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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 513-521, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967061

ABSTRACT

The apocrine morphology of the breast is observed in a broad pathological spectrum, ranging from benign cysts to invasive carcinomas. However, the number of clinical research investigating malignant apocrine lesions is limited. This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with malignant apocrine lesions admitted in a tertiary center between January 2004 and December 2021, based on the radiology-pathology correlation and the recent advances in their status to enhance the therapeutic implications of androgen receptor (AR). Among the 37 patients with lesions, 27 (73.0%) had triple-negative subtypes with predominant AR expression. The radiological features of malignant apocrine lesions did not differ from those of typical invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. This study demonstrated that knowledge on the imaging features of malignant apocrine lesions and their histological basis could enhance the adoption of new targeted therapies in patients with this particular type of breast cancer.

2.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 971-976, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901305

ABSTRACT

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are relatively rare fibroepithelial tumors that account for less than 1% of primary breast neoplasms. Phyllodes tumors have epithelial and stromal components and they originate from the periductal stroma. They are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Carcinomatous differentiation of the epithelial components of phyllodes tumors is rare, and their imaging features have not been accurately described. Herein, we report a rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma originating from a borderline phyllodes tumor in a 21-yearold female with radiologic and pathologic findings.

4.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874885

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898999

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

6.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 971-976, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893601

ABSTRACT

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are relatively rare fibroepithelial tumors that account for less than 1% of primary breast neoplasms. Phyllodes tumors have epithelial and stromal components and they originate from the periductal stroma. They are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Carcinomatous differentiation of the epithelial components of phyllodes tumors is rare, and their imaging features have not been accurately described. Herein, we report a rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma originating from a borderline phyllodes tumor in a 21-yearold female with radiologic and pathologic findings.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891295

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 71-76, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937778

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intraoperative frozen section analysis to assess margin status during breast-conserving surgery is often performed to reduce the rate of re-excision. Whether additional resection is required if atypical cells are found at the margin during breast-conserving surgery is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen section analysis and investigate the feasibility of additional resection in cases of atypical hyperplasia on frozen sections from breast-conserving surgery. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 1,411 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery between July 2004 and June 2012. The microscopic margins of the intraoperative frozen sections and permanent sections were examined. Overall events (locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis) were analyzed between the negative margin group and the other margin group (including atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ [CIS], and invasive carcinoma). @*Results@#Of the 1,411 patients, 1,201 had negative margins and 210 had other margin types in the first frozen section. 68 patients had atypical hyperplasia on frozen section analysis. This atypical hyperplasia included atypical cells, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and atypical lobular hyperplasia. Of these 68 patients, the final findings on the permanent section were negative (n=32, 47.1%), atypical cells (n=16, 23.5%), and CIS (n=20, 29.4%). The rate of overall events and distant metastases were higher in the other margin group (9.5% vs. 5.4%, p=0.021) and (5.7% vs. 3.0%, p=0.045). Of the 1,411 patients, 44 (3.1%) had false-positive findings, and 15 (1.1%) had false-negative findings in the frozen sections, with an accuracy of 95.8%. @*Conclusion@#The accuracy of intraoperative frozen section analysis was 95.8%, with 91.7% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity. Atypical hyperplasia on frozen section analysis requires additional resection at the time of breast-conserving surgery because of the possibility of CIS, but excessive resection may be performed in other cases. Therefore, sufficient consultation with patients is required.

9.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 88-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937775

ABSTRACT

Adenoma of the nipple is a rare benign type of breast that occurs most often in middle-aged women with nipple discharge, skin erosion in addition to crusting, inflammation, and pain. It can be clinically confused with Paget’s disease or breast cancer precursor lesions, such as ductal carcinoma in situ low grade. The treatment of choice for nipple adenoma is complete excision of the tumor. However in younger women, nipple preservation is required. We present two cases of nipple adenoma that were completely removed with nipple preservation.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 320-325, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914818

ABSTRACT

Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast is a relatively rare fibroepithelial tumor that accounts for < 1% of primary breast neoplasms. PT is classified histologically as benign, borderline, or malignant, and a malignant PT has greater potential to metastasize than benign PT.Although almost all other organs can be affected, common metastatic sites are the lung and bone via the hematogenous route. There have been several studies reporting cutaneous and soft tissue metastases of PT, though the incidence is rare. Herein, we report a very rare case of scalp metastasis of malignant PT that was diagnosed via skin biopsy and surgical excision.

11.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 129-133, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899016

ABSTRACT

Breast hamartoma is a rare benign tumor that comprises lobular breast tissues with various admixtures of fibrous, fibrocystic, and adipose tissue. Hamartoma accounts for 0.7%-5.0% of all benign breast tumors. Myoid hamartoma is an extremely rare variant of mammary hamartoma characterized by the presence of smooth muscle component. Herein, we report a case of myoid hamartoma showing irregular margins and microcalcifications with a literature review.

12.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 129-133, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891312

ABSTRACT

Breast hamartoma is a rare benign tumor that comprises lobular breast tissues with various admixtures of fibrous, fibrocystic, and adipose tissue. Hamartoma accounts for 0.7%-5.0% of all benign breast tumors. Myoid hamartoma is an extremely rare variant of mammary hamartoma characterized by the presence of smooth muscle component. Herein, we report a case of myoid hamartoma showing irregular margins and microcalcifications with a literature review.

13.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 142-149, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741315

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the origin of epiretinal proliferation (EP), a condition that is occasionally observed in lamellar hole and macular hole cases, and EP outcomes after vitrectomy. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case review of 17 eyes with EP that underwent vitrectomy, EP dissection, and internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2013 and December 2016. Surgical specimens of EP tissue were successfully obtained from 5 cases and they were analyzed after immunohistochemical staining. Postoperative outcomes, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and macular configuration in spectral domain-optical coherence tomography, were reviewed. RESULTS: Mean BCVA improved from 0.54 ± 0.36 logarithms of the minimum angle of resolution preoperatively to 0.32 ± 0.38 logarithms of the minimum angle of resolution postoperatively (p = 0.002). BCVA improved in 13 eyes and remained unchanged in four eyes. No cases experienced vision decline after surgery. All 17 patients' lamellar hole or macular hole were successfully closed. Despite hole closure, ellipsoid zone defects were not corrected in 11 of the 17 patients. In immunohistochemical analyses, anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and pan-keratin (AE1/AE3) were positive, but synaptophysin, anti-α-smooth muscle actin, and anti-CD68 were negative. CONCLUSIONS: The epiretinal proliferative membrane seems to originate from Müller cells, not from the vitreous. It is unclear whether retinal pigment epithelia also contribute to EP formation. Gentle handling and preservation of the epiretinal proliferative tissue is crucial for successful surgical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actins , Membranes , Prognosis , Retinal Perforations , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Synaptophysin , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
14.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 57-65, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVC) is generally accepted as the standard therapy for induction treatment of active proliferative lupus nephritis (LN), several clinical trials have suggested that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is at least as effective as IVC. Because few Asian studies have compared the two treatment modalities, we compared the efficacies of MMF and IVC as LN remission induction treatments in Korean patients. METHODS: We enrolled 39 patients with class III and IV LN who received MMF or IVC as LN induction therapy. The renal outcomes (i.e., complete response [CR], partial response [PR], and no response [NR]) at 6 and 12 months were defined using the ACR 2006 response criteria. RESULTS: Of 39 patients, 23 (59.0%) were treated with IVC, and 16 (41.0%) were treated with MMF. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and adverse events did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, C3 levels were lower and activity scores in renal biopsy were higher in IVC-treated patients. CRs were achieved by 11 (47.8%) of the patients receiving IVC and 7 (43.8%) of the patients receiving MMF after 6 months of treatment (p=0.961) and by 11 (47.8%) of those who received IVC and 9 (56.2%) of those who received MMF at 12 months of treatment (p=0.713). Neither the PR rate nor the NR rate differed significantly at 6 or 12 months between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of MMF does not differ from that of IVC in terms of induction of LN remission in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Biopsy , Cyclophosphamide , Demography , Lupus Nephritis , Mycophenolic Acid , Remission Induction
15.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 420-424, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741196

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Breast , Carcinoma, Lobular , Collagen
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 314-318, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83448

ABSTRACT

The development of ectopic breast tissue is attributable to the failure of primitive mammary tissue to regress after the development of the mammary ridge, except at pectoral breast sites, and is most often evident in the axillae. Several benign and malignant breast diseases have been reported in ectopic axillary breast tissues. The most common cancerous pathology of ectopic breast tissue is invasive ductal carcinoma. Ectopic breast cancer presenting with simultaneous primary cancer of the pectoral breast is extremely rare. Herein, we report an invasive micropapillary carcinoma of an axillary ectopic breast, combined with a synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ in the contralateral pectoral breast of a 61-year-old woman.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Axilla , Breast Diseases , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Choristoma , Pathology
17.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 418-421, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184096

ABSTRACT

Microglandular adenosis (MGA) of the breast is a rare, benign proliferative lesion but with a significant rate of associated carcinoma. Herein, we report an unusual case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation associated with typical MGA. Histologically, MGA showed a direct transition to metaplastic carcinoma without an intervening atypical MGA or ductal carcinoma in situ component. The immunohistochemical profile of the metaplastic carcinoma was mostly similar to that of MGA. In both areas, all the epithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, but negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, and epidermal growth factor receptor. An increase in the Ki-67 and p53 labelling index was observed from MGA to invasive carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation arising in MGA in Korea. This case supports the hypothesis that a subset of MGA may be a non-obligate morphologic precursor of breast carcinoma, especially the triple-negative subtype.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Epithelial Cells , Estrogens , Fibrocystic Breast Disease , Korea , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , S100 Proteins
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 190-195, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133737

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical and biological significance of germinal centers (GC) present in the minor salivary glands of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Minor salivary gland tissue biopsies from 93 patients with SS were used to identify GC-like structures, which were confirmed by CD21-positive follicular dendritic cell networks. Patients were compared based upon sociodemographics, glandular and extraglandular manifestations, and laboratory findings including autoantibody profiles, complement, and immunoglobulin levels; EULAR SS disease activity index (ESSDAI) and SS disease damage index (SSDDI) were also measured. GC-like structures were observed in 28 of 93 SS patients (30.1%). Mean focus scores and CRP levels were significantly higher in GC-positive patients than in GC-negative patients; GC-positive patients also exhibit a higher prevalence of rheumatoid factor and anti-SS-A/Ro antibodies compared to GC-negative patients. No differences in glandular or extra-glandular manifestations were evident between groups. In conclusion, SS patients with GC-like structures in the minor salivary glands exhibited laboratory profiles significantly different from those of their GC-negative counterparts. Long-term follow-up of these patients will be necessary to determine whether these laboratory abnormalities are predictive of clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Demography , Germinal Center/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Complement 3d/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Salivary Glands, Minor/pathology , Sjogren's Syndrome/immunology
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 190-195, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133736

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical and biological significance of germinal centers (GC) present in the minor salivary glands of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Minor salivary gland tissue biopsies from 93 patients with SS were used to identify GC-like structures, which were confirmed by CD21-positive follicular dendritic cell networks. Patients were compared based upon sociodemographics, glandular and extraglandular manifestations, and laboratory findings including autoantibody profiles, complement, and immunoglobulin levels; EULAR SS disease activity index (ESSDAI) and SS disease damage index (SSDDI) were also measured. GC-like structures were observed in 28 of 93 SS patients (30.1%). Mean focus scores and CRP levels were significantly higher in GC-positive patients than in GC-negative patients; GC-positive patients also exhibit a higher prevalence of rheumatoid factor and anti-SS-A/Ro antibodies compared to GC-negative patients. No differences in glandular or extra-glandular manifestations were evident between groups. In conclusion, SS patients with GC-like structures in the minor salivary glands exhibited laboratory profiles significantly different from those of their GC-negative counterparts. Long-term follow-up of these patients will be necessary to determine whether these laboratory abnormalities are predictive of clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Demography , Germinal Center/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Complement 3d/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Salivary Glands, Minor/pathology , Sjogren's Syndrome/immunology
20.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 399-409, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92514

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To discuss the unique morphology and origin of epiretinal proliferation associated with macular hole (EPMH) occasionally observed in full-thickness macular hole (FT-MH) or lamellar hole (LH) and to introduce the perifoveal crown phenomenon encountered when removing this unusual proliferative tissue. METHODS: Sixteen patients showing EPMH in spectral domain-optical coherence tomography were selected from 212 patients diagnosed with MH, LH, FT-MH, impending MH, macular pseudohole, or epiretinal membrane between January 2013 and December 2014. Of the 212 patients included for clinical analysis, 33, 23, 11, 7, and 190 exhibited LH, FT-MH, impending MH, macular pseudohole, and epiretinal membrane, respectively. We reviewed visual acuity, macular morphology, and clinical course. Surgical specimens were analyzed histologically. RESULTS: EPMH presented as an amorphous proliferation starting from the defective inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junction covering the inner macula surface. Among the 16 patients with EPMH, 11 underwent vitrectomy, and all exhibited the intraoperative perifoveal crown phenomenon. EPMH tissue was sampled in three patients, one of whom had more tissue removed than intended and showed delayed recovery in visual acuity. Despite hole closure, IS/OS junction integrity was not successfully restored in four of 11 patients. Five patients were followed-up without surgical intervention. Visual acuity slightly decreased in three patients and did not change in one patient, while the remaining patient was lost during follow-up. Among the three perifoveal crown tissues obtained, two were successfully analyzed histologically. Neither tissue showed positivity to synaptophysin or S-100 protein, but one showed positivity to cytokeratin protein immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSIONS: EPMH exhibited a distinct but common configuration in spectral domain-optical coherence tomography. An epithelial proliferation origin is plausible based on its configuration and histological analysis. Perifoveal crown phenomenon was observed when removing EPMH during vitrectomy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Epiretinal Membrane/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Fovea Centralis/diagnostic imaging , Intraoperative Period , Retinal Perforations/complications , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
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