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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 7-13, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is initiated from the acrosyringium. However, it is unclear whether PPP should be considered a distinct entity or should be classified into the spectrum of pustular psoriasis, also known as palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (PPPP). @*Objective@#We evaluated the differences in immunohistochemical staining in patients with PPP to determine whether they can be classified into two groups based on psoriatic properties or acrosyringeal properties. @*Methods@#Nineteen punch biopsy specimens diagnosed with PPP were collected. Antibodies were chosen for identifying the acrosyringeal properties of α-3-nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α-3-nAChR), psoriatic properties of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-36R, inflammatory cell properties of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18/LL-37, IL-8, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), and CD3. The degree of staining of the epidermis was evaluated using the ordinal scale (0~3). The principal component analysis was used to derive principal components (PCs) of common variation between the stains, and the two groups were divided using PCs and cluster analysis. @*Results@#Three main PCs explained 64% of the total variance in PPP. PC1 (pustular psoriasis properties) showed a higher correlation with IL-36R. PC2 (acrosyringeal/inflammatory properties) showed a higher correlation with α-3-nAChR, IL-8, LCN2, and CD3. PC3 (psoriasis properties) showed a higher correlation with IL-23. PC1 showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0284) between the two groups. We identified three PCs associated with the pathomechanisms of PPP. @*Conclusion@#Although PC1 showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups, we did not identify differential protein expression related to the pathogenesis between PPP and PPPP.

2.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 7-13, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902827

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the risk factors and effects of fluctuations in oxygen saturation on the occurrence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). @*Methods@#From January 1, 2013 to January 31, 2020, 260 patients hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of Ajou University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Sixty-six patients (25%) were diagnosed with ROP; of them 39 required treatment. In the multivariate regression analysis of ROP severity, the odds ratio (OR) of gestational age was 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.47; P<0.0001). The OR of saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) fluctuations at the 4th week after birth was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12; P=0.041). @*Conclusion@#SpO2 fluctuations in premature infants younger than 30 weeks’ gestational age affects ROP severity, especially at the 4th week of life.

3.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898576

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

4.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 7-13, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895123

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the risk factors and effects of fluctuations in oxygen saturation on the occurrence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). @*Methods@#From January 1, 2013 to January 31, 2020, 260 patients hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of Ajou University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Sixty-six patients (25%) were diagnosed with ROP; of them 39 required treatment. In the multivariate regression analysis of ROP severity, the odds ratio (OR) of gestational age was 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.47; P<0.0001). The OR of saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) fluctuations at the 4th week after birth was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12; P=0.041). @*Conclusion@#SpO2 fluctuations in premature infants younger than 30 weeks’ gestational age affects ROP severity, especially at the 4th week of life.

5.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890872

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919765

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was done to investigate the experience of physical and emotional safety in nursing students during fundamentals of nursing practicum. @*Methods@#A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2019. A total of 553 nursing students, who had completed fundamental nursing laboratories, participated in this study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires which included questions about general characteristics, physical and emotional safety during fundamental nursing laboratories along with an informed consent given prior to the practicum. @*Results@#Of the students, 26 experienced physical safety accidents, and 18 reported emotional safety accidents. Students' mean stress score for physical safety was 1.95, and the mean score for emotional safety was 1.92. Of the students, more than 59.1% agreed to volunteer as practice models in certain nursing procedures’ training. Of the students, 55.8% were satisfied with using their bodies to train fundamental nursing skills. 61.8% of students reported that informed consent was obtained during the nursing laboratory, and 88.6% of students thought that informed consent needs to be obtained. @*Conclusion@#To prevent safety accidents during the fundamentals of nursing practicum and systematically manage accidents, standardized safety guidelines for nursing practicum should be developed. Establishing various training strategies using advanced models or simulators to increase education efficiency and satisfaction is necessary.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 331-340, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816701

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) elicits cartilage and subchondral bone defects. Growth hormone (GH) promotes chondrocyte growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular injections of GH to treat TMJ-OA.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) was used to induce OA in the TMJs of rats. After confirming the induction of OA, recombinant human GH was injected into the articular cavities of rats. Concentrations of GH and IGF-1 were measured in the blood and synovial fluid, and OA grades of cartilage and subchondral bone degradation were recorded by histological examination and micro-computed tomography.RESULTS: MIA-induced OA in the rat TMJ upregulated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) rather than GH levels. GH and IGF-1 concentrations were increased after local injection of GH, compared with controls. Locally injected GH lowered osteoarthritic scores in the cartilage and subchondral bone of the TMJ.CONCLUSION: Intra-articular injection of GH improved OA scores in rat TMJs in both cartilage and subchondral bone of the condyles without affecting condylar bone growth. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of human GH could be a suitable treatment option for TMJ-OA patients in the future.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919738

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare the textbooks of fundamentals of nursing and practice in order to standardize them for medication administration, infection control, and pressure injury. @*Methods@#The current study is a literature review of the ten textbooks published after 2013. Ten textbooks were the ones selected by the Korea Health Personnel Licensing Examination Institute as major textbooks. Three items were reviewed: medication administration, infection control, and pressure injury, with a focus on differences in numbers, range, direction, and others. @*Results@#For medication administration, there were some discrepancies in the size of needle and syringe, maximum dosage depending on injection methods, replacement period of catheter and infusion set, depth of insertion for vaginal medication administration. For infection control, items with discrepancies included length of time for hand washing, concentration of chemical sterilant, frequency of ventilation to prevent airborne disease, distance to prevent droplet-borne infection, the latent period of infectious disease, and methods to treat medical wastes. For pressure injury, the discrepancies were exhibited in the degree and duration of pressure for pressure injuries, range of scores for risks in pressure injury assessment tools, and temperature of the solution to irrigate pressure injuries. @*Conclusion@#Standardized textbooks for these three parts will be useful teaching aide for students and nurses to carry out consistent and professional nursing for patients’ safety.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918400

ABSTRACT

Nonhuman primate models are valuable in biomedical research. However, reference data for clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are limited. In the present study, we established hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for healthy cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. A total of 142 cynomolgus monkeys (28 males and 114 females) and 42 rhesus monkeys (22 males and 20 females) were selected and analyzed in order to examine reference intervals of 20 hematological and 16 biochemical parameters. The effects of sex were also investigated. Reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters were separately established by species (cynomolgus and rhesus) and sex (male and female). No sex-related differences were determined in erythrocyte-related parameters for cynomolgus and rhesus monkey housed in indoor laboratory conditions. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase were significantly lower in females than males in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys aged 48–96 months. The reference values for hematological and biochemical parameters established herein might provide valuable information for researchers using cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in experimental conditions for biomedical studies.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764638

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety of nursing students during fundamentals of nursing practicum in Korea. METHODS: This study used a descriptive design. A total of 106 nursing instructors teaching fundamentals of nursing longer than one year participated in this study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from July 24 to August 28, 2018. The questionnaires consisted of general characteristics, characteristics of fundamentals of nursing course, physical and emotional safety issues during fundamentals of nursing practicum, and obtaining an informed consent prior to practicum. RESULTS: The average number of physical safety accidents during practicum of fundamentals of nursing in the past 5 years was 1.12±2.44. The most common safety accident was punctured wound. The mean score of the participants' stress on physical safety accidents was 3.53±1.12 out of 5. The average number of emotional safety accidents of fundamentals of nursing practicum in the past 5 years was 1.05±2.72. The mean score of stress on emotional safety accident was 3.00±1.09 out of 5. We found that 47.2% of the participants obtained an oral consent or a written consent for safety of fundamentals of nursing practicum. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to establish safety strategies for fundamentals of nursing practicum for nursing students.


Subject(s)
Human Body , Humans , Informed Consent , Korea , Nursing , Students, Nursing , Wounds and Injuries
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specific lineages is required for applications in regenerative medicine. A growing amount of evidences had implicated hormones and hormone-like molecules as critical regulators of proliferation and lineage specification during in vivo development. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the hormones and hormone-like molecules involved in cell fate decisions is critical for efficient and controlled differentiation of hPSCs into specific lineages. Thus, we functionally and quantitatively compared the effects of diverse hormones (estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P4), and dexamethasone (DM)) and a hormone-like molecule (retinoic acid (RA)) on the regulation of hematopoietic and neural lineage specification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 10 nM E2, 3 μM P4, 10 nM DM, and 10 nM RA based on their functional in vivo developmental potential. The sex hormone E2 enhanced functional activity of hematopoietic progenitors compared to P4 and DM, whereas RA impaired hematopoietic differentiation. In addition, E2 increased CD34⁺CD45⁺ cells with progenitor functions, even in the CD43⁻ population, a well-known hemogenic marker. RA exhibited lineage-biased potential, preferentially committing hPSCs toward the neural lineage while restricting the hematopoietic fate decision. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal unique cell fate potentials of E2 and RA treatment and provide valuable differentiation information that is essential for hPSC applications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Progesterone , Regenerative Medicine , Tretinoin
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719264

ABSTRACT

The final degrees of education for the third and fourth authors were mutually misplaced.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the current status of smartphone usage and to describe the needs for smartphone-based cardiac telerehabilitation of cardiac patients. METHODS: In 2016, a questionnaire survey was conducted in a supervised ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program in a university affiliated hospital with the participation of heart failure or heart transplantation patients who were smartphone users. The questionnaire included questions regarding smartphone usage, demands for smartphone-based disease education, and home health monitoring systems. Results were described and analyzed according to principal diagnosis. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients (66% male; mean age, 53 ± 11 years), including 56 heart failure and 40 heart transplantation patients, completed the survey (completion rate, 95%). The median daily smartphone usage time was 120 minutes (interquartile range, 60–300), and the most frequently used smartphone function was text messaging (61.5%). Of the patients, 26% stated that they searched for health-related information using their smartphones more than 1 time per week. The major source of health-related information was Internet browsing (50.0%), and the least sought source was the hospital's website (3.1%). Patients with heart failure expressed significantly higher needs for disease education on treatment plan, home health monitoring of blood pressure, and body weight (χ2 = 5.79, 6.27, 4.50, p < 0.05). Heart transplantation patients expressed a significant need for home health monitoring of body temperature (χ2 = 5.25, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure and heart transplantation patients show high usage of and interest in mobile health technology. A smartphone-based cardiac telerehabilitation program should be developed based on high demand areas and modified to suit to each principal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Temperature , Body Weight , Diagnosis , Education , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Internet , Male , Mobile Applications , Needs Assessment , Rehabilitation , Smartphone , Telemedicine , Telerehabilitation , Text Messaging
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716173

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the priorities of oral health education contents for preschool children by targeting teachers and parents using the Borich priority formula and The Locus for Focus Model. The survey was conducted in 212 teachers and 215 parents from December 26, 2017 to January 21, 2018. The priorities of oral health education contents were based on a 3-step analysis method, including the paired sample t-test, Borich priority formula, and The Locus for Focus Model. As a result of this study, the number of items about oral health education for preschool children that were prioritized by teachers was 7, while that by parents was 9. The top priorities that teachers and parents had in common were the following 5 items; “The progression of dental caries,”“Symptoms of dental caries,”“How to prevent dental caries,”“Eruption sequence of permanent teeth,” and “Method for emergency management of avulsed teeth.” The teachers' priorities of the oral health education contents were the same between teachers and parents; “Eruption sequence of deciduous teeth” and “The function of the permanent teeth” were added. The parents' priorities of the oral health education contents were the same between teachers and parents; “The effect of fluoride application,”“The number of permanent teeth,”“How to prevent malocclusion,” and “The appropriate timing of malocclusion treatment” were added. Based on the results of this study, when developing oral health education programs for teachers and parents, oral health education for teachers should include 7 items and oral health education for parents should include 9 items.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Education , Education, Dental , Emergencies , Fluorides , Humans , Malocclusion , Methods , Oral Health , Parents
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 134-141, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714868

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and the associations with pathologic complete response (pCR) and survival in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured pre- and post-NCT in 374 patients between 2010 and 2013. Based on a cutoff of 20 ng/mL, patients were categorized into “either sufficient” or “both deficient” groups. The associations with clinicopathological data, including pCR and survival, were analyzed using multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Patients with either pre- or post-NCT sufficient 25(OH)D levels accounted for 23.8%, and the overall pCR rate was 25.9%. Most patients showed 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and 65.8% showed decreased serum levels after NCT. Changes in 25(OH)D status were associated with postmenopause status, rural residence, baseline summer examination, and molecular phenotype, but not pCR. No association between survival and 25(OH)D status was found, including in the subgroup analyses based on molecular phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Most Korean patients with breast cancer showed vitamin D deficiency at diagnosis and a significant decrease in the serum concentration after NCT. No association with oncologic outcomes was found. Therefore, although optimal management for vitamin D deficiency is urgent for skeletal health, further research is warranted to clearly determine the prognostic role of vitamin D in patients with breast cancer who are candidates for NCT.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Postmenopause , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147981

ABSTRACT

S-methyl-(L)-methionine (SMM), also known as vitamin U, is commercially available as skin care cosmetic products for its wound healing and photoprotective effects. However, the low skin permeation expected of SMM due to its hydrophilic nature with a log P value of −3.3, has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study thus was to evaluate the effect of skin permeation enhancers on the skin permeation/deposition of SMM. Among the enhancers tested for the in vitro skin permeation and deposition of SMM, oleic acid showed the most significant enhancing effect. Moreover, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol further enhanced in vitro permeation and deposition of SMM through hairless mouse skin. Furthermore, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol significantly increased the in vivo deposition of SMM in the epidermis/dermis for 12 hr, which was high enough to exert a therapeutic effect. Therefore, based on the in vitro and in vivo studies, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol was shown to be effective in improving the topical skin delivery of SMM, which may be applied in the cosmetic production process for SMM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Oleic Acid , Skin Care , Skin , Vitamin U , Wound Healing
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214277

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between awareness of nutrition labeling and menstrual cycle irregularity in women from a nationally representative sample of the Korean population. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. A total of 4,324 women aged 19~54 years from the 2010~2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participated in the study. The participants were classified into three groups based on self-report responses to a questionnaire about their awareness of nutrition labels: Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups. RESULTS: The Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups comprised 46.4%, 44.9%, and 8.7% of the participants, respectively, and 53.6% of the participants had never used nutrition labels. In the Not-Knowing Group, irregular menstrual cycles for more than 3 months were significantly more common than women with irregular menstrual cycles for up to 3 months and women with regular menstrual cycles. Women in the Not-Knowing Group were more likely to exhibit menstrual cycle irregularity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.10~2.41) compared to women in the Reading Group after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, exercise regularity, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, metabolic syndrome, age at menarche, parity, and use of oral contraceptives. CONCLUSION: No awareness of nutrition labeling appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity in a nationally representative group of Korean women.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Contraceptives, Oral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Food Labeling , Health Literacy , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Menarche , Menstrual Cycle , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Parity , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking , Suicidal Ideation
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Bacterial colonization on toothbrushes can cause stomatitis and other oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. In this study we tested 18 toothbrushes, of which six were left exposedto the air, six were stored in a plastic bag, and six in a toothbrush case. METHODS: ATP (RLU: relatively light unit) values measured by ATP Luminometer were compared with APC (CFU: colony forming unit) by swabbing culture method using 3M™ petrifilm™ aerobic count plates. RESULTS: Swabs from toothbrushes left exposed in the air developed an average of 651.67±261.94 CFU, while the “In plastic bag” and the “In toothbrush case” specimens developed 593.17±354.33 and 120.83±68.87 CFU, respectively. CONCLUSION: The best option is to rinse the toothbrush well with water and to keep them dry in a well-ventilated area in order to reduce the growth of bacteria in a public bath.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Bacteria , Baths , Colon , Dental Caries , Methods , Periodontitis , Plastics , Stomatitis , Water
20.
Mycobiology ; : 226-231, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729666

ABSTRACT

Coprinopsis cinerea was employed to investigate the fungal response to gravity. Mycelium growth revealed a consistent growth pattern, irrespective of the direction of gravity (i.e., horizontal vs. perpendicular). However, the fruiting body grew in the direction opposite to that of gravity once the primordia had formed. For the proteomic analysis, only curved-stem samples were used. Fifty-one proteins were identified and classified into 13 groups according to function. The major functional groups were hydrolases and transferases (16%), signal transduction (15%), oxidoreductases and isomerases (11%), carbohydrate metabolism (9%), and transport (5%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a proteomic approach to evaluate the molecular response of C. cinerea to gravity.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism , Fruit , Gravitation , Hydrolases , Isomerases , Mycelium , Oxidoreductases , Proteome , Signal Transduction , Transferases
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