created a much greater diversity in modeling approaches for survival prediction (or, more generally, time-to-event prediction). The newness of the recent modeling approaches and unfamiliarity with the model outputs may confuse some researchers and practitioners about the evaluation of the performance of such models. Methodological literacy to critically appraise the performance evaluation of the models and, ideally, the ability to conduct such an evaluation would be needed for those who want to develop models or apply them in practice. This article intends to provide intuitive, conceptual, and practical explanations of the statistical methods for evaluating the performance of survival prediction models with minimal usage of mathematical descriptions. It covers from conventional to deep learning methods, and emphasis has been placed on recent modeling approaches. This review article includes straightforward explanations of C indices (Harrell’s C index, etc.), timedependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration plot, other methods for evaluating the calibration performance, and Brier score.

20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1172-1184, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894734

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purposes of this study were to analyze the radiation doses for pediatric abdominopelvic and chest CT examinations from university hospitals in Korea and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) based on the body weight and size. @*Materials and Methods@#At seven university hospitals in Korea, 2494 CT examinations of patients aged 15 years or younger (1625 abdominopelvic and 869 chest CT examinations) between January and December 2017 were analyzed in this study. CT scans were transferred to commercial automated dose management software for the analysis after being de-identified. DRLs were calculated after grouping the patients according to the body weight and effective diameter. DRLs were set at the 75th percentile of the distribution of each institution’s typical values. @*Results@#For body weights of 5, 15, 30, 50, and 80 kg, DRLs (volume CT dose index [CTDIvol]) were 1.4, 2.2, 2.7, 4.0, and 4.7 mGy, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT and 1.2, 1.5, 2.3, 3.7, and 5.8 mGy, respectively, for chest CT. For effective diameters of 24 cm, DRLs (size-specific dose estimates [SSDE]) were 4.1, 5.0, 5.7, 7.1, and 7.2 mGy, respectively, for abdominopelvic CT and 2.8, 4.6, 4.3, 5.3, and 7.5 mGy, respectively, for chest CT.SSDE was greater than CTDIvol in all age groups. Overall, the local DRL was lower than DRLs in previously conducted dose surveys and other countries. @*Conclusion@#Our study set local DRLs in pediatric abdominopelvic and chest CT examinations for the body weight and size.Further research involving more facilities and CT examinations is required to develop national DRLs and update the current DRLs.

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