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1.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 175-182, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969082

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Sialendoscopy is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive salivary gland diseases, but not yet universally employed because it requires dedicate, expensive, and fragile endoscopic equipment; moreover, the surgical technique is also delicate. Here, we describe our initial experience of sialendoscopy, as well as the learning curve, precautions, and drawbacks that beginners must overcome in employing sialendoscopy.Subjects and Method The medical records of 98 patients who underwent sialendoscopic procedures at Eunpyeong St. Mary’s Hospital from May 2019 to March 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. The type of procedure, success rate, operation time, and complications were analyzed. @*Results@#We have performed a total of 85 sialendoscopic procedures, including 79 to treat submandibular sialolithiasis, two to treat submandibular ductal stenosis, two to treat parotid sialolithiasis, and two to treat parotid ductal stenosis. Of the total of 81 patients with sialolithiasis, 82.4% were treated by sialendoscopy only, 15.3% by hybrid procedure, and 2.3% opted to preserve the salivary gland and convert to external submandibular gland excision. Four patients with ductal stenosis were treated via endoscopic bougination; stents were placed for 4 weeks without any restenosis. The operation time was significantly shorter for the second half than for the first half of the patients (58.6 min vs. 39.8 min). Longer operation time was associated with the parotid gland diseases, larger stones (>5 mm in diameter), more proximal stones (from the salivary gland), and multiple stones. We encountered no major surgical complications. @*Conclusion@#Sialendoscopy is useful and safe; even beginners can evaluate and manage obstructive salivary gland diseases.

2.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 191-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968090

ABSTRACT

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS) is a precancerous lesion that usually appears as a well-demarcated erythematous scaly plaque, histopathologically characterized by atypical full-thickness disarrangement and pleomorphic atypical keratinocytes. Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is an intraepidermal tumor that usually affects skin in the genital region, histopathologically identified by large cells with pale and vacuolated cytoplasm, called Paget cells, in the epidermis. An 84-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic solitary scaly erythematous plaque on her back first noticed 10 years prior. A keratotic mass was noted immediately adjacent to the plaque. A biopsy was performed; one specimen showed atypical full-thickness disarrangement and pleomorphic keratinocytes with negative CK7 staining in the epidermis, and another specimen showed Paget cells above the basal layer with positive CK7 staining in the epidermis. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with SCCIS coexisting with EMPD. The patient underwent wide surgical excision of the lesion with reconstruction, and is being monitored without recurrence.

3.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 87-94, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966537

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Voice abuse in noisy environments can result in voice disorders. However, insufficient studies have sought to differentiate vocal cord lesions through laryngoscopic examinations among workers in noisy environments. This study investigated the relationship between a history of noise exposure in the workplace and benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). @*Methods@#. We used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2010 to 2012. The chi-square test was used to compare characteristics between two groups according to the presence or absence of BVFLs. To investigate the association between BVFLs and noise exposure in the workplace, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#. In total, 10,170 participants with available laryngoscopy results were enrolled. Smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, and exposure to noise for more than 3 months at the workplace were significantly more common in participants with BVFLs. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, drinking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, income, education, and occupation as confounders, we confirmed that BVFLs were 1.52 times more likely (95% CI, 1.157–1.990) to occur in individuals with occupational noise exposure. @*Conclusion@#. Working in a noisy environment could induce BVFLs in workers through voice abuse. Social recognition that a noisy environment is a risk factor for BVFLs needs to be improved, and preventive measures should be implemented.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 904-911, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002753

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Providing inpatient nursing care inevitably involves night shift work. However, night shift work nurses often face psychiatric health problems such as burnout. If night shift work is an essential work type for nurses, it is necessary to select personnel suitable for night shift work or establish improvement measures such as psychiatric intervention through psychiatric evaluation. The objective of this study was to identify factors that could be interventional among factors affecting burnout in shift-working nurses. @*Methods@#A total of 231 night shift female nurses participated in this study. A questionnaire survey was given to assess their general characteristics. To assess burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey Korean version was adopted. In addition, several mental health scales were used to identify individual psychological characteristics. To identify variables associated with the presence of burnout, odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model taking three dimensions of burnout as a dependent variable after adjusting for psychological and occupational factors. @*Results@#High resilience was a significant preventive factor in the three dimensions of burnout. Regarding occupational factor, the longer the duration of employment, the higher depersonalization, but the professional efficacy was good. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicate that resilience and social support could be prevention factors for burnout. This study is meaningful in examining items that require active intervention and support for burnout targeting night shift nurses who are indispensable for patient care.

5.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 57-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001557

ABSTRACT

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a relatively common inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Several epidemiological studies have established an association between particulate matter (PM) and CRS. Based on those data, PM has emerged as an important environmental factor in the development of CRS. Recent research has investigated the mechanisms and treatment options for CRS caused by PM through cellular experimentation. Therefore, the authors would like to explain the definition of PM, present research investigating the relationship between PM and CRS, and summarize the involved mechanisms reported to date.

6.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 454-459, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000861

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Cognitive and behavioral changes are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with about 15% of patients presenting with overt frontotemporal dementia and 30%–50% with varying degrees of impairments. We aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS-K), a brief multidomain assessment tool developed for ALS patients with physical disability. @*Methods@#We developed the ECAS-K according to the translation guidelines, and administered it to 38 patients with ALS and 26 age- and education-level-matched controls. We also administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) to investigate convergent validity, and the Center for Neurologic Study-Liability Scale to assess the association between pseudobulbar affect and cognitive/behavioral changes. @*Results@#Internal consistency among the ECAS-K test items was found to be high, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87. Significant differences were found between patients with ALS and the controls in language, fluency, and memory functions (p<0.05). Abnormal performance based on the ECAS total score was noted in 39.4% of patients, and 66.6% presented behavioral changes in at least one domain. Significant correlations were observed between the scores of the ECAS-K and those of other cognitive screening tools (MoCA and FAB, with correlation coefficients of 0.69 and 0.55, respectively; p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#We developed and validated the ECAS-K which could be used as an effective tool to screen the cognitive and behavioral impairments in Korean patients with ALS.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 357-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977323

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The prolonged coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to cause psychological distress in people. This systematic review aimed to identify the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR)-based psychological intervention among individuals with psychological distress during the COVID-19 crisis. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published until July 2022. @*Methods@#The available citations were deduplicated and screened by two authors using the title and abstract information. Eligibility criteria were constructed according to the PICOT guidelines. Empirical studies of all designs and comparator groups were included if they appraised the impact of an immersive VR intervention on any standardized measure indicative of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic symptoms) or improvements in quality of life in participants, including COVID-19 patients, medical staff working with COVID-19 patients, and people who had experienced strict social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Results@#The results were discussed using a narrative synthesis because of the heterogeneity between studies. Seven of the studies met the inclusion criteria. There were two randomized controlled trials and five uncontrolled studies on VR interventions. @*Conclusion@#All studies reported significant improvement in a wide range of psychological distress during COVID-19, ranging from stress, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic symptoms to quality of life, supporting the efficacy of VR-based psychological intervention. Our results suggest that VR intervention has potential to ameliorate COVID-19-related psychological distress with efficacy and safety.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 362-370, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926924

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the path model predicting suicide attempts (SA) by interpersonal need for suicide desire, acquired capability for suicide, the emotion dysregulation, and depression symptoms in people admitted to hospitals for medical treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 344 participants (200 depressed patients with attempted suicide, 144 depressed patients with suicidal ideation) were enrolled for this study. Depression, anxiety, emotion regulation, interpersonal needs, and acquired capability for suicide were evaluated. A model with pathways from emotion regulation difficulties and interpersonal needs to SA was proposed. Participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of SA or suicidal ideation. @*Results@#Acquired capability for suicide mediated the path from depression to SA. In the path model, difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal needs predicted depression significantly. Although depression itself was not significantly related to acquired capability for suicide, depression was significantly related to acquired capability for suicide in suicide attempter group. @*Conclusion@#Interventions with two factors affecting SA will clarify the suicide risk and contribute to finding risk factors.

9.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 231-236, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926703

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal mass is a disease that can cause unilateral or bilateral nasal obstruction. Common diseases that can cause nasal obstruction include antrochoanal polyp, adenoid remnants, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis and nasopharyngeal sarcoidosis are two rare diseases that involve the nasopharynx and manifest as nasopharyngeal mass, and they share common histopathologic findings of granulomatous inflammation. We report a case where a patient complaining of nasal obstruction was found with nasopharyngeal mass with smooth surface, which was difficult to differentiate nasopharyngeal tuberculosis from nasopharyngeal sarcoidosis due to similar clinical manifestations and histopathologic findings.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 143-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924826

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) as adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with comorbid partially responsive major depressive disorder (MDD). @*Methods@#Sixty Korean adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD were recruited in a 12-week, randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled trial and were evenly randomized to ATX or OROS MPH treatment. @*Results@#Depressive symptoms measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale, and ADHD symptoms measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, as well as the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, and the Sheehan Disability Scale scores were significantly improved in both groups during the 12 weeks of treatment. The changes in all outcome measures during the 12-week treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (all p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, weight, or body mass index between the ATX and MPH groups. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that ATX and MPH can be used as adjunctive treatments in adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD. The efficacy and tolerability of ATX and MPH in adults with ADHD did not differ significantly. Further studies should be conducted to draw a definitive conclusion.

11.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 167-179, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924824

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Childhood trauma is the most important environmental factor for several psychiatric disorders. Depressed patients with childhood trauma appear to have severe symptoms that frequently recur. This study investigated whether depressed patients with childhood trauma showed attenuated Nogo event-related potentials (ERPs) and source activity during response-inhibition tasks. @*Methods@#Forty-four patients patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography. Sensors and source activities of N2 and P3 of the Nogo ERPs were analyzed. The participants’ clinical symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Affective Lability Scale. The participants were divided into two groups (low and high), based on their total CTQ scores. @*Results@#MDD subjects with high CTQ scores showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitudes at the frontal, frontocentral, central, and parietal electrodes than those with low CTQ scores (all p < 0.01). In Nogo P3, the source activities of the right cuneus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right precuneus, left supramarginal gyrus, and left lingual gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ group than in the low one (all p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the total CTQ scores and the Nogo P3 amplitudes in the frontocentral (p = 0.03) and parietal regions (p = 0.02), which showed lower source activity in the Nogo P3 condition. @*Conclusion@#Depressed patients with severe childhood trauma showed different Nogo-ERP characteristics, which might reflect inhibitory failure and dysfunction in related brain regions.

12.
Vascular Specialist International ; : 33-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968859

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare the characteristics of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) in Korean to Caucasian population. @*Materials and Methods@#XALIA-LEA and XALIA were phase IV non-interventional prospective studies with identical designs that investigated the effect of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation for VTE. Koreans accounted for the largest proportion of the overall enrolled population of XALIA-LEA. However, in the XALIA study, most patients were Caucasian. Therefore, Korean data from XALIA-LEA and Caucasian data from XALIA were used in this study. This study compared the clinical characteristics and primary outcomes of the XALIA program, including major bleeding, recurrent VTE, and all-cause mortality. @*Results@#The Korean population was older, was less obese, and had more active cancer at baseline than the Caucasian population. Provoked VTE was more common in the Korean population. Interestingly, Koreans showed less accompanying thrombophilia than Caucasians, and factor V Leiden mutations were not detected. Korean analyses comparing the effects of rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulation with primary outcomes showed a lower incidence of major bleeding, recurrent VTE, and all-cause mortality with rivaroxaban. Similar results were obtained in the propensity score matching analysis. @*Conclusion@#Characteristic differences were found between Korean and Caucasian VTE patients. Despite these ethnic differences, the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban therapy in these patients were consistent.

13.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 683-686, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968044

ABSTRACT

Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare chronic inflammatory papulosquamous disease of the skin. Its exact pathogenesis and incidence are not yet known. Clinically, it presents as palmoplantar keratoderma, hyperkeratotic follicular papules, and plaques. PRP can be diagnosed by histopathological examination, and the characteristic histopathological features include alternating orthokeratosis and parakeratosis, hypergranulosis, psoriasiform acanthosis with short and broad rete ridges, thick suprapapillary plates of the epidermis, and superficial perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates. There are six subtypes of PRP based on clinical manifestations and age of onset. PRP is known to respond to acitretin, and treatment with other medications such as isotretinoin, methotrexate, and biologics results in symptomatic improvement. We present two cases of patients who developed type 2 and type 4PRP following treatment with cyclosporine.

14.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 692-696, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968042

ABSTRACT

Pleomorphic sarcoma is a mesenchymal neoplasm and divided into several groups based on histologic differentiation features, including stroma and infiltrated cells. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is a rare type of pleomorphic sarcoma. It is called pleomorphic dermal sarcoma when the origin of tumor is the skin. The term of this tumor is confusing, and it has been changed continuously. In histopathologic study, it presents as well circumscribed tumor in which several pleomorphic and atypical cells are mixed. Herein, we report a rare pleomorphic dermal sarcoma showing characteristics of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma

15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 509-524, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is a global concern. This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics, demographics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the emergency department (ED) and explore clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality. @*Methods@#This single-center, retrospective, observational study used 1,003 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who went to the ED and were admitted to the hospital between February 28 and September 30, 2020. @*Results@#The median age of the included patients was 55 (37-68) years, and 533 were women (53.1%). Severe COVID-19 was noted in 173 patients (17.2%); seven patients (0.7%) received mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 2.1%. Multivariable Cox regression analysis found the risk factors associated with in-hospital death of patients (age >70 years [hazard ratio (HR), 27.411; P70 years, hypoalbuminemia, CURB-65≥3 and thrombocytopenia on admission were independent risk factors for mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Early detection of these predictors and application of CURB-65 score in the ED may provide guidance for appropriate risk stratification at triage and disposition of patients at increased risk of poor prognosis.

16.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 93-98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892990

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) measures neural activation due to various cognitive processes. EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in studies investigating psychopathology and neural substrates of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to review recent ERP studies in child and adolescent psychiatry. ERPs are non-invasive methods for studying synaptic functions in the brain. ERP might be a candidate biomarker in child-adolescent psychiatry, considering its ability to reflect cognitive and behavioral functions in humans. For the EEG study of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents, several ERP components have been used, such as mismatch negativity, P300, error-related negativity (ERN), and reward positivity (RewP). Regarding executive functions and inhibition in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), P300 latency, and ERN were significantly different in patients with ADHD compared to those in the healthy population. ERN showed meaningful changes in patients with anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients with depression showed significantly attenuated RewP compared to the healthy population, which was related to the symptoms of anhedonia.

17.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 99-103, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892989

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review is to examine the clinical use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Many studies have been conducted using objective evaluation tools for psychiatric evaluation, such as predicting psychiatric symptoms and treatment responses. Compared to other tools, fNIRS has the advantage of being a noninvasive, inexpensive, and portable method and can be used with patients in the awake state. This study mainly focused on its use in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. We hope that research involving fNIRS will be actively conducted in various diseases in the future.

18.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 116-119, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892898

ABSTRACT

When planning rhinoplasty, there are several options of grafts for augmentation, especially in relatively short and small Asian noses. Among such grafts, conchal cartilage is one of the most commonly used materials due to its histological similarity to nasal alar cartilage. Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders that can occur after deep cutaneous injury. Since patients who wish to undergo rhinoplasty tend to have a lot of interest in cosmetic appearance, keloid formation can be serious complication to them. This case report presents an 18-year-old man who experienced keloid formation following conchal cartilage graft at 6 months after rhinoplasty. The authors introduce the case and review the considerations in prevention and treatment strategies for keloid scars after conchal cartilage harvest in Asian rhinoplasty.

19.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 242-248, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891398

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are the most common form of hereditary ataxias. Extracerebellar signs have been well described and are helpful in differentiating the SCA subtypes. However, there are few reports on the early-stage extracerebellar signs in various SCA subtypes. This study explored the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of early-stage SCAs in the Korean population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of genetically confirmed SCA patients with a disease duration of <5 years. Data on baseline characteristics, extracerebellar signs, and initial MRI findings were organized based on SCA subtypes. @*Results@#This study included 117 SCA patients with a median age at onset of 40.6 years. The family history was positive in 71.8% of the patients, and the median disease duration and the score on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia at the initial visit were 2.6 years and 5.0, respectively. SCA3 was the most prevalent subtype, and oculomotor abnormalities were the most frequent extracerebellar signs in early-stage SCAs. Saccadic slowing was characteristic of SCA2 and SCA7, and gaze-evoked nystagmus was prominent in SCA6. Parkinsonism was relatively frequent in SCA8 and SCA3. Decreased visual acuity was specific for SCA7. Dementia was not an early manifestation of SCAs. Brain MRI revealed a pattern of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2 and SCA7, while SCA6 demonstrated only cerebellar cortical atrophy. @*Conclusions@#SCA patients exhibited diverse extracerebellar signs even in the early stage.Specific extracerebellar signs were characteristic of specific subtypes, which could facilitate differential diagnoses of early-stage SCAs.

20.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 334-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890204

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

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