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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890390

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIt is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM.MethodsA total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire.ResultsThe percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, PP=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; PConclusionThe current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874521

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated. @*Results@#In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898094

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIt is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM.MethodsA total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire.ResultsThe percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, PP=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; PConclusionThe current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832421

ABSTRACT

Background@#Few studies have examined the relationship of sarcopenia with the microcirculation. The current study investigated the relationship of sarcopenia with microcirculatory function, as assessed by skin perfusion pressure (SPP), in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. @*Methods@#In total, 102 T2DM patients who underwent SPP measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. SPP was assessed using the laser Doppler technique. Sarcopenia was defined as low height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass (men, 50 mm Hg), and an SPP below 50 mm Hg was considered to reflect impaired microcirculation. @*Results@#Fourteen patients (13.7%) were diagnosed with impaired microcirculatory function of the lower limb based on SPP. The prevalence of sarcopenia in all subjects was 11.8%, but the percentage of patients with an SPP ≤50 mm Hg who had sarcopenia was more than triple that of patients with an SPP >50 mm Hg (28.6% vs. 9.1%, P=0.036). A significant positive correlation was found between SPP and appendicular muscle mass adjusted for height (P=0.041 for right-sided SPP). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patients with sarcopenia had an odds ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 24.9) for having an SPP ≤50 mm Hg even after adjustment for confounding factors. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that sarcopenia may be significantly associated with impaired microcirculation in patients with T2DM. Nonetheless, the small number of patients and wide CI require cautious interpretation of the results.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832407

ABSTRACT

It is well known that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) complications. Previously, the concept that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a “coronary artery disease (CAD) risk equivalent” was widely accepted, implying that all DM patients should receive intensive management. However, considerable evidence exist for wide heterogeneity in the risk of CV events among T2DM patients and the concept of a “CAD risk equivalent” has changed. Recent guidelines recommend further CV risk stratification in T2DM patients, with treatment tailored to the risk level. Although imaging modalities for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have been used to improve risk prediction, there is currently no evidence that imaging-oriented therapy improves clinical outcomes. Therefore, controversy remains whether we should screen for CVD in asymptomatic T2DM. The coexistence of T2DM and heart failure (HF) is common. Based on recent CV outcome trials, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists are recommended who have established ASCVD, indicators of high risk, or HF because of their demonstrated benefits for CVD. These circumstances have led to an increasing emphasis on ASCVD and HF in T2DM patients. In this review, we examine the literature published within the last 5 years on the risk assessment of CVD in asymptomatic T2DM patients. In particular, we review recent guidelines regarding screening for CVD and research focusing on the role of coronary artery calcium, coronary computed tomography angiography, and carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic T2DM patients.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832342

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM.The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. @*Results@#The percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, P<0.001). In the subscale results, stimulus values at 2,000 Hz, hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia were more common in the poor sleep quality group than in the good sleep quality group (45.7% vs. 25.0%, P=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk remains increased despite optimal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level induced by intensive statin therapy. Therefore, recent guidelines recommend non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a secondary target for preventing cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) in combination with atorvastatin compared to atorvastatin alone in patients with mixed dyslipidemia.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, and phase III multicenter study included adults with fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥200 and <500 mg/dL and LDL-C levels <110 mg/dL. Eligible subjects were randomized to ATOMEGA (OM3-FAs 4,000 mg plus atorvastatin calcium 20 mg) or atorvastatin 20 mg plus placebo groups. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent changes in TG and non-HDL-C levels from baseline at the end of treatment.RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, the percent changes from baseline in TG (−29.8% vs. 3.6%, P<0.001) and non-HDL-C (−10.1% vs. 4.9%, P<0.001) levels were significantly greater in the ATOMEGA group (n=97) than in the atorvastatin group (n=103). Moreover, the proportion of total subjects reaching TG target of <200 mg/dL in the ATOMEGA group was significantly higher than that in the atorvastatin group (62.9% vs. 22.3%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The addition of OM3-FAs to atorvastatin improved TG and non-HDL-C levels to a significant extent compared to atorvastatin alone in subjects with residual hypertriglyceridemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Incidence , Lipoproteins , Triglycerides
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: More than 50% of diagnostic surgery in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules revealed benign nodules of which nodular hyperplasia (NH) accounted for about half. Preoperative exclusion of NH may decrease diagnostic surgery. We aimed to study the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate follicular neoplasm (FN) from NH in follicular lesions of thyroid nodules. METHODS: We analyzed the data from 61 patients who underwent SWE before ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) from August 2016 to May 2018 and CNB results were FN (n=19) and NH (n=42). We analyzed the magnitude of elasticity index (EI) and patterns of high EI area (EI >36 kPa). The patterns of high EI area was classified as marginal pattern (high EI areas are restricted in the outer 1/3 of the nodule) and traversing pattern (high EI areas approaching further to the center of the nodule within inner 2/3 of the nodule). RESULTS: The E(Max), E(Mean), E(SD), and percent of high EI area were significantly lower in FN than NH (P<0.001). The diagnostic performance to predict FN showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 95%, 90%, and 92% by E(Max) <42.1 kPa, and of 95%, 79%, and 84% by E(Mean) <23.5 kPa, and of 89%, 93%, and 92% by marginal pattern of high EI area, respectively. CONCLUSION: Novel diagnostic criteria of E(Max) less than 42.1 kPa and marginal pattern of high EI area on SWE can predict FN with high diagnostic accuracy, waiving diagnostic surgery of NH in indeterminate cytology.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Elasticity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Hyperplasia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are expected to improve the liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) combined type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by its characteristic mechanism. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dapagliflozin, one of the SGLT2i, on the liver function of T2DM with NAFLD when combined with metformin. METHODS: Among patients who received dual oral hypoglycemic agents within the 3 months of diagnosing NAFLD, patients who had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (>40 IU/L) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: metformin+dapagliflozin group and metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) group. Demographic data, biochemical data and the clinical and treatment histories of all patients were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included (dapagliflozin group, n=50; DPP4i group, n=52). Dapagliflozin group showed more weight loss and more ALT decline than DPP4i group (−2.9 kg vs. −0.4 kg, P=0.005; −21.1 U/L vs. −9.5 U/L, P=0.008, respectively) and the proportion of patients with ALT normalization after treatment was also significantly higher in the dapagliflozin group (80.0% vs. 61.5%, P=0.041). The effect of dapagliflozin with metformin on ALT normalization remained significant after adjustment for confounding variables including body weight loss (odds ratio, 3.489; P=0.046). CONCLUSION: ALT improvement was statistically significant in the dapagliflozin than the DPP4i when combined with metformin and the result was consistent after adjustment for confounding variables including body weight loss.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alanine , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Liver , Metformin , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Weight Loss
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 216-219, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713787

ABSTRACT

Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a distinct subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus that is characterized by sudden, complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells at the disease onset. Since the disease was first described in 2000 in Japan, a number of case reports have also been published in Korea. However, this disease entity is still not well defined. A 48-year old man with no medical history was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis. Fulminant type 1 diabetes was diagnosed and he was discharged with multiple insulin injections. His serum glucose level was well controlled in the outpatient clinic. A month later, diabetic ketoacidosis occurred again following a diagnostic colonoscopy. This case suggests that fulminant type 1 diabetes is an aggressive disease in which small stimuli can provoke ketoacidosis. Therefore, for tests that require fasting, close observation by medical staff and patient education about the disease is essential.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Blood Glucose , Colonoscopy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Fasting , Humans , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Japan , Ketosis , Korea , Medical Staff , Patient Education as Topic
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones can influence energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity via their interaction with adipocytokines and gut hormones. The aims of this study were to evaluate differences in serum ghrelin and leptin concentrations according to thyroid hormone levels, and to investigate the correlation of insulin resistance. METHODS: A total of 154 patients (57 hyperthyroid patients, 61 euthyroid patients, and 36 hypothyroid patients; mean age, 47.9 years) were enrolled. Serum leptin, ghrelin, and insulin levels were measured and insulin resistance was calculated using the formula of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: There were no differences in mean concentrations of ghrelin or leptin among the three groups. There were no significant differences in insulin levels between the groups (P=0.06), although hyperthyroid patients had borderline statistically significantly higher levels of insulin than did euthyroid subjects by post hoc test (26.4 microIU/mL vs. 16.1 microIU/mL, P=0.057). Regarding HOMA-IR index, the mean levels were highest in the hyperthyroid group among those of the three groups (hyperthyroid vs. euthyroid vs. hypothyroid, 6.7 vs. 3.8 vs. 4.4, P=0.068). Plasma levels of ghrelin were significantly negatively correlated with age, insulin, glucose, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA-IR. Plasma levels of leptin showed significant positive correlation with BMI and triglyceride. There were no significant correlations among thyroid hormone, thyrotropin, ghrelin, leptin, or insulin. CONCLUSION: The present study found that serum ghrelin, leptin, and insulin levels didn't differ according to thyroid function conditions. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required to establish a direct relationship between plasma ghrelin, leptin, and thyroid hormone.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Body Mass Index , Energy Metabolism , Ghrelin , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Leptin , Plasma , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Triglycerides
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study prospectively evaluated postthyroidectomy syndrome (PTS) through objective and subjective voice changes following thyroidectomy of open vs. endoscopic thyroidectomy. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial (SCHBC IRB 09 26) was performed from Jan 2008 to Aug 2010 to compare the open thyroidectomy (OPEN group) and endoscopic thyroidectomy (ENDO group). Of the 110 patients, 75 completed the evaluation before and 1 and 6 months after surgery. Subjective parameters included perceptual analysis (GRBAS [grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain] scale), stroboscopic or flexible fiberscopic analysis, voice handicap index, and 5-point visual analog scales for vocal fatigue, singing difficulty, difficulty with high-pitch phonation, and neck discomfort. Objective parameters included acoustic, aerodynamic analysis and the electroglottograph. RESULTS: For the ENDO group (n=36), the operation time was longer than in the OPEN group (n=39; P<0.01). For the OPEN group, two objective and five subjective parameters were worse 1 month postoperatively; of these, two subjective parameters persisted for 6 months (P<0.05). For the ENDO group, three objective and six subjective parameters were worse 1 month postoperatively, and three of the subjective parameters persisted 6 months postoperatively (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: PTS really exists following simple thyroidectomy and are very common for both OPEN and ENDO groups. Most of the parameters improved gradually over time, but some subjective changes persisted 6 months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Asthenia , Ethics Committees, Research , Fatigue , Humans , Neck , Phonation , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Singing , Thyroidectomy , Visual Analog Scale , Voice , Voice Quality
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid incidentalomas detected by 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) have been reported in 1% to 4% of the population, with a risk of malignancy of 27.8% to 74%. We performed a retrospective review of FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas in cancer screening subjects and patients with nonthyroid cancer. The risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentaloma and its association with the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in 18F-FDG PET/CT were evaluated to define the predictor variables in assessing risk of malignancy. METHODS: A total of 2,584 subjects underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for metastatic evaluation or cancer screening from January 2005 to January 2010. Among them, 36 subjects with FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas underwent further diagnostic evaluation (thyroid ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology [FNAC] or surgical resection). We retrospectively reviewed the database of these subjects. RESULTS: Of the 2,584 subjects who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT (319 for cancer screening and 2,265 for metastatic evaluation), 52 (2.0%) were identified as having FDG-avid thyroid incidentaloma and cytologic diagnosis was obtained by FNAC in 36 subjects. Of the subjects, 15 were proven to have malignant disease: 13 by FNAC and two by surgical resection. The positive predictive value of malignancy in FDG-avid thyroid incidentaloma was 41.7%. Median SUVmax was higher in malignancy than in benign lesions (4.7 [interquartile range (IQR), 3.4 to 6.0] vs. 2.8 [IQR, 2.6 to 4.0], P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Thyroid incidentalomas found on 18F-FDG PET/CT have a high risk of malignancy, with a positive predictive value of 41.7%. FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas with higher SUVmax tended to be malignant.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Electrons , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Incidental Findings , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 715-724, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159381

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (vit-D) is essential for bone health, although many osteoporosis patients have low levels of 25-hydroxy-vit-D [25(OH)D]. This randomized, open-label study compared the effects of once weekly alendronate 70 mg containing 5600 IU vit-D3 (ALN/D5600) to alendronate 70 mg without additional vit-D (ALN) on the percent of patients with vit-D insufficiency [25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, primary endpoint] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, secondary endpoint) levels in postmenopausal, osteoporotic Korean women. Neuromuscular function was also measured. A total of 268 subjects were randomized. Overall, 35% of patients had vit-D insufficiency at baseline. After 16-weeks, there were fewer patients with vit-D insufficiency in the ALN/D5600 group (1.47%) than in the ALN group (41.67%) (p<0.001). Patients receiving ALN/D5600 compared with ALN were at a significantly decreased risk of vit-D insufficiency [odds ratio=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08]. In the ALN/D5600 group, significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed at weeks 8 (9.60 ng/mL) and 16 (11.41 ng/mL), where as a significant decrease was recorded in the ALN group at week 16 (-1.61 ng/mL). By multiple regression analysis, major determinants of increases in serum 25(OH)D were ALN/D5600 administration, seasonal variation, and baseline 25(OH)D. The least squares mean percent change from baseline in serum PTH in the ALN/D5600 group (8.17%) was lower than that in the ALN group (29.98%) (p=0.0091). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in neuromuscular function. Overall safety was similar between groups. In conclusion, the administration of 5600 IU vit-D in the ALN/D5600 group improved vit-D status and reduced the magnitude of PTH increase without significant side-effects after 16 weeks in Korean osteoporotic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alendronate/adverse effects , Cholecalciferol/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas discovered by computed tomography (CT) and to investigate metabolic features of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) in patients with adrenal incidentalomas in a tertiary hospital in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective study examined the clinical aspects of 268 patients with adrenal incidentalomas discovered by CT at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital. Clinical data and endocrine function of the patients as well as histological findings were obtained from medical records, while anatomic characteristics were analyzed by reviewing imaging studies. Hormonal tests for pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and aldosterone-secreting adenoma were performed. RESULTS: Most (n=218, 81.3%) cases were nonfunctioning tumors. Of the 50 patients with functioning tumors (18.7%), 19 (7.1%) were diagnosed with SCS, nine (3.4%) with overt Cushing's syndrome, 12 (4.5%) with primary aldosteronism, and 10 (3.7%) with pheochromocytoma. Malignant tumors (both primary and metastatic) were rare (n=2, 0.7%). Body mass index, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and total cholesterol were significantly higher in patients with SCS in comparison with those with nonfunctioning tumors. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SCS compared with those with nonfunctioning tumors. CONCLUSION: Functioning tumors, especially those with subclinical cortisol excess, are commonly found in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, although malignancy is rare. In addition, patients with SCS in adrenal incidentalomas have adverse metabolic and cardiovascular profiles.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Cushing Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension , Korea , Medical Records , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165837

ABSTRACT

A 38-year-old female presented with abdominal pain, radiating to her back. Her medical history included type 2 diabetes, which had been uncontrolled for 8 months. Her initial laboratory tests showed marked hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and elevated serum amylase and lipase levels, although the results were inconclusive in terms of a direct diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Abdominal computed tomography showed only minimal fluid collection at the pancreas tail. As her serum triglyceride (TG) level was 9,884 mg/dL, we made a working diagnosis of AP due to hypertriglyceridemia, and she was treated with massive hydration with an insulin infusion. Subsequently, she recovered rapidly from the abdominal pain, her serum glucose was controlled, and her serum TG decreased. Hypertriglyceridemia is a well-accepted underlying cause of AP. When extremely high hypertriglyceridemia is detected in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome, complications should be considered and managed.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Acidosis , Adult , Amylases , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypertriglyceridemia , Insulin , Lipase , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Triglycerides
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 347-351, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63187

ABSTRACT

Cardiogenic shock after stress-induced cardiomyopathy is very rare and serious, and a reversible, clinical consequence of untreated adrenal insufficiency that is attributable to Sheehan's syndrome. A 53-year-old female presented with confusion, congestive heart failure, and hypotension. Endocrine testing, prior medical history, and brain MRI confirmed the presence of hypopituitarism and secondary adrenal insufficiency owing to undiagnosed Sheehan's syndrome. After glucocorticoid replacement therapy, her cardiac function recovered completely. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy should be considered as a possible cause of unexplained heart failure in patients with Sheehan's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , Brain , Cardiomyopathies , Female , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypopituitarism , Hypotension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Shock, Cardiogenic
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95061

ABSTRACT

Primary empty sella syndrome is a phenomenon caused by cerebrospinal fluid filling resulting from the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella. The pituitary function of primary empty sella syndrome is usually normal. But sometimes this syndrome causes some degree of pituitary dysfunction associated with hypersecretion or deficiency of pituitary hormone. Central diabetes insipidus with primary empty sella syndrome is rarely reported. Furthermore, most of those cases are accompanied by other pituitary dysfunction. We report here on a 35-year-old female who suffered from polyuria, polydipsia since childhood. She was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus with primary empty sella syndrome. She had no anterior pituitary dysfunction except mild hyperprolactinemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic , Empty Sella Syndrome , Female , Humans , Hyperprolactinemia , Polydipsia , Polyuria , Subarachnoid Space
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23613

ABSTRACT

Metastasis to the primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report here a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 53-yr old man with a history of colon cancer. He showed a nodular lesion, suggesting malignancy in the thyroid gland, in a follow-up examination after colon cancer surgery. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland showed tumor cell clusters, which was suspected to be medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Using several specific immunohistochemical stains, the patient was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to MTC. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient is the first case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to MTC. Although tumor-tumor metastasis to primary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, we still should consider metastasis to the thyroid gland, when a patient with a history of other malignancy presents with a new thyroid finding.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma, Medullary/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Second Primary/diagnosis , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis
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