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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918222

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the usefulness of Silent MR angiography (MRA) for evaluating intracranial aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. @*Materials and Methods@#Ninety-nine patients (101 aneurysms) treated with stent-assisted coil embolization (Neuroform atlas, 71 cases; Enterprise, 17; LVIS Jr, 9; and Solitaire AB, 4 cases) underwent time-of-flight (TOF) MRA and Silent MRA in the same session using a 3T MRI system within 24 hours of embolization. Two radiologists independently interpreted both MRA images retrospectively and rated the image quality using a 5-point Likert scale. The image quality and diagnostic accuracy of the two modalities in the detection of aneurysm occlusion were further compared based on the stent design and the site of aneurysm. @*Results@#The average image quality scores of the Silent MRA and TOF MRA were 4.38 ± 0.83 and 2.78 ± 1.04, respectively (p < 0.001), with an almost perfect interobserver agreement. Silent MRA had a significantly higher image quality score than TOF MRA at the distal internal carotid artery (n = 57, 4.25 ± 0.91 vs. 3.05 ± 1.16, p < 0.001), middle cerebral artery (n = 21, 4.57 ± 0.75 vs. 2.19 ± 0.68, p < 0.001), anterior cerebral artery (n = 13, 4.54 ± 0.66 vs. 2.46 ± 0.66, p < 0.001), and posterior circulation artery (n = 10, 4.50 ± 0.71 vs. 2.90 ± 0.74, p = 0.013). Silent MRA had superior image quality score to TOF MRA in the stented arteries when using Neuroform atlas (4.66 ± 0.53 vs. 3.21 ± 0.84, p < 0.001), Enterprise (3.29 ± 1.59 vs. 1.59 ± 0.51, p = 0.003), LVIS Jr (4.33 ± 1.89 vs. 1.89 ± 0.78, p = 0.033), and Solitaire AB stents (4.00 ± 2.25 vs. 2.25 ± 0.96, p = 0.356). The interpretation of the status of aneurysm occlusion exhibited significantly higher sensitivity with Silent MRA than with TOF MRA when using the Neuroform Atlas stent (96.4% vs. 14.3%, respectively, p < 0.001) and LVIS Jr stent (100% vs. 20%, respectively, p = 0.046). @*Conclusion@#Silent MRA can be useful to evaluate aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, regardless of the aneurysm location and type of stent used.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917672

ABSTRACT

Background@#Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases of the skeletal system, particularly occurring in older adults. Bisphosphonates are frequently used to treat osteoporosis and prevent bone fractures. Studies evaluating the association between treatment with bisphosphonate and the risk of atrial fibrillation have reported conflicting results. This meta-analysis of observational studies was performed to assess this association. @*Methods@#Databases were searched to find relevant observational studies, and the identified articles were selected according to the selection criteria. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis based on various confounding factors were performed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of atrial fibrillation were estimated using a random-effects model. @*Results@#We selected 12 studies, including four case-control and eight cohort studies, for the meta-analysis. Assessment of the estimated effect size yielded an OR of 1.171 (95% CI, 1.011–1.356; P=0.035), with substantial heterogeneity (I 2 =84.74%, P<0.001). When the studies were excluded one-after-another, the pooled OR remained unchanged in only six studies. In addition, subgroup analyses found that treatment with bisphosphonates was positively associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation in studies performed in Western countries (OR, 1.263; 95% CI, 1.092–1.462) and lower-quality studies (OR, 1.214; 95% CI, 1.035–1.423). No publication bias was observed. @*Conclusion@#This meta-analysis showed that treatment with bisphosphonates may be associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, bisphosphonates should be carefully prescribed to patients at a high risk of atrial fibrillation.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915747

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Overlap functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) is associated with more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and lower quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, their overlap in terms of sex and gender, and to assess the risk factors, including genetic polymorphisms. @*Methods@#A total of 494 FGIDs and 239 controls were prospectively enrolled between 2004 and 2020. FGIDs were diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria and symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. Follow-up questionnaires were conducted to determine the change of symptoms during the 75.8-month mean observation period. Risk factors including genetic polymorphisms in neurotransmitter receptor (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, GNB3, ADRA2A, CCKAR, and TRPV1) and cytokine (TNFA and IL10) genes. @*Results@#NERD was more prevalent in men, and functional dyspepsia in women. Overlap FGIDs (n = 239) were more prevalent than nonoverlap FGIDs (n = 255) in women (P = 0.019). Anxiety and depression scores were higher in the overlaps (P = 0.012 and P < 0.001, respectively). Symptoms were more frequent and severe in the overlap FGIDs than in the non-overlaps (P < 0.001). During followup, symptoms progressed more frequently in the overlap FGIDs, especially in patients with the L/S genotype of SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and anxiety/depression. @*Conclusions@#Overlap FGID patients need attention given their association with anxiety/depression and more severe symptoms, especially in women. Genetic polymorphisms also may be associated with certain symptoms of overlap FGIDs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

5.
Mycobiology ; : 275-279, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902755

ABSTRACT

A fungus of the genus Kordyana, found on leaves of Commelina communis and C. minor exhibiting white smut-like symptoms, was identified as Kordyana commelinae based on morphological characteristics and two rDNA sequence analyses. We report the novel occurrence of the genus Kordyana in Korea and the association of K. commelinae with the host plant species. As well, we provide the necessary mycological information to resolve species delimitation and taxonomic problems of Kordyana.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901806

ABSTRACT

Malakoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous disease found in the genitourinary tract, mainly. It is considered to be related to immunosuppression and/or infectious processes. We would like to present an operative case of cecal malakoplakia in a patient with a history of surgical resection and chemotherapy for cervical cancer. A 74-year-old female patient visited our hospital for 1-year follow-up after operation and chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer. An infiltrative mass of 6 cm, between the cecal base and the right psoas muscle, was observed on computed tomography. An ileocectomy was performed for diagnosis. Histopathologic examination revealed cecal malakoplakia. After surgery, based on previous reports, antibiotics therapy was added. Then the patient was discharged and treated in the outpatient clinic. To our knowledge, a rare case has been described of cecal malakoplakia during observation after surgery and chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Malakoplakia is known to be related to immunosuppressive condition. Therefore, our case suggests that close observation should be made in patients on immunosuppressive condition, such as chemotherapy.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900052

ABSTRACT

We present autopsy findings of a 22-year-old man who developed chest pain 5 days after the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and died 7 hours later. Histological examination of the heart revealed isolated atrial myocarditis, with neutrophil and histiocyte predominance.Immunohistochemical C4d staining revealed scattered single-cell necrosis of myocytes which was not accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive contraction band necrosis was observed in the atria and ventricles. There was no evidence of microthrombosis or infection in the heart and other organs. The primary cause of death was determined to be myocarditis, causally-associated with the BNT162b2 vaccine.

8.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 318-323, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896790

ABSTRACT

Background@#Low-level laser (light) therapy is a promising technology that stimulates healing, relieves pain and inflammation, and restores function in injured body parts.However, few studies have compared the effects of lightemitting diodes of different fluence levels or different treatment durations. @*Objective@#Here, we investigated the effects of various fluence levels and treatment durations on wound closure in mice. @*Methods@#Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal skin using an 8-mm diameter punch, and the wounds were irradiated at 1, 4, or 40 J/cm 2 for 5 consecutive days starting on day 1. To determine the optimal irradiation duration, wounds were irradiated at the most potent fluence of previous study for 5, 10, or 15 days. Photographic documentation, skin biopsies, and wound measurements were performed to compare the effects of different treatment parameters. @*Results@#The most effective fluence level was 40 J/cm 2 at day 5, as determined by monitoring wound closure. There were no statistically significant differences in wound healing with different durations. @*Conclusion@#We have shown that repeated exposure to low levels of light significantly stimulates wound healing in mice and demonstrated more efficient wound closure with certain fluences of 830 nm irradiation.

9.
Mycobiology ; : 275-279, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895051

ABSTRACT

A fungus of the genus Kordyana, found on leaves of Commelina communis and C. minor exhibiting white smut-like symptoms, was identified as Kordyana commelinae based on morphological characteristics and two rDNA sequence analyses. We report the novel occurrence of the genus Kordyana in Korea and the association of K. commelinae with the host plant species. As well, we provide the necessary mycological information to resolve species delimitation and taxonomic problems of Kordyana.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894102

ABSTRACT

Malakoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous disease found in the genitourinary tract, mainly. It is considered to be related to immunosuppression and/or infectious processes. We would like to present an operative case of cecal malakoplakia in a patient with a history of surgical resection and chemotherapy for cervical cancer. A 74-year-old female patient visited our hospital for 1-year follow-up after operation and chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer. An infiltrative mass of 6 cm, between the cecal base and the right psoas muscle, was observed on computed tomography. An ileocectomy was performed for diagnosis. Histopathologic examination revealed cecal malakoplakia. After surgery, based on previous reports, antibiotics therapy was added. Then the patient was discharged and treated in the outpatient clinic. To our knowledge, a rare case has been described of cecal malakoplakia during observation after surgery and chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Malakoplakia is known to be related to immunosuppressive condition. Therefore, our case suggests that close observation should be made in patients on immunosuppressive condition, such as chemotherapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892348

ABSTRACT

We present autopsy findings of a 22-year-old man who developed chest pain 5 days after the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and died 7 hours later. Histological examination of the heart revealed isolated atrial myocarditis, with neutrophil and histiocyte predominance.Immunohistochemical C4d staining revealed scattered single-cell necrosis of myocytes which was not accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates. Extensive contraction band necrosis was observed in the atria and ventricles. There was no evidence of microthrombosis or infection in the heart and other organs. The primary cause of death was determined to be myocarditis, causally-associated with the BNT162b2 vaccine.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917830

ABSTRACT

Hypoplastic coronary artery disease (HCAD) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by underdevelopment of one or more major branches of the coronary arteries, which may lead to myocardial infarction and sudden death. We report a case of HCAD that was incidentally detected during autopsy in a 25-year-old male soldier who died during underwater escape training. On macroscopic examination, the right coronary artery measured 1 mm in diameter, which was significantly smaller than that of other coronary arteries. We observed no anomalies in addition to HCAD. Death was attributed to drowning, which was consistent with autopsy findings and the circumstances of death. Although extremely rare, if sudden cardiac death is suspected in children and young adults, it must be confirmed through careful evaluation.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914840

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota interacts with the host gut environment, which is influenced by such factors as sex, age, and host diet. These factors induce changes in the microbial composition. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiome of Fisher-344 (F344) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), depending on their age and sex. Fecal microbiomes from 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old, and 2-year-old both male and female rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans) were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states, and enterotype (E) assessment. Moreover, the effect of an HFD on colonic epithelial cells was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. Alpha diversity decreased in the HFD group regardless of age and sex. Based on the enterotype clustering of the whole fecal microbiome, clusters from male rats were divided into E1 and E2 enterotypes, while clusters from female rats were divided into E1, E2, and E3 enterotypes. The female E3 group showed a significantly high abundance in the Ruminococcus genus and expression of Tlr2 mRNA, which may reflect compensation to the HFD. Moreover, the female E3 group showed a lower ratio of opportunistic pathogenic strains to commensal strains compared to the female E2 group. Administration of an HFD influenced the rat fecal microbiota in all assessed age groups, which could be further differentiated by sex. In particular, female rats showed a compensatory enterotype response to an HFD compared to male rats.

14.
Health Communication ; (2): 7-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914421

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The purpose of this study was to identify the degrees of cultural empathy, cultural competence and nursing professionalism and to investigate the mediating effect of cultural competence between cultural empathy and nursing professionalism in nursing students. @*Methods@#: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 139 participants was surveyed using a self-report questionnaires including general charactericis, a cultural empathy questionnaire, a cultural competence scale, and a nursing professionalism scale. The descriptive statistics, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and a mediating effect analyses were used for data analysis. @*Results@#: The average score of cultural empathy, cultural competence, and nursing professionalism were 3.86, 3.59, and 4.00, respectively. Positive correlations among cultural empathy, cultural competence, and nursing professionalism were noted. Cultural competence showed a significant mediating effect on the relationships between emotional empathy and nursing professionalism and the relationship between cognitive empathy and nursing professionalism. @*Conclusion@#: Nursing students must recognize the necessity of multicultural nursing through multicultural education. Nursing students should have a nursing professional intuition capable of assessing and solving problems in subjects with diverse cultural backgrounds by encouraging cultural empathy and cultural competence for multiculturalism.

15.
Health Communication ; (2): 75-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914414

ABSTRACT

Background@#: This study was to investigate the factors associated with nurse’s character of nursing students. @*Methods@#: The subjects in this study were 211 nursing students of 3 university, in 2 regions of South Korea. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires from March 2 to April 30, 2019, and analyzed using the IBM SPSS Win 25.0 program. @*Results@#: The significant predictors on nurse ‘s character of nursing students were nursing professionalism (β=.36), self-leadership (β=.34) and learning flow (β=.19). Theses variables explained 41.7% of the variance in nurse’s character of nursing students. @*Conclusion@#: These results highlight the importance of nurse’s character and can be used as meaningful data for intervention research to promote the self-leadership and learning flow.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913931

ABSTRACT

Red ginseng (RG) exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory effects on endometriosis through the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression. It may also ameliorate endometriosis by affecting the expression of multiple miRNAs simultaneously, rather than acting on a single miRNA at a given time. Since studies on the overall effects of RG on endometriosis via the regulation of miRNA expression are lacking, the current study aimed to explore the global effect of RG on miRNA expression in a mouse model of endometriosis. Methods: To establish the mouse model, the uterine horn of donor mice was implanted into the lateral side of the recipients’ peritoneum, followed by vehicle or RG treatment for 8 weeks. Results: To confirm the effects of RG on the established mouse model, the size of the implanted uterus was measured; it was found to be lower in mice from the RG group than in mice from the control group. miRNA expression profiles in the implanted uterus of the mouse model of endometriosis after vehicle or RG administration were analyzed using microarray technology. Thereafter, seven candidate miRNAs and 125 candidate genes (miRNA targets) were identified through a bioinformatics analysis. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that RG regulates the expression of multiple miRNAs and mRNAs, thereby alleviating endometriosis in a mouse model of the disease.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913484

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sphingosine kinase is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates sphingosine to generate sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). S1P regulates pancreatic islet β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress and proliferation. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share some key pathogenic processes. In this study, we investigated whether secretion of insulin and production of S1P is altered in alloxan and glucose-treated cells from the rat pancreatic β-cell line RIN-5F. @*Methods@#RIN-5F cells were treated with 2 mM alloxan and 20 mM glucose for 6 hours or 24 hours before being evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. @*Results@#Insulin secretion and expression was higher in RIN-5F cells treated with glucose compared to control cells. In contrast, alloxan treatment did not affect insulin secretion and expression in RIN-5F cells. Interestingly, compared with normal control levels, S1P/EDG-5 was increased in both alloxan and glucose-treated pancreatic β cell than normal control. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) inhibition strongly decreased the expression of insulin and S1P in glucose- or alloxan-treated RIN-5F cells. @*Conclusion@#We observe that production of S1P is increased in both diabetic cell models. In addition, MAPK/ERK signaling regulates secretion of insulin and S1P expression in pancreatic β-cells. Based on the literature and our findings, S1P may be a promising agent for the treatment of insulin-related disorders.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874858

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples.The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging. @*Methods@#Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology.Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate—acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase—were not predicted by PICRUSt. @*Conclusions@#Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats.Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age.

19.
Gut and Liver ; : 253-261, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874593

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to characterize the changes in the gut microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to investigate the consequent alterations in bacterial functions. @*Methods@#We performed 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing and a phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analyses using fecal samples from control (n=12) and diarrhea-dominant IBS patients (n=7). @*Results@#The samples were clustered by the principal coordinates analysis depending on the presence of IBS (p=0.003). In the IBS patients, the abundances of Acidaminococcaceae, Sutterellaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae were significantly increased, while those of Enterococcaceae, Leuconostocaceae, Clostridiaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased. The PICRUSt results indicated that two orthologues involved in secondary bile acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased in IBS patients. Modules involved in multidrug resistance, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, the reductive citrate cycle, and the citrate cycle were significantly increased in the IBS patients. In contrast, modules involved in cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, and some transport systems were more abundant in controls than in IBS patients. @*Conclusions@#Changes in the gut microbiota composition in IBS patients lead to alterations in bacterial functions, such as bile acid transformation and the induction of inflammation, which is a known pathophysiological mechanism of IBS.

20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 318-323, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889086

ABSTRACT

Background@#Low-level laser (light) therapy is a promising technology that stimulates healing, relieves pain and inflammation, and restores function in injured body parts.However, few studies have compared the effects of lightemitting diodes of different fluence levels or different treatment durations. @*Objective@#Here, we investigated the effects of various fluence levels and treatment durations on wound closure in mice. @*Methods@#Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal skin using an 8-mm diameter punch, and the wounds were irradiated at 1, 4, or 40 J/cm 2 for 5 consecutive days starting on day 1. To determine the optimal irradiation duration, wounds were irradiated at the most potent fluence of previous study for 5, 10, or 15 days. Photographic documentation, skin biopsies, and wound measurements were performed to compare the effects of different treatment parameters. @*Results@#The most effective fluence level was 40 J/cm 2 at day 5, as determined by monitoring wound closure. There were no statistically significant differences in wound healing with different durations. @*Conclusion@#We have shown that repeated exposure to low levels of light significantly stimulates wound healing in mice and demonstrated more efficient wound closure with certain fluences of 830 nm irradiation.

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