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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 83-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919561

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The accurate detection and quantification of hepatic steatosis using a noninvasive method are important for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the accuracy of the ultrasound-measured attenuation coefficient (AC) in the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. @*Methods@#The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for prospective studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of AC for assessing hepatic steatosis. The meta-analytic pooled sensitivity and specificity of AC for any grade of steatosis (S≥1) and advanced steatosis (S≥2) were estimated using a bivariate random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis was conducted to investigate the causes of heterogeneity among studies. @*Results@#Thirteen studies including 1,509 patients were identified. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of AC for S≥1 were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 80%; I2=43%) and 84% (95% CI, 77% to 89%; I2=74%), respectively, while for S≥2 they were 87% (95% CI, 83% to 91%; I2=0%) and 79% (95% CI, 75% to 83%; I2=59%), respectively. Study heterogeneity was associated with body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of steatosis or significant fibrosis. @*Conclusion@#AC can be clinically useful for assessing hepatic steatosis, with good overall diagnostic performance. The data reported in the published literature differed according to BMI and the prevalence of steatosis or significant fibrosis, and careful interpretation with consideration of these factors might be needed.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891466

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeAcute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a common but understudied complication in neurocritically ill patients. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can be used to treat ACPO in patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness and adverse events when using neostigmine to manage ACPO in neurocritically ill patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective study investigated patients with ACPO who were treated using neostigmine in the neurological intensive-care units at two centers between March 2017 and August 2020. Neostigmine was administered intravenously or subcutaneously (at doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 2 mg) according to the protocols at the two centers. The outcomes were bowel movements and the changes in colon diameters on abdominal radiographs. Safety events such as bradycardia, vomiting, salivation, and sweating were evaluated. @*Results@#This study included 31 subjects with a mean age of 46.8 years (65.4% males). All patients had a bowel movement at a median of 120 minutes after administering neostigmine. The colon diameter decreased by a median of 17.5 mm (paired t-test: p<0.001) regardless of the dose and treatment protocols. Multilevel analysis confirmed that the mean colon diameter decreased from 66 mm pretreatment to 47.5 mm posttreatment (p<0.001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 13%. Three patients (9.7%) exhibited hypersalivation, sweating, bradycardia, and vomiting. Bradycardia (heart rate, 42 beats/minute) occurred in one patient (3.2%), and was successfully managed by injecting atropine. @*Conclusions@#Neostigmine injection is a safe and effective treatment option for ACPO in neurocritically ill patients who fail to respond to conservative management.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891303

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 561-568, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914821

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the incidence, the survival outcomes and its prognostic factors for male breast cancer (MBC) in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Service database of Korea, we identified MBC patients who had the new claim code of C50. Medical records including type of surgeries and radiotherapy within one year of the first claim and death records were reviewed. Between 2005 and 2016, 838 newly diagnosed MBC patients were included (median follow-up, 1,769 days). The 70–74-year age group had the highest incidence of MBC. The 5-year survival rate was 73.7%. Age > 65 years, low income, no surgical intervention, no tamoxifen use, and > 2 comorbidities correlated with a worse outcome. MBC incidence has increased over time, and its peak is noted at age > 70 years. Age > 65 years, > 2 comorbidities, no surgical intervention, and no tamoxifen use correlate to poor prognosis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903673

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This nationwide study was undertaken to determine differences in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) according to age using big data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). @*Methods@#The NHIS data including quality assessment of CRC by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service in Korea between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Based on age, patients were divided into three groups: not-old patients (< 65), young-old patients (65 to 74 years old) and old-old patients (≥ 75 years old). @*Results@#We included 71,513 CRC patients. The median follow-up duration was 3.2 years (range, 0.003 to 5.5). Male patients constituted 60%. The median age of patients was 65 years (range, 18 to 102). Colon was the cancer site in 59.8% of not-old patients, 62.9% of young-old patients, and 66.1% of old-old patients. Compared to not-old patients, young-old and old-old patients were more likely to be diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma and well/moderate differentiation or adequate differentiation (all p < 0.001). Old patients underwent more emergency operation (p < 0.001) and received less adjuvant therapy in stage I–III (p < 0.001). The probability of 3-year survival of young-old or old-old patients was worse than that for not-old patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.64) (HR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.03 to 3.37). @*Conclusions@#Old patients with CRC show different histology from younger patients. They are more frequently to have colon as primary lesion. They undergo less adjuvant therapy. Further studies and evidence-based guidelines for older patients with CRC are warranted to improve their outcome.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902946

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Isotretinoin is among the most notorious human teratogens, documented originally as causing up to 30% of malformations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the rates of major malformation (MM) among isotretinoin-exposed pregnant women over the years through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Methods@#Eligible studies were searched and identified using various databases. Single-arm meta-analysis and meta-analysis of odd ratios among controlled studies were performed using Review Manager version 5.3. @*Results@#Ten eligible studies that combined 2,783 isotretinoin-exposed women were included in our study. The rate of MM weighted for the sample size was 15%. Three studies that included an unexposed comparison group were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin-exposed women was 3.76. After 2006, the pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin exposure was significantly lower at 1.04. @*Conclusion@#The current rate of MM in isotretinoin-exposed women was substantially lower after 2006.

7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900642

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899966

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the association between geographic proximity to hospitals and the administration rate of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who visited the hospital within 12 hours of symptom onset from a prospective nationwide multicenter stroke registry. Reperfusion therapy was classified as intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), endovascular therapy (EVT), or combined therapy. The association between the proportion of patients who were treated with reperfusion therapy and the ground transport time was evaluated using a spline regression analysis adjusted for patient-level characteristics. We also estimated the proportion of Korean population that lived within each 30-minute incremental service area from 67 stroke centers accredited by the Korean Stroke Society. @*Results@#Of 12,172 patients (mean age, 68 ± 13 years; men, 59.7%) who met the eligibility criteria, 96.5% lived within 90 minutes of ground transport time from the admitting hospital. The proportion of patients treated with IVT decreased significantly when stroke patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the transport time (P = 0.006). The proportion treated with EVT also showed a similar trend with the transport time. Based on the residential area, 98.4% of Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes. @*Conclusion@#The use of reperfusion therapy for acute stroke decreased when patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the ground transport time from the hospital. More than 95% of the South Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes of the ground transport time.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899170

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeAcute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a common but understudied complication in neurocritically ill patients. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can be used to treat ACPO in patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness and adverse events when using neostigmine to manage ACPO in neurocritically ill patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective study investigated patients with ACPO who were treated using neostigmine in the neurological intensive-care units at two centers between March 2017 and August 2020. Neostigmine was administered intravenously or subcutaneously (at doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 2 mg) according to the protocols at the two centers. The outcomes were bowel movements and the changes in colon diameters on abdominal radiographs. Safety events such as bradycardia, vomiting, salivation, and sweating were evaluated. @*Results@#This study included 31 subjects with a mean age of 46.8 years (65.4% males). All patients had a bowel movement at a median of 120 minutes after administering neostigmine. The colon diameter decreased by a median of 17.5 mm (paired t-test: p<0.001) regardless of the dose and treatment protocols. Multilevel analysis confirmed that the mean colon diameter decreased from 66 mm pretreatment to 47.5 mm posttreatment (p<0.001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 13%. Three patients (9.7%) exhibited hypersalivation, sweating, bradycardia, and vomiting. Bradycardia (heart rate, 42 beats/minute) occurred in one patient (3.2%), and was successfully managed by injecting atropine. @*Conclusions@#Neostigmine injection is a safe and effective treatment option for ACPO in neurocritically ill patients who fail to respond to conservative management.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899007

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895969

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This nationwide study was undertaken to determine differences in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) according to age using big data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). @*Methods@#The NHIS data including quality assessment of CRC by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service in Korea between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Based on age, patients were divided into three groups: not-old patients (< 65), young-old patients (65 to 74 years old) and old-old patients (≥ 75 years old). @*Results@#We included 71,513 CRC patients. The median follow-up duration was 3.2 years (range, 0.003 to 5.5). Male patients constituted 60%. The median age of patients was 65 years (range, 18 to 102). Colon was the cancer site in 59.8% of not-old patients, 62.9% of young-old patients, and 66.1% of old-old patients. Compared to not-old patients, young-old and old-old patients were more likely to be diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma and well/moderate differentiation or adequate differentiation (all p < 0.001). Old patients underwent more emergency operation (p < 0.001) and received less adjuvant therapy in stage I–III (p < 0.001). The probability of 3-year survival of young-old or old-old patients was worse than that for not-old patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.64) (HR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.03 to 3.37). @*Conclusions@#Old patients with CRC show different histology from younger patients. They are more frequently to have colon as primary lesion. They undergo less adjuvant therapy. Further studies and evidence-based guidelines for older patients with CRC are warranted to improve their outcome.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895242

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Isotretinoin is among the most notorious human teratogens, documented originally as causing up to 30% of malformations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the rates of major malformation (MM) among isotretinoin-exposed pregnant women over the years through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Methods@#Eligible studies were searched and identified using various databases. Single-arm meta-analysis and meta-analysis of odd ratios among controlled studies were performed using Review Manager version 5.3. @*Results@#Ten eligible studies that combined 2,783 isotretinoin-exposed women were included in our study. The rate of MM weighted for the sample size was 15%. Three studies that included an unexposed comparison group were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin-exposed women was 3.76. After 2006, the pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin exposure was significantly lower at 1.04. @*Conclusion@#The current rate of MM in isotretinoin-exposed women was substantially lower after 2006.

13.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892938

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892262

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the association between geographic proximity to hospitals and the administration rate of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who visited the hospital within 12 hours of symptom onset from a prospective nationwide multicenter stroke registry. Reperfusion therapy was classified as intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), endovascular therapy (EVT), or combined therapy. The association between the proportion of patients who were treated with reperfusion therapy and the ground transport time was evaluated using a spline regression analysis adjusted for patient-level characteristics. We also estimated the proportion of Korean population that lived within each 30-minute incremental service area from 67 stroke centers accredited by the Korean Stroke Society. @*Results@#Of 12,172 patients (mean age, 68 ± 13 years; men, 59.7%) who met the eligibility criteria, 96.5% lived within 90 minutes of ground transport time from the admitting hospital. The proportion of patients treated with IVT decreased significantly when stroke patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the transport time (P = 0.006). The proportion treated with EVT also showed a similar trend with the transport time. Based on the residential area, 98.4% of Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes. @*Conclusion@#The use of reperfusion therapy for acute stroke decreased when patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the ground transport time from the hospital. More than 95% of the South Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes of the ground transport time.

15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 234-244, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834658

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The outcome of endovascular treatment (EVT) may differ depending on the etiology of arterial occlusion. This study aimed to assess the differences in EVT outcomes in patients with intracranial arterial steno-occlusion (ICAS-O), artery-to-artery embolism (AT-O), and cardiac embolism (CA-O). @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 330 patients with ischemic stroke who underwent EVT between January 2012 and August 2017. Patients were classified according to the etiology. The clinical data, EVT-related factors, and clinical outcomes were compared. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months, determined using ordinal logistic regression (shift analysis), was the primary outcome. @*Results@#CA-O (n=149) was the most common etiology, followed by ICAS-O (n=63) and AT-O (n=49). Age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and rate of hemorrhagic transformation were significantly higher in patients with CA-O compared to AT-O and ICAS-O. The time from onset-to-recanalization was the shortest in the CA-O (356.0 minutes) groups, followed by the AT-O (847.0 minutes) and ICAS-O (944.0 minutes) groups. The rates of successful recanalization, mRS distribution, and favorable outcomes at 3 months (mRS 0–2; CA-O, 36.9%, AT-O, 53.1%; and ICAS-O, 41.3%) did not differ among the three groups. Baseline NIHSS score (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.91) could independently predict a favorable shift in mRS distribution. @*Conclusions@#The functional outcomes of ICAS-O and AT-O were similar to those of CA-O, despite the delay in symptom onset-to-recanalization, suggesting that the therapeutic time window may be extended in these patients.

16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831714

ABSTRACT

Background@#To track triage, routing, and treatment status regarding access to endovascular treatment (EVT) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at a national level. @*Methods@#From national stroke audit data, potential candidates for EVT arriving within 6 hours with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥ 7 were identified. Acute care hospitals were classified as thrombectomy-capable hospitals (TCHs, ≥ 15 EVT cases/year) or primary stroke hospital (PSH, < 15 cases/year), and patients' initial routes and subsequent inter-hospital transfer were described. Impact of initial routing to TCHs vs. PSHs on EVT and clinical outcomes were analyzed using multilevel generalized mixed effect models. @*Results@#Out of 14,902 AIS patients, 2,180 (14.6%) were EVT candidates. Eighty-one percent of EVT candidates were transported by ambulance, but only one-third were taken initially to TCHs. Initial routing to TCHs was associated with greater chances of receiving EVT compared to initial routing to PSHs (33.3% vs 12.1%, P < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.92) and favorable outcome (38.5% vs. 28.2%, P < 0.001; aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16–2.00). Inter-hospital transfers to TCHs occurred in 17.4% of those initially routed to a PSH and was associated with the greater chance of EVT compared to remaining at PSHs (34.8% vs. 7.5%, P < 0.001), but not with better outcomes. @*Conclusion@#Two-thirds of EVT candidates were initially routed to PSHs despite greater chance of receiving EVT and having favorable outcomes if routed to a TCH in Korea. Process improvement is needed to direct appropriate patients to TCHs.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831656

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to describe the current status of acute stroke care in Korea and explore disparities among hospitals and regions. @*Methods@#The 2013 and 2014 national stroke audit data and the national health insurance claims data were linked and used for this study. Stroke patients hospitalized via emergency rooms within 7 days of stroke onset were selected. @*Results@#A total of 19,608 patients treated in 216 hospitals were analyzed. Among them 76% had ischemic stroke; 15%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); and 9%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of the hospitals, 31% provided inpatient stroke unit care. Ambulances were used in 56% of cases, and the median interval from onset to arrival was 4.5 hours. One-quarter of patients were referred from other hospitals. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) rates were 11% and 4%, respectively. Three-quarters of the analyzed hospitals provided IVT and/or EVT, whereas 47% of hospitals providing IVT and 67% of hospitals providing EVT had less than one case per month. Decompressive surgery was performed on 28% of ICH patients, and clipping and coiling were performed in 17.2% and 14.3% of SAH patients, respectively. There were noticeable regional disparities between the various interventions, ambulance use, arrival time, and stroke unit availability. @*Conclusion@#This study describes the current status of acute stroke care in Korea. Despite quite acceptable quality of stroke care, it suggests regional and hospital disparities. Expansion of stroke units, stroke center certification or accreditation, and connections between stroke centers and emergency medical services are highly recommended.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831618

ABSTRACT

Background@#Neurocritical care by dedicated neurointensivists may improve outcomes of critically ill patients with severe brain injury. In this study, we aimed to validate whether neurointensive care could improve the outcome in patients with critically ill acute ischemic stroke using the linked big dataset on stroke in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 1,405 acute ischemic stroke patients with mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit after an index stroke. Patients were retrieved from linking the Clinical Research Center for Stroke Registry and the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data from the period between January 2007 and December 2014. The outcomes were mortality at discharge and at 3 months after an index stroke. The main outcomes were compared between the centers with and without dedicated neurointensivists. @*Results@#Among the included patients, 303 (21.6%) were admitted to the centers with dedicated neurointensivists. The patients treated by dedicated neurointensivists had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (18.3% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.002) as well as lower mortality at 3-month (38.0% vs. 49.1%, P < 0.001) than those who were treated without neurointensivists. After adjusting for confounders, a treatment without neurointensivists was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.13–2.25; P = 0.008) and 3-month mortality (OR, 1.48; 95% CIs, 1.12–1.95; P = 0.005). @*Conclusion@#Treatment by dedicated neurointensivists is associated with lower in-hospital and 3-month mortality using the linked big datasets for stroke in Korea. This finding stresses the importance of neurointensivists in treating patients with severe ischemic stroke.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effects of air pollutants on upper airway disease development have been seldom studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of ENT diseases. METHODS: We identified cases of ENT disease occurring in 2009, as recorded by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and explored their associations with the levels of five air pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), ozone (O₃), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM₁₀ particles; particulates ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter). Subjects diagnosed with at least one of the five studied ENT diseases were included in analysis, but those aged under 19 years were excluded. Linear associations between ENT disease frequency and pollutant levels were evaluated by calculating Spearman correlations. After adjusting for age, gender, and geographic region, multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 7,399 subjects with ENT diseases were identified. A linear association was evident between PM₁₀ concentration and the frequency of septal deviation (Spearman coefficient, 0.507; P=0.045). After adjustment, the PM₁₀ level was associated with high odds ratios for chronic rhinosinusitis (1.22; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.46) and septal deviation (1.43; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.67). Both of these conditions were more prevalent in males. CONCLUSION: We found that increased ambient concentrations of PM₁₀ particles were clearly associated with increased the risk of chronic rhinosinusitis and septal deviation; the exposure-response relationship was definitive.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Carbon Monoxide , Ear , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide , Nose , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Pharynx , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sulfur Dioxide
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