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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927078

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax exhibits dormant liver-stage parasites, called hypnozoites, which can cause relapse of malaria. The only drug currently used for eliminating hypnozoites is primaquine. The antimalarial properties of primaquine are dependent on the production of oxidized metabolites by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). Reduced primaquine metabolism may be related to P. vivax relapses. We describe a case of 4 episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria in a patient with decreased CYP2D6 function. The patient was 52-year-old male with body weight of 52 kg. He received total gastrectomy and splenectomy 7 months before the first episode and was under chemotherapy for the gastric cancer. The first episode occurred in March 2019 and each episode had intervals of 34, 41, and 97 days, respectively. At the first and second episodes, primaquine was administered as 15 mg for 14 days. The primaquine dose was increased with 30 mg for 14 days at the third and fourth episodes. Seven gene sequences of P. vivax were analyzed and revealed totally identical for all the 4 samples. The CYP2D6 genotype was analyzed and intermediate metabolizer phenotype with decreased function was identified.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925976

ABSTRACT

Background@#F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET), which can cover the body from the skull base to the thigh in one scan, is beneficial for evaluating distant metastasis. F-18 FDG PET has interested policymakers because of its relatively high cost. This study investigated the effect of the F-18 FDG PET reimbursement criteria amendment on healthcare behavior in breast cancer using an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the inpatient and outpatient data from Korea’s Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. ITS analysis was performed for the number of each medical imaging modality and the total medical imaging cost of the breast cancer patients. @*Results@#The annual number of breast cancer patients has been increasing steadily since 2013. The trend of F-18 FDG PET increased before the reimbursement criteria was amended, but intensely decreased immediately thereafter. The chest and abdomen computed tomography scans showed a statistically significant increase immediately after the amendment and kept steadily increasing. A change in the total medical imaging cost for the breast cancer patient claimed every month showed an increasing trend before the amendment (β = 5,475, standard error [SE] = 1,992, P = 0.008) and rapid change immediately after (β = −103,317, SE = 16,152, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant change in the total medical imaging cost at the long-term follow-up (β = −912, SE = 1,981, P = 0.647). @*Conclusion@#Restriction of health insurance coverage for cancer may affect healthcare behaviors. To compensate for it, the policymakers must consider this and anticipate the impact following implementation.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899964

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. @*Results@#A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivirtreated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1–5 to 11–15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892260

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. @*Results@#A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivirtreated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1–5 to 11–15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1162-1168, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919585

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has shown excellent clinical effectiveness; however, adverse events of the vaccine remain a concern in Korea. We surveyed adverse events in 2498 healthcare workers vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at a university hospital. The survey was conducted using a diary card for 7 days following each injection. The questionnaire response rate was 75.1% (1876/2498) for the first dose and 73.8% (1840/2493) for the second dose. Among local reactions, pain was the most commonly reported (84.9% after the first dose and 90.4% after the second dose). After the second dose, two people visited the emergency room due to severe local pain, but no hospitalization or skin necrosis occurred. Among systemic reactions, fatigue was most frequently reported (52.8% after the first dose and 77.0% after the second dose), followed by myalgia (49.0% and 76.1%), headache (28.7% and 59.2%), chills (16.7% and 54.0%), and arthralgia (11.4% and 39.2%). One or more critical adverse events occurred in 0.2% and 0.7% of the vaccinees. Except for urticaria, more adverse events were reported after the second dose than after the first dose. In the future, adverse events should be investigated in older adults, and a future study with a longer observation period should be conducted.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831573

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading around the world, causing much morbidity and mortality everywhere. However, effective treatments or vaccines are still not available. Although convalescent plasma (CP) therapy can be useful in the treatment of COVID-19, it has not been widely used in Korea because of the concerns about adverse effects and the difficulty in matching patients to donors. The use of ABO-incompatible plasma is not contraindicated in treatment, but can be hesitated due to the lack of experience of physicians. Here, we describe a 68-year old man with COVID-19 who was treated ABO-incompatible plasma therapy; additionally, we comment on the acute side effects associated with ABO mismatch transfusion. To overcome the obstacles of donor-recipient connections (schedule and distance), we propose the storage of frozen plasma, modification of the current Blood Management Law, and the establishment of a CP bank. We suggest that experience gained in CP therapy will be useful for not only the treatment of COVID-19, but also for coping with new emerging infectious diseases.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761758

ABSTRACT

In malaria, splenic rupture is a serious complication potentially leading to death. Subcapsular hemorrhage of spleen is thought to be an impending sign of splenic rupture; however, the characteristics of subcapsular hemorrhage are not well known. We report 3 cases of subcapsular hemorrhage of the spleen in vivax malaria, with varying degrees of severity. Case 1 showed subcapsular hemorrhage without splenic rupture, was treated by antimalarial drug without any procedure. The healing process of the patient's spleen was monitored through 6 computed tomography follow-up examinations, over 118 days. Case 2 presented subcapsular hemorrhage with splenic rupture, treated only with an antimalarial drug. Case 3 showed subcapsular hemorrhage with splenic rupture and hypotension, treated using splenic artery embolization. They all recovered from subcapsular hemorrhage without any other complications. These 3 cases reveal the process of subcapsular hemorrhage leading to rupture and a potentially fatal outcome. The treatment plan of subcapsular hemorrhage should be determined carefully considering the vital signs, changes in hemoglobin, and bleeding tendency.


Subject(s)
Fatal Outcome , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Hypotension , Malaria , Malaria, Vivax , Plasmodium vivax , Rupture , Spleen , Splenic Artery , Splenic Rupture , Vital Signs
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Unlike Western countries, the 2009 pandemic influenza infection among pregnant women was reported as mild in a previous interim study in South Korea. However, several mortalities were reported thereafter, suggesting that nationwide data were lacking.@*METHODS@#This case-control study covers the entire 2009 pandemic inf luenza period, from May 2009 to February 2010. The clinical and economic data of pregnant (case) and age-matched non-pregnant (control) women with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (H1N1pdm09) infection were retrospectively collected from nine hospitals in South Korea.@*RESULTS@#A total of 130 pregnant women with H1N1pdm09 infection were identified. The mean age of the pregnant women was 31.1 years (range, 19 to 41) and mean gestational age was 18.4 weeks (range, 3 to 40). Both case and control groups were similar in terms of age (p = 0.43) and comorbidities (p = 0.18). The overall rate of complications was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.648). However, mortality was reported only among the cases, so mean economic per capita burden is estimated to be higher for pregnant women compared to the control (4,821,992 Korean won [KRW] vs. 351,233 KRW, p = 0.31). Obstetric complications were observed in 12 cases, including preterm labor (n = 7), low birth-weight (n = 3), miscarriage (n = 1), stillbirth (n = 1), and cleft lip (n = 1).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although statistically insignificant, the detrimental impact of influenza A H1N1pdm09 on pregnancy can be serious in some complicated cases in South Korea. Thus, the strong recommendation of influenza vaccination should be maintained for pregnant women as a high priority.

9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 345-354, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Tsutsugamushi disease, or scrub typhus, is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is followed by chronic latent infection. People who reside in areas endemic of tsutsugamushi disease may be frequently reinfected with this organism. Volunteers who are experimentally reinfected with O. tsutsugamushi manifest various systemic and local reactions, including the presence of small-sized eschar. The present study recorded the morphology and size of eschars in patients with tsutsugamushi disease on Jeju Island, Korea.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#From March 2018 to February 2019, 23 patients manifesting clinical characteristics and epidemiologic features of tsutsugamushi disease on Jeju Island were investigated. For comparison of eschar sizes between the two regions, 12 patients with tsutsugamushi disease in Incheon were similarly examined.@*RESULTS@#Three patients, two on the first day and one on the fourth day of fever, presented with papules of 2 – 5 mm in diameter. Another three patients, one on the second day and two on the fourth day, presented with ruptured vesicles of 5 – 8 mm in diameter. Thirteen patients presented with eschars covered with dark scabs, with a median diameter of 5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5 – 7.5) × 4 (95% CI, 3 – 5) mm. The medians of the eschar sizes did not differ between the two cities (P = 0.46 by Mann-Whitney U test), but eschars ≥10 mm in diameter were more frequent in Incheon than in Seogwipo-si (4 of 12 vs. 0 of 13 patients, P = 0.04 by Fisher's exact test). One patient presented with multiple eschars, and no eschar was detected in the remaining three patients. Among 11 Jeju Island patients with positive IgG and IgM antibodies, seven patients revealed higher IgG than IgM antibody titers during the acute phase of the illness, i.e., the IgG antibody response, two patients had equal IgG and IgM titers, and two patients presented the IgM antibody response. Life-threatening complications and death were not observed in this study.@*CONCLUSION@#The patients in Seogwipo-si had small-sized eschars and occasionally exhibited non-necrotic lesions. Many patients had serologically reinfected tsutsugamushi disease. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between these findings.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-travel medical consultation is essential to reduce health impairment during travel. Yellow fever vaccination (YFV) is mandatory to enter some endemic countries. In this study, we evaluated the factors that affect compliance with appropriate prevention of infectious diseases in travelers who visited clinic for YFV. METHODS: For this retrospective study, chart reviews for 658 patients who visited a travel clinic for YFV before travel were conducted. The period of this study was from January 2016 to September 2018. The associations between appropriate vaccination and factors such as travel duration, destination, time of visiting clinic before departure, and purpose of travel were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 658 patients who got YFV during the study period, 344 patients (52.3%) received additional vaccination or malaria prophylaxis following a physician's recommendation. Travelers who visited the clinic more than 21 days before departure were more compliant than those who visited 14 days or fewer before departure (odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–2.93; P = 0.004). Travelers visiting Africa were more compliant than were those traveling to South and Central America (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.34–2.90; P = 0.001). Travelers in age groups of 40-49 years and over 70 years were less compliant than the 18–29 years old population (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28–0.93; P = 0.027 and OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04–0.84; P = 0.03, respectively). Also, those who traveled for tour or to visit friends or relatives were more compliant than those who departed for business (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 1.03–3.56; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: For appropriate vaccination, pre-travel consultation at least 3 weeks before departure is crucial. Travelers should be aware of required vaccination and malaria prophylaxis before visiting South and Central America and Asia. Plans to enhance compliance of the elderly and business travelers should be contrived.


Subject(s)
Africa , Aged , Asia , Central America , Commerce , Communicable Diseases , Compliance , Friends , Humans , Malaria , Patient Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Travel Medicine , Vaccination , Yellow Fever , Yellow Fever Vaccine
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum preventive measures with antiretroviral drugs, appropriate delivery methods, and discouraging breastfeeding significantly decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Herein, we investigated the pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected Korean women. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of childbearing-age HIV-infected women between January 2005 and June 2017 at four tertiary care hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: Among a total of 95 HIV infected women of child-bearing age with 587.61 years of follow-up duration, 15 HIV-infected women experienced 21 pregnancies and delivered 16 infants. The pregnancy rate was 3.57 per 100 patient-years. Among the 21 pregnancies, five ended with an induced abortion, and 16 with childbirth including two preterm deliveries at 24 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively. The two preterm infants had low birth weight and one of them died 10 days after delivery due to respiratory failure. Among the 14 full-term infants, one infant was small for gestational age. There were no HIV-infected infants. CONCLUSION: The pregnancy rate of HIV-infected women in Korea is lower than that of the general population. Although several adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed, mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection was successfully prevented with effective preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Breast Feeding , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , HIV , HIV Infections , Humans , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Korea , Medical Records , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Rate , Pregnancy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Healthcare
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742289

ABSTRACT

Babesiosis, caused by Babesia microti and B. divergens, is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Symptoms of babesiosis vary from a mild flu-like illness to acute, severe, and sometimes fatal and fulminant disease. In Korea, 7 imported babesiosis cases and 1 endemic case have been reported. We report 2 cases of severe babesiosis initially mistaken as malaria. The first patient was complicated by shock and splenic infarction, the other co-infected with Lyme disease. As the population traveling abroad increases every year, physicians should be aware of babesiosis which mimics malaria, co-infection with other diseases, and its complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia microti , Babesiosis , Coinfection , Humans , Korea , Lyme Disease , Malaria , Republic of Korea , Shock , Splenic Infarction , Ticks
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cat-scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae is one of the most common zoonosis. However, only several cases of B. henselae infection have been reported in Korea. This study investigated the seroprevalence of B. henselae in healthy adults and related risk factors. METHODS: Serum samples from 300 healthy participants were analyzed using an immunoglobulin G immunof luorescence assay (IFA) for B. henselae isolated in Korea. Surveys on the risk factors for B. henselae infection were conducted simultaneously. RESULTS: Of the participants, 47.7% and 15.0% raised dogs and cats, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of B. henselae was 15.0% (IFA titer ≥ 1:64). Participants who had raised cats showed 22.2% seropositivity against B. henselae, and those with no experience with cats showed 13.7% seroprevalence (p = 0.17). Participants who had cats as pets or been scratched by cats, showed 9.8% seropositivity against B. henselae (IFA titer ≥ 1:256). However, those who had not raised or been scratched by a cat showed 2.0% seropositivity (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: In Korea, the seroprevalence of B. henselae is higher than expected, suggesting that Bartonella infection due to B. henselae is not uncommon. Cats are proposed to play a more important role than dogs in transmission of CSD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Bartonella henselae , Bartonella Infections , Bartonella , Cat-Scratch Disease , Cats , Dogs , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cat-scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae is one of the most common zoonosis. However, only several cases of B. henselae infection have been reported in Korea. This study investigated the seroprevalence of B. henselae in healthy adults and related risk factors. METHODS: Serum samples from 300 healthy participants were analyzed using an immunoglobulin G immunof luorescence assay (IFA) for B. henselae isolated in Korea. Surveys on the risk factors for B. henselae infection were conducted simultaneously. RESULTS: Of the participants, 47.7% and 15.0% raised dogs and cats, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of B. henselae was 15.0% (IFA titer ≥ 1:64). Participants who had raised cats showed 22.2% seropositivity against B. henselae, and those with no experience with cats showed 13.7% seroprevalence (p = 0.17). Participants who had cats as pets or been scratched by cats, showed 9.8% seropositivity against B. henselae (IFA titer ≥ 1:256). However, those who had not raised or been scratched by a cat showed 2.0% seropositivity (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: In Korea, the seroprevalence of B. henselae is higher than expected, suggesting that Bartonella infection due to B. henselae is not uncommon. Cats are proposed to play a more important role than dogs in transmission of CSD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Bartonella henselae , Bartonella Infections , Bartonella , Cat-Scratch Disease , Cats , Dogs , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36760

ABSTRACT

Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Central Nervous System , Encephalitis , Hippocampus , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningitis , Meningoencephalitis , Mumps , Parotitis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Despite its excellent efficacy and recent widespread use, FMT has not been widely used in South Korea thus far. We describe our experience with FMT to treat refractory/recurrent CDI. METHODS: We conducted a chart review of patients who underwent FMT for refractory/recurrent CDI at Inha University Hospital, between March 2014 and June 2016. The demographic information, treatment data, and adverse events were reviewed. FMT was administered via colonoscopy and/or duodenoscopy. All stool donors were rigorously screened to prevent infectious disease transmission. RESULTS: FMT was performed in nine patients with refractory/recurrent CDI. All patients were dramatically cured. Bowel movement was normalized within one week after FMT. There were no procedure-related adverse events, except aspiration pneumonia in one patient. During the follow-up period (mean 11.4 months), recurrence of CDI was observed in one patient at one month after FMT due to antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: FMT is a safe, well-tolerated and highly effective treatment for refractory/recurrent CDI. Although there are many barriers to using FMT, we expect that FMT will be widely used to treat refractory/recurrent CDI in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium , Colonoscopy , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Duodenoscopy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Korea , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Recurrence , Tissue Donors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210876

ABSTRACT

Currently, metabolic complications are the most common problem among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with a high incidence. However, there have been very few studies regarding metabolic abnormalities published in Asia, especially in Korea. This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for metabolic abnormalities in 1,096 HIV-infected patients of the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study enrolled from 19 hospitals between 2006 and 2013. Data at entry to cohort were analyzed. As a result, the median age of the 1,096 enrolled subjects was 46 years, and most patients were men (92.8%). The metabolic profiles of the patients were as follows: median weight was 63.8 kg, median body mass index (BMI) was 22.2 kg/m², and 16.4% of the patients had a BMI over 25 kg/m². A total of 5.5% of the patients had abdominal obesity (waist/hip ratio ≥ 1 in men, ≥ 0.85 in women). Increased levels of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were present in 10.4%, 6.0%, 5.5%, and 32.1% of the patients. Decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were observed in 44.2% of the patients. High systolic blood pressure was present in 14.3% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, high BMI and the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) were risk factors for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. In conclusion, proper diagnosis and management should be offered for the prevalent metabolic complications of Korean HIV-infected patients. Further studies on risk factors for metabolic complications are needed.


Subject(s)
Asia , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Glucose , HIV Infections , HIV , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lipoproteins , Male , Metabolome , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity, Abdominal , Prevalence , Protease Inhibitors , Risk Factors , Triglycerides
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49806

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is recommended to use 200 (2 puffs) or 400 (4 puffs) µg of salbutamol in the bronchodilator response (BDR) test. We aimed to compare the difference between these 2 doses with regard to small airway dysfunction. METHODS: One hundred sixteen subjects who visited the hospital for diagnosis or follow-up of asthma were consecutively enrolled between June 1 and November 31, 2013. The subjects were randomly assigned to the BDR test at the 2 doses (200 or 400 µg of salbutamol), with physicians blinded to the group each subject was assigned to and undertook the BDR test using the spirometry and impulse oscillometry system (IOS). RESULTS: A total of 116 subjects participated in this study; the mean age was 7.8±3.6 years. The number of participants who were assigned to 2 and 4 puffs groups was 59 and 57, respectively. The mean age was older in the 4 puffs group than in the 2 puffs group (P=0.008). There were no significant difference in spirometric and oscillometric parameters between the 2 and 4 puffs groups. However, in subgroup analysis of asthmatic patients on maintenance therapy (n=21), there was a significant difference in relative changes in Rrs5 between the 2 and 4 puffs groups (16.4%±9.6% vs. 28.7%±8.8%, P=0.035). The forced expiratory volume of 1 second showed a significant correlation with resistance in the 2 puffs group and with reactance in the 4 puffs group. CONCLUSION: There was a significant relationship between the amounts of bronchodilators administered and the small airway dysfunction in children with asthma on maintenance therapy. Further research is warranted to delineate changes in spirometric and IOS measures in accordance with the different amounts of bronchodilators administered.


Subject(s)
Airway Resistance , Albuterol , Asthma , Bronchodilator Agents , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Jupiter , Oscillometry , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49793

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonallergenic irritants can aggravate the symptoms of rhinitis. We investigated the clinical responses of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) to nonallergenic irritants, and identified factors associated with these responses. METHODS: Children with chronic rhinitis (n=208) were classified as having AR or NAR based on the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE. Healthy controls (n=24) were recruited for comparison. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines were used to classify patients, and their irritant score (0-21 points) and current symptom score (5-35 points) were measured. Subjects with irritant scores ≥3 and <3 were classified as having irritant and nonirritant rhinitis, respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of enrolled subjects was 6.8 years (range: 1.8-16.0 years). The AR and NAR groups had similar irritant scores (P=0.394) and proportions of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 (P=0.105). Irritant score correlated positively with symptom score (P=0.005), and the proportion of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 was greater in children with moderate-severe rhinitis than in those with mild rhinitis (P=0.046). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of atopic eczema increased the risk for sensitivity to a nonallergenic irritant (aOR=2.928, 95% CI 1.567-5.473, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Response to a nonallergenic irritant was useful for gauging the severity of rhinitis, but not for differentiating AR from NAR. AR and NAR patients with atopic eczema may increase nasal sensitivity to nonallergenic irritants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Irritants , Logistic Models , Rhinitis
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