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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 362-370, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926924

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the path model predicting suicide attempts (SA) by interpersonal need for suicide desire, acquired capability for suicide, the emotion dysregulation, and depression symptoms in people admitted to hospitals for medical treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 344 participants (200 depressed patients with attempted suicide, 144 depressed patients with suicidal ideation) were enrolled for this study. Depression, anxiety, emotion regulation, interpersonal needs, and acquired capability for suicide were evaluated. A model with pathways from emotion regulation difficulties and interpersonal needs to SA was proposed. Participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of SA or suicidal ideation. @*Results@#Acquired capability for suicide mediated the path from depression to SA. In the path model, difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal needs predicted depression significantly. Although depression itself was not significantly related to acquired capability for suicide, depression was significantly related to acquired capability for suicide in suicide attempter group. @*Conclusion@#Interventions with two factors affecting SA will clarify the suicide risk and contribute to finding risk factors.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926703

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal mass is a disease that can cause unilateral or bilateral nasal obstruction. Common diseases that can cause nasal obstruction include antrochoanal polyp, adenoid remnants, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis and nasopharyngeal sarcoidosis are two rare diseases that involve the nasopharynx and manifest as nasopharyngeal mass, and they share common histopathologic findings of granulomatous inflammation. We report a case where a patient complaining of nasal obstruction was found with nasopharyngeal mass with smooth surface, which was difficult to differentiate nasopharyngeal tuberculosis from nasopharyngeal sarcoidosis due to similar clinical manifestations and histopathologic findings.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924826

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) as adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with comorbid partially responsive major depressive disorder (MDD). @*Methods@#Sixty Korean adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD were recruited in a 12-week, randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled trial and were evenly randomized to ATX or OROS MPH treatment. @*Results@#Depressive symptoms measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale, and ADHD symptoms measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, as well as the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, and the Sheehan Disability Scale scores were significantly improved in both groups during the 12 weeks of treatment. The changes in all outcome measures during the 12-week treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (all p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, weight, or body mass index between the ATX and MPH groups. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that ATX and MPH can be used as adjunctive treatments in adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD. The efficacy and tolerability of ATX and MPH in adults with ADHD did not differ significantly. Further studies should be conducted to draw a definitive conclusion.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924824

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Childhood trauma is the most important environmental factor for several psychiatric disorders. Depressed patients with childhood trauma appear to have severe symptoms that frequently recur. This study investigated whether depressed patients with childhood trauma showed attenuated Nogo event-related potentials (ERPs) and source activity during response-inhibition tasks. @*Methods@#Forty-four patients patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography. Sensors and source activities of N2 and P3 of the Nogo ERPs were analyzed. The participants’ clinical symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Affective Lability Scale. The participants were divided into two groups (low and high), based on their total CTQ scores. @*Results@#MDD subjects with high CTQ scores showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitudes at the frontal, frontocentral, central, and parietal electrodes than those with low CTQ scores (all p < 0.01). In Nogo P3, the source activities of the right cuneus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right precuneus, left supramarginal gyrus, and left lingual gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ group than in the low one (all p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the total CTQ scores and the Nogo P3 amplitudes in the frontocentral (p = 0.03) and parietal regions (p = 0.02), which showed lower source activity in the Nogo P3 condition. @*Conclusion@#Depressed patients with severe childhood trauma showed different Nogo-ERP characteristics, which might reflect inhibitory failure and dysfunction in related brain regions.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897908

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892990

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) measures neural activation due to various cognitive processes. EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in studies investigating psychopathology and neural substrates of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to review recent ERP studies in child and adolescent psychiatry. ERPs are non-invasive methods for studying synaptic functions in the brain. ERP might be a candidate biomarker in child-adolescent psychiatry, considering its ability to reflect cognitive and behavioral functions in humans. For the EEG study of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents, several ERP components have been used, such as mismatch negativity, P300, error-related negativity (ERN), and reward positivity (RewP). Regarding executive functions and inhibition in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), P300 latency, and ERN were significantly different in patients with ADHD compared to those in the healthy population. ERN showed meaningful changes in patients with anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients with depression showed significantly attenuated RewP compared to the healthy population, which was related to the symptoms of anhedonia.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892989

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review is to examine the clinical use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Many studies have been conducted using objective evaluation tools for psychiatric evaluation, such as predicting psychiatric symptoms and treatment responses. Compared to other tools, fNIRS has the advantage of being a noninvasive, inexpensive, and portable method and can be used with patients in the awake state. This study mainly focused on its use in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. We hope that research involving fNIRS will be actively conducted in various diseases in the future.

8.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 116-119, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892898

ABSTRACT

When planning rhinoplasty, there are several options of grafts for augmentation, especially in relatively short and small Asian noses. Among such grafts, conchal cartilage is one of the most commonly used materials due to its histological similarity to nasal alar cartilage. Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders that can occur after deep cutaneous injury. Since patients who wish to undergo rhinoplasty tend to have a lot of interest in cosmetic appearance, keloid formation can be serious complication to them. This case report presents an 18-year-old man who experienced keloid formation following conchal cartilage graft at 6 months after rhinoplasty. The authors introduce the case and review the considerations in prevention and treatment strategies for keloid scars after conchal cartilage harvest in Asian rhinoplasty.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891398

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are the most common form of hereditary ataxias. Extracerebellar signs have been well described and are helpful in differentiating the SCA subtypes. However, there are few reports on the early-stage extracerebellar signs in various SCA subtypes. This study explored the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of early-stage SCAs in the Korean population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of genetically confirmed SCA patients with a disease duration of <5 years. Data on baseline characteristics, extracerebellar signs, and initial MRI findings were organized based on SCA subtypes. @*Results@#This study included 117 SCA patients with a median age at onset of 40.6 years. The family history was positive in 71.8% of the patients, and the median disease duration and the score on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia at the initial visit were 2.6 years and 5.0, respectively. SCA3 was the most prevalent subtype, and oculomotor abnormalities were the most frequent extracerebellar signs in early-stage SCAs. Saccadic slowing was characteristic of SCA2 and SCA7, and gaze-evoked nystagmus was prominent in SCA6. Parkinsonism was relatively frequent in SCA8 and SCA3. Decreased visual acuity was specific for SCA7. Dementia was not an early manifestation of SCAs. Brain MRI revealed a pattern of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2 and SCA7, while SCA6 demonstrated only cerebellar cortical atrophy. @*Conclusions@#SCA patients exhibited diverse extracerebellar signs even in the early stage.Specific extracerebellar signs were characteristic of specific subtypes, which could facilitate differential diagnoses of early-stage SCAs.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890204

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900694

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) measures neural activation due to various cognitive processes. EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in studies investigating psychopathology and neural substrates of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to review recent ERP studies in child and adolescent psychiatry. ERPs are non-invasive methods for studying synaptic functions in the brain. ERP might be a candidate biomarker in child-adolescent psychiatry, considering its ability to reflect cognitive and behavioral functions in humans. For the EEG study of psychiatric diseases in children and adolescents, several ERP components have been used, such as mismatch negativity, P300, error-related negativity (ERN), and reward positivity (RewP). Regarding executive functions and inhibition in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), P300 latency, and ERN were significantly different in patients with ADHD compared to those in the healthy population. ERN showed meaningful changes in patients with anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients with depression showed significantly attenuated RewP compared to the healthy population, which was related to the symptoms of anhedonia.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900693

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review is to examine the clinical use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Many studies have been conducted using objective evaluation tools for psychiatric evaluation, such as predicting psychiatric symptoms and treatment responses. Compared to other tools, fNIRS has the advantage of being a noninvasive, inexpensive, and portable method and can be used with patients in the awake state. This study mainly focused on its use in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. We hope that research involving fNIRS will be actively conducted in various diseases in the future.

13.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 116-119, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900602

ABSTRACT

When planning rhinoplasty, there are several options of grafts for augmentation, especially in relatively short and small Asian noses. Among such grafts, conchal cartilage is one of the most commonly used materials due to its histological similarity to nasal alar cartilage. Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders that can occur after deep cutaneous injury. Since patients who wish to undergo rhinoplasty tend to have a lot of interest in cosmetic appearance, keloid formation can be serious complication to them. This case report presents an 18-year-old man who experienced keloid formation following conchal cartilage graft at 6 months after rhinoplasty. The authors introduce the case and review the considerations in prevention and treatment strategies for keloid scars after conchal cartilage harvest in Asian rhinoplasty.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899102

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are the most common form of hereditary ataxias. Extracerebellar signs have been well described and are helpful in differentiating the SCA subtypes. However, there are few reports on the early-stage extracerebellar signs in various SCA subtypes. This study explored the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of early-stage SCAs in the Korean population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of genetically confirmed SCA patients with a disease duration of <5 years. Data on baseline characteristics, extracerebellar signs, and initial MRI findings were organized based on SCA subtypes. @*Results@#This study included 117 SCA patients with a median age at onset of 40.6 years. The family history was positive in 71.8% of the patients, and the median disease duration and the score on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia at the initial visit were 2.6 years and 5.0, respectively. SCA3 was the most prevalent subtype, and oculomotor abnormalities were the most frequent extracerebellar signs in early-stage SCAs. Saccadic slowing was characteristic of SCA2 and SCA7, and gaze-evoked nystagmus was prominent in SCA6. Parkinsonism was relatively frequent in SCA8 and SCA3. Decreased visual acuity was specific for SCA7. Dementia was not an early manifestation of SCAs. Brain MRI revealed a pattern of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2 and SCA7, while SCA6 demonstrated only cerebellar cortical atrophy. @*Conclusions@#SCA patients exhibited diverse extracerebellar signs even in the early stage.Specific extracerebellar signs were characteristic of specific subtypes, which could facilitate differential diagnoses of early-stage SCAs.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is a global concern. This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics, demographics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the emergency department (ED) and explore clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality. @*Methods@#This single-center, retrospective, observational study used 1,003 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who went to the ED and were admitted to the hospital between February 28 and September 30, 2020. @*Results@#The median age of the included patients was 55 (37-68) years, and 533 were women (53.1%). Severe COVID-19 was noted in 173 patients (17.2%); seven patients (0.7%) received mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 2.1%. Multivariable Cox regression analysis found the risk factors associated with in-hospital death of patients (age >70 years [hazard ratio (HR), 27.411; P70 years, hypoalbuminemia, CURB-65≥3 and thrombocytopenia on admission were independent risk factors for mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Early detection of these predictors and application of CURB-65 score in the ED may provide guidance for appropriate risk stratification at triage and disposition of patients at increased risk of poor prognosis.

16.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 174-180, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioral effects of auditory stimulation with their own parent’s voice on heart rate and sleep states of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) in neonatal intensive care unit. @*Methods@#The data of 28 VLBWIs at the Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital between October 2016 and May 2017 was analyzed. They were exposed to sounds similar to those of mothers’ heartbeat they had heard in the uterus and their own parent’s voice. Heart rate was assessed as the physiological responses and sleep state of infants as behavioral response. The sleep states were categorized into six states. The music intervention program was provided twice a week. @*Results@#Twenty-eight babies with an average gestational age of 28 weeks (average birth weight of 1.09 kg) had undergone the sessions (average of 16 times) average of 16 times. During the initial period, there were no meaningful differences of the heart rates measured by the physiological functions before and after the sessions. However, as we move to the adaptive phase, the average heart rate was 156.96±12.22, and the pre-discharge was 149.11±12.01, which indicates meaningful differences (P<0.05). Infants’ behavioral function was statistically insignificant. @*Conclusion@#The music intervention techniques in the neonatal intensive care unit environment in Korea have provided positive influence to VLBWIs' physiological reactions. We were not able to come up with the relevant indicators during this phase of the study but we do plan to announce the future study results after indexing the observation results.

17.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 37-42, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835615

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Various incision techniques have been used in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to reduce scar formation, including the frequently used periareolar incision technique. However, its applicability in removing large-size tumors or those distant from the nipple has remained limited. We performed periareolar zigzag (P-Z) incision to address these problems in BCS and to improve cosmetic outcomes. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent P-Z incision in BCS between January 2016 and November 2017 were retrospectively analyzed in terms of clinicopathological features and surgical findings. Factors affecting the positive margin were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 305 patients were reviewed. The patients presented with a median age of 51 years, mean tumor size 1.9 cm, and mean tumor distance of 3.3 cm from the nipple. Intraoperative frozen biopsy and final pathologic findings showed 43 (14.1%) and 7 (2.3%) tumor-positive margins. There were no major complications associated with the surgery, and no re-operations were required due to bleeding or other reasons. @*Conclusion@#The P-Z incision technique was used to achieve sufficient operative field during BCS, and large tumors or those distant from the nipple could be removed without any complications. This technique is considered an oncologically safe surgical technique resulting in good cosmetic outcomes.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833603

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeImpulse-control disorder is an important nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that can lead to financial and social problems, and be related to a poor quality of life. A nationwide multicenter prospective study was performed with the aim of validating the Korean Version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (K-QUIP-RS). @*Methods@#The K-QUIP-RS was constructed using forward and backward translation, and pretesting of the prefinal version. PD patients on stable medical condition were recruited from 27 movement-disorder clinics. Participants were assessed using the K-QUIP-RS and evaluated for parkinsonian motor and nonmotor statuses and for PD-related quality of life using a predefined evaluation battery. The test–retest reliability of the K-QUIP-RS was assessed over an interval of 10–14 days, and correlations between the KQUIP-RS and other clinical scales were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 136 patients. The internal consistency of the K-QUIP-RS was indicated by a Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.846, as was the test–retest reliability by a Guttman split-half coefficient of 0.808. The total K-QUIP-RS score was positively correlated with the scores for depression and motivation items on the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale, and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep-Behavior-Disorders Questionnaire. The total K-QUIP-RS score was also correlated with the scores on part II of the UPDRS and the PD Quality of Life-39 questionnaire, and the dopaminergic medication dose. @*Conclusions@#The K-QUIP-RS appears to be a reliable assessment tool for impulse-control and related behavioral disturbances in the Korean PD population.

19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 996-1005, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832599

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Attention-deficit and poor impulse control have frequently been observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Altered event-related potential (ERP) performance, such as GoNogo tasks, has been regarded as a neurocognitive process associated with attention and behavioral inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Nogo ERP and adult ADHD in MDD. @*Methods@#A total of 64 participants with MDD (32 comorbid with ADHD) and 32 healthy controls aged 19–45 years were recruited; they performed GoNogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were evaluated. Clinical measures and GoNogo ERP were compared between three groups: depression with ADHD, depression without ADHD, and healthy controls. @*Results@#MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitude at frontal electrode, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly longer Nogo N2 latency at frontal and frontocentral electrodes, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. In MDD subjects with ADHD, the Nogo P3 amplitude at the frontal electrode was negatively correlated with the ASRS score and inattention. The Nogo N2 latency at the frontal electrode was positively correlated with false alarm rate. @*Conclusion@#The decreased Nogo P3 amplitude in the frontal area might be a potential biological marker for inattention in depressed patients with ADHD.

20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1064-1072, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832588

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The objective of the present study was to explore causal pathways to understand how second traumatic experiences could affect the development of emotional exhaustion and psychiatric problems. @*Methods@#A total of 582 workers who had jobs vulnerable to secondary traumatic experiences were enrolled for this study. Emotional exhaustion, secondary trauma, resilience, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems were evaluated. A model with pathways from secondary traumatic experience score to depression and anxiety was proposed. The participants were divided into three groups according to the resilience: the low, middle and high resilience group. @*Results@#Resilience was a meaningful moderator between secondary traumatic experiences and psychiatric problems. In the path model, the secondary trauma and perceived stress directly and indirectly predicted perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems in all three groups. Direct effects of perceived stress on depression and anxiety were the largest in the low resilience group. However, direct effects of secondary trauma on perceived stress and emotional exhaustion were the largest in the high resilience group. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the needs of focusing for distinct psychological factors offers a valuable direction for the development of intervention programs to prevent emotional exhaustion among workers with secondary traumatic experiences.

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