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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 68-74, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875601

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There is lack of data on direct comparison of survival outcomes between open surgery and robot-assisted staging surgery (RSS) using three robotic arms for endometrial cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) between open surgery and RSS using three robotic arms for endometrial cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Consecutive women with endometrial cancer who underwent surgery between May 2006 and May 2018 were identified. Robotic procedures were performed using the da Vinci robotic system, and the robotic approach consisted of three robotic arms including a camera arm. Propensity score matching, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression of OS and DFS were performed according to clinicopathologic data and surgical method. @*Results@#The study cohort included 423 unselected patients with endometrial cancer, of whom 218 underwent open surgery and 205 underwent RSS using three robotic arms. Propensity score-matched cohorts of 146 women in each surgical group showed no significant differences in survival: 5-year OS of 91% vs. 92% and DFS of 86% vs. 89% in the open and robotic cohorts, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.82–1.67). In the univariate analysis with OS as the endpoint, surgical method, age, stage, type II histology, grade, and lymph node metastasis were independently associated with survival. Surgical stage, grade, and type II histology were found to be significant independent predictors for OS in the multivariate analysis. @*Conclusion@#RSS using three robotic arms and laparotomy for endometrial carcinoma had comparable survival outcomes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875545

ABSTRACT

Background@#Many chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients receiving monotherapy continue to experience symptoms, exacerbations and poor quality of life. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of direct switch from once-daily tiotropium (TIO) 18 μg to indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg once-daily in COPD patients in Korea. @*Methods@#This was a randomized, open-label, parallel group, 12-week trial in mild-to-moderate COPD patients who received TIO 18 μg once-daily for ≥12 weeks prior to study initiation. Patients aged ≥40 years, with predicted postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50%, post-bronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity <0.7 and smoking history of ≥10 pack-years were included. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either IND/GLY or TIO. The primary objective was to demonstrate superiority of IND/GLY over TIO in pre-dose trough FEV1 at week 12. Secondary endpoints included transition dyspnea index (TDI) focal score, COPD assessment test (CAT) total score, and rescue medication use following the 12-week treatment, and safety assessment. @*Results@#Of the 442 patients screened, 379 were randomized and 347 completed the study. IND/GLY demonstrated superiority in pre-dose trough FEV1 versus TIO at week 12 (least squares mean treatment difference [Δ], 50 mL; p=0.013). Also, numerical improvements were observed with IND/GLY in the TDI focal score (Δ, 0.31), CAT total score (Δ, –0.81), and rescue medication use (Δ, –0.09 puffs/day). Both treatments were well tolerated by patients. @*Conclusion@#A direct switch from TIO to IND/GLY provided improvements in lung function and other patient-reported outcomes with an acceptable safety profile in patients with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875493

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are concerns that the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers may increase the risk of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or progressing to a severe clinical course after infection. This this study aimed to investigate the influence of RAS blockers on the risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study analyzing nationwide claims data of 215,184 adults who underwent SARS-CoV-2 tests in South Korea. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates and clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the use of RAS blockers in patients with hypertension (n = 64,243). @*Results@#In total, 38,919 patients with hypertension were on RAS blockers. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates were significantly higher in the RAS blocker group than in the control group after adjustments (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.36; p < 0.001), and matching by propensity score (adjusted OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32; p = 0.017). Among the 1,609 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with hypertension, the use of RAS blockers was not associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.17; p = 0.265), and a composite of admission to the intensive care unit and mortality (adjusted OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.22; p = 0.669). Analysis in the propensity scorematched population showed consistent results. @*Conclusions@#In this Korean nationwide claims dataset, the use of RAS blockers was associated with a higher risk to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not with higher mortality or other severe clinical courses.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874525

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of social distancing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We retrospectively analyzed the change in glycosylated hemoglobin level (ΔHbA1c) in people with T2DM who undertook social distancing because of COVID-19. We compared the ΔHbA1c between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts that were enrolled at the same time of year. The ΔHbA1c of the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than that of two non-COVID-19 cohorts. Subgroup analysis according to age and baseline HbA1c level showed that social distancing significantly increased the mean HbA1c level of participants of <50 years. The ΔHbA1c of participants of <50 years and with HbA1c <7.0% in the COVID-19 cohort showed larger changes than other subgroups. In adjusted model, adjusted ΔHbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort remained significantly higher than those in the two other cohorts. Social distancing negatively impacts blood glucose control in people with T2DM, especially those who are younger and have good blood glucose control.

5.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 452-459, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with optimal conditioning has helped better long-term survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan and fludarabine in adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation. @*Materials and Methods@#Records of 78 patients who underwent HSCT with RIC consisting of 3.2 mg/kg/day of busulfan for 2 or 3 days and 30 mg/m2/day of fludarabine for 5 or 6 days were analyzed. @*Results@#The median age at diagnosis was 49 years. Over a median follow-up of 22 months, 2-year estimates of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were 57.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a trend of improved RFS in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.26–1.08; p=0.080). The cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 42.9% and 19.6%, respectively and one case of central nervous system relapse was noted. No hepatic veno-occlusive disease was reported. Grade II–IV acute GVHD and any grade chronic GVHD occurred in 21.1% and 41.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#RIC with busulfan and fludarabine is an effective and safe conditioning regimen for adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832745

ABSTRACT

Extraskeletal osteochondroma is a rare, benign, bone tumor of the soft tissue that generally affects the soft tissue of the hands and feet, followed by the trunk, and is rarely reported in the head and neck area. A 41-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic, skin-colored, palpable nodule on the neck that had been slowly growing over an unknown period of time. An ultrasound examination revealed a 0.9-cm-sized, dense, calcified lesion in the skin layer on the left side of the neck. Calcinosis cutis, pilomatricoma, and other benign tumors were clinically suspected, and a tumor excision was performed. The histological examination showed encapsulated round nodules composed of mature hyaline cartilage, which gradually changed into mature bone tissue. Extraskeletal osteochondroma was diagnosed by pathological examination. Here, we report an interesting case of extraskeletal osteochondroma in an unusual location.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832626

ABSTRACT

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Patients usually present with hypopigmented or erythematous plaques with central hypoesthesia or tenderness, and necessitate a differential diagnosis with eczema, granuloma annulare, sarcoidosis, syphilid, mycosis fungoides, erythema nodosum, and skin cancer. A 93-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic erythematous plaques and subdermal nodules on the face and extremities for 6∼ 7 months, and the lesions were suspicious for skin cancer. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse infiltration of foamy histiocytes separated by a grenz zone. Acid-fast bacilli were seen in Ziehl−Neelsen stain with clumps called globi. Based on clinical and histopathological findings, she was finally diagnosed with lepromatous leprosy.The patient was diagnosed with leprosy at an advanced age; thus, we report the case in which dermatologists should consider leprosy as well as skin cancer in the elderly patients with unusual erythematous nodules, despite decreasing prevalence of leprosy.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1048-1059, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832585

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aim to present a clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia in adults by reviewing and integrating existing clinical guidelines. The purpose of this guideline is to assist clinicians who perform evidence-based insomnia treatment. @*Methods@#We selected literature that may be appropriate for use in guideline development from evidence-based practice guidelines that have been issued by an academic or governmental institution within the last five years. The core question of this guideline was made in sentence form including Patient/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) elements. After searching PubMed, EMBASE, and medical guideline issuing agencies, three guidelines were judged to be the most appropriately reviewed, up-to-date, and from trusted sources. @*Results@#The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II tool was used to evaluate the quality of the three clinical guidelines. The final outcome of the guideline development process is a total of 15 recommendations that report the strength of the recommendation, the quality of evidence, a summary of content, and considerations in applying the recommendation. @*Conclusion@#It is vital for clinical guidelines for insomnia to be developed and continually updated in order to provide more accurate evidence-based treatments to patients.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832397

ABSTRACT

Background@#The value of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and the trabecular bone score (TBS) for assessing osteoporotic fracture risk has not been fully elucidated in Koreans. We conducted this study to clarify the predictive value of FRAX adjusted by TBS for osteoporotic fractures in Korean women. @*Methods@#After screening 7,192 eligible subjects from the Ansung cohort, 1,165 women aged 45 to 76 years with available bone mineral density (BMD) and TBS data were enrolled in this study. We assessed their clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fractures and evaluated the predictive value of FRAX with or without BMD and TBS. @*Results@#During the mean follow-up period of 7.5 years, 99 (8.5%) women suffered major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) and 28 (2.4%) experienced hip fractures. FRAX without BMD, BMD-adjusted FRAX, and TBS-adjusted FRAX were significantly associated with the risk of MOFs (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.14; HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.15; and HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.13, respectively). However, BMD-adjusted FRAX and TBS-adjusted FRAX did not predict MOFs better than FRAX without BMD based on the Harrell’s C statistic. FRAX probabilities showed limited value for predicting hip fractures. The cut-off values of FRAX without BMD, FRAX with BMD, and FRAX with BMD adjusted by TBS for predicting MOFs were 7.2%, 5.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#FRAX with BMD and TBS adjustment did not show better predictive value for osteoporotic fractures in this study than FRAX without adjustment. Moreover, the cut-off values of FRAX probabilities for treatment might be lower in Korean women than in other countries.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831902

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with bone mineral density and type 2 diabetes. We investigated an optimal BMI range for osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008 to 2011. We included 3,774 men aged > 50 years and 4,982 postmenopausal women. Logistic regression models were applied to elucidate each BMI category’s osteoporosis and diabetes risks. @*Results@#The prevalence of osteoporosis was 9.0% for men and 40.8% for women. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in men was 19.7% and in women was 15.5%. In men with BMI > 25 kg/m2, the osteoporosis risk did not further increase as BMI increased. In women, BMI was linearly associated with osteoporosis risk without a plateau. In both men and women, higher BMI was associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk. Men with a BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 harbored about a 30% lower osteoporosis risk than and a similar diabetes risk to those with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 kg/m2. In women with a BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2, the adjusted odds ratio for osteoporosis was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.87); the diabetes risk was not higher than in those with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 kg/m2. @*Conclusions@#For Korean men aged > 50 years and postmenopausal women, a BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 was the optimal range for minimizing osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes risks simultaneously.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836223

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence the consumption of convenience foods among Korean adolescents. @*Methods@#This study had a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 15th (2019) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which involved a nationwide representative sample of 57,303 middle- and high-school students. Convenience-food consumption was defined by frequency of adolescents consuming convenience foods obtained from convenience stores, supermarkets, and cafeterias over the previous 7 days. The analyzed variables were related to sociodemographic, mental health, and health behavior. The Rao-Scott χ2 test was applied to examine the difference in the rate of consuming convenience foods obtained from convenience stores according to each factor. Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors that influence convenience-food consumption among Korean adolescents. @*Results@#It was found that 29.1% of Korean adolescents consumed convenience foods obtained from convenience store more than three times per week. The significant influencing factors were female sex; low subjective academic achievement, and subjective household economic status; high perceived stress; low subjective sleep sufficiency; experience of depression; suicidal ideation; lower physical activity; skipping breakfast; lower consumptions of fruit, milk, and vegetables; higher consumptions of soda drinks, sweet drinks, caffeine, and fast food; lower water intake; current smoking and drinking; drug use; and experience of violence. @*Conclusion@#These findings provide a better understanding of the sociodemographic, mental-health, and health-behavior factors that influence the consumption of convenience foods among Korean adolescents. We suggest that differentiated policies, strategies, and nutrition education need to be developed and implemented, in order to address the above-mentioned factors and thereby reduce such behaviors among Korean adolescents.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835472

ABSTRACT

Background@#Safety evaluation for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning is often overlooked. We developed an automatic consultation system (ACS) to improve the screening rate in these patients. @*Methods@#ACS was developed by the Hospital Information System Development Department of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. It was designed to automatically request pre-MRI cardiac evaluation in patients with CIED when MRI orders are issued. The proportion of the patients without pre-MRI cardiologic evaluation was evaluated before and after the ACS application. @*Results@#From January 2016 to June 2018, a total of 157 patients with CIEDs [pacemaker 136 (86.6%), ICD or CRT-D 21 (13.4%), MR-conditional 117 (74.5%)] visited the MRI facility. Before the ACS application, 23 out of 84 patients (27.4%) did not have adequate pre-MRI cardiologic evaluation. Despite urgent request for pre-MRI cardiac evaluation, MRI examination was postponed or cancelled in 14 (60.8%) cases. After the ACS application, all 73 patients underwent proper cardiologic evaluation before their MRI examinations (P < 0.001). The proportion of immediate request for pre-MRI evaluation at the moment of MRI order also improved with the ACS application (before ACS 57.1%, after ACS 100%, P < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#The newly developed ACS helped the patients with CIED receive MRI scan safely on the schedule, improving the quality of care in this population.

15.
Ultrasonography ; : 376-383, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835349

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Excision of metastatic lesions is an important treatment strategy in patients with malignant melanoma, both at the initial diagnosis and upon recurrence. Since nonpalpable lesions cannot be easily visualized in the surgical field, we evaluated the effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided tattooing using a charcoal suspension for the localization of nonpalpable metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma. @*Methods@#Between November 2009 and June 2019, we retrospectively reviewed 65 nonpalpable lesions in 29 patients with malignant melanoma who underwent preoperative US-guided tattooing using a charcoal suspension for histologically confirmed or suspected metastases. The characteristics of the tattooed lesions were analyzed. The effectiveness of the procedure was evaluated based on the detection rate in the surgical field and the presence or absence of residua on postoperative follow-up US. Procedure-related complications were also analyzed. @*Results@#Of 65 lesions, 33 (50.8%) were histologically confirmed as metastases before the tattooing procedure, while the other 32 were suspected of being metastases based on imaging studies. The mean lesion size was 9.8 mm (range, 1.3 to 24.4 mm). The final pathology revealed metastases in 59 lesions (90.8%), including lymph node (n=51), muscle (n=5), and in-transit (n=3) metastases. Sixty-one lesions (93.8%) were successfully detected intraoperatively and removed without residua on follow-up US. Four residual lesions were removed after repeated localization (n=2) or by intraoperative US (n=2). No relevant complications were noted. @*Conclusion@#Preoperative US-guided tattooing localization can safely and effectively delineate nonpalpable metastatic melanoma lesions to aid in successful surgical excision.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the association of hyperuricemia with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated in the context of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the long-term outcomes of hyperuricemia have not been studied in the case of stable COPD.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed baseline data of 240 men with stable COPD enrolled in the Korea Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. We evaluated associations between serum uric acid levels and clinical parameters, risk factors for all-cause mortality, and acute exacerbation of COPD.RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 66.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up time was 5.9 years. We identified no significant difference in terms of lung function or laboratory findings between patients with hyperuricemia and those without. Serum uric acid level was negatively associated with systemic inflammation indicated by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (r = −0.211, P = 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed hyperuricemia to not be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with stable COPD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.580; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.250–1.370; P = 0.213). In the multivariate Cox regression model, hyperuricemia was not an independent predictor of acute exacerbation (HR, 1.383; 95% CI, 0.977–1.959; P = 0.068).CONCLUSION: Among men with stable COPD, hyperuricemia is not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality or future acute exacerbation of COPD. These results differ from those of previous studies on patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperuricemia , Inflammation , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Male , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uric Acid
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previously, a linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (the Kim model) of propofol with concurrent infusion of remifentanil was developed for children aged 2–12 years. There are few options for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of propofol for children under two years old. We performed an external validation of the Kim model for children under two years old to evaluate whether the model is applicable to this age group.METHODS: Twenty-four children were enrolled. After routine anesthetic induction, a continuous infusion of 2% propofol and remifentanil was commenced using the Kim model. The target effect-site concentration of propofol was set as 2, 3, 4, and 5 μg/mL, followed by arterial blood sampling after 10 min of each equilibrium. Population estimates of four parameters—pooled bias, inaccuracy, divergence, and wobble—were used to evaluate the performance of the Kim model.RESULTS: A total of 95 plasma concentrations were used for evaluation of the Kim model. The population estimate (95% confidence interval) of bias was −0.96% (−8.45%, 6.54%) and that of inaccuracy was 21.0% (15.0%–27.0%) for the plasma concentration of propofol.CONCLUSION: The pooled bias and inaccuracy of the pharmacokinetic predictions are clinically acceptable. Therefore, our external validation of the Kim model indicated that the model can be applicable to target-controlled infusion of propofol in children younger than 2 years, with the recommended use of actual bispectral index monitoring in clinical settings that remifentanil is present. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service Identifier:TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001752

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831567

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are sparse data on the utilization rate of implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD) and its beneficial effects in Korean patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). @*Methods@#Among 5,625 acute heart failure (AHF) patients from 10 tertiary university hospitals across Korea, 485 patients with reassessed LVEF ≤ 35% at least 3 months after the index admission were enrolled in this study. The ICD implantation during the follow-up was evaluated. Mortality was compared between patients with ICDs and age-, sex-, and follow-up duration matched control patients. @*Results@#Among 485 patients potentially indicated for an ICD for primary prevention, only 56 patients (11.5%) underwent ICD implantation during the follow-up. Patients with ICD showed a significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with their matched control population: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 0.39 (0.16–0.92), P = 0.032. The mortality rate was still lower in the ICD group after excluding patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 0.09 [0.01–0.63], P = 0.015).According to the subgroup analysis for ischemic heart failure, there was a significantly lower all-cause mortality in the ICD group than in the no-ICD group (HR [95% CI] = 0.20 [0.06– 0.72], P = 0.013), with a borderline statistical significance (interaction P = 0.069). @*Conclusion@#Follow-up data of this large, multicenter registry suggests a significant underutilization of ICD in Korean heart failure patients with reduced LVEF. Survival analysis implies that previously proven survival benefit of ICD in clinical trials could be extrapolated to Korean patients.

19.
Blood Research ; : S43-S53, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830981

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic strategy for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) integrates a holistic approach regarding patient, disease, and drug-related factors. Patient-related factors include age, frailty status, and underlying comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and renal diseases and peripheral neuropathies that affect tolerability to multiple drug combinations or transplantations. Disease-related factors encompass these multiple patient-related factors, particularly the aggressiveness of the disease and cytogenetics. Regarding drug-related factors, the approval of novel proteasome inhibitors (such as carfilzomib and ixazomib), immunomodulatory agents (such as pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (such as daratumumab and elotuzumab), and new classes of drugs increasingly makes the choice treatment more complex and necessitates a comprehensive summary and an update of the efficacy and toxicities of each antimyeloma drug and its combinations. Further, careful monitoring of the side effects and supportive care throughout the course of treatment are important to achieve better outcomes for patients with RRMM.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830282

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ambu AuraGain and i-gel have different characteristics in design each other. However, few reports evaluate which device has more benefits for ventilation in children undergoing paralyzed general anesthesia. This prospective, randomized controlled trial compared the clinical performance AuraGain and i-gel in anesthetized children. @*Methods@#Children aged between 1 month and 7 years undergoing elective surgery were randomly assigned to the AuraGain and i-gel groups. The primary outcome was initial oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). Secondary outcomes were OLP at 10 min post-insertion, first-attempt and total insertion success rates, number of attempts and ease of gastric suction catheter placement, peak inspiratory pressure, fiberoptic bronchoscopic view score, ventilation quality, requirement of additional manipulation post-insertion, and complications. @*Results@#Data of 93 patients were analyzed. The initial OLPs of the AuraGain and i-gel were 27.5 ± 7.7 and 25.0 ± 8.0 cmH2O, respectively (P = 0.13). The OLP was significantly increased 10 min post-insertion in both groups. The initial success rates of the AuraGain and i-gel insertion were comparable. Suction catheter placement via the gastric port was easier (P = 0.02) and fiberoptic bronchoscopic view was better with the AuraGain (P < 0.001). The i-gel required additional manipulations post-insertion (P = 0.04). The incidence of complications during the emergence period was 2.2% for the i-gel and 10.8% for the AuraGain (P = 0.1) @*Conclusions@#OLP is comparable between AuraGain and i-gel. The AuraGain would be more favorable than the i-gel for use in pediatric patients under general anesthesia considering other outcomes.

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