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1.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 18-30, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967818

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korea recently established 70 emergency medical service areas. However, there are many concerns that medical resources for stroke could not be evenly distributed through the country. We aimed to compare the treatment quality and outcomes of acute stroke among the emergency medical service areas. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the data of 28,800 patients admitted in 248 hospitals which participated in the 8th acute stroke quality assessment by Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Individual hospitals were regrouped into emergency service areas according to the address of the location. Assessment indicators and fatality were compared by the service areas. We defined the appropriate hospital by the performance of intravenous thrombolysis. @*Results@#In seven service areas, there were no hospitals which received more than 10 stroke patients for 6 months. In nine service areas, there were no patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Among 167 designated emergency medical centers, 50 hospitals (29.9%) responded that IVT was impossible 24 hours a day. There are 97 (39.1%) hospitals that meet the definitions of appropriate hospital. In 23 service areas (32.9%) had no appropriate or feasible hospitals. The fatality of service areas with stroke centers were 6.9% within 30 days and 15.6% within 1 year from stroke onset than those without stroke centers (7.7%, 16.9%, respectively). @*Conclusions@#There was a wide regional gap in the medical resource and the quality of treatments for acute stroke among emergency medical service areas in Korea. The poststroke fatality rate of the service areas which have stroke centers or appropriate hospitals were significantly low.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 141-150, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967703

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We investigated the impact of comorbidity burden on troponin elevation, with separate consideration of neurological conditions, in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). @*Methods@#This prospective, observational cohort study consecutively enrolled patients with AIS for 2 years. Serum cardiac troponin I was repeatedly measured, and disease-related biomarkers were collected for diagnosis of preassigned comorbidities, including atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial hypertrophy (MH), heart failure (HF), renal insufficiency (RI), and active cancer. The severity of neurological deficits and insular cortical ischemic lesions were assessed as neurological conditions. Adjusted associations between these factors and troponin elevation were determined using a multivariate ordinal logistic regression model and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the prognostic significance of comorbidity beyond neurological conditions. @*Results@#Among 1,092 patients (66.5±12.4 years, 63.3% male), 145 (13.3%) and 335 (30.7%) had elevated (≥0.040 ng/mL) and minimally-elevated (0.040–0.010 ng/mL) troponin, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, AF, MH, HF, RI, active cancer, and neurological deficits were associated with troponin elevation. The multivariate model with six comorbidities and two neurological conditions exhibited an AUC of 0.729 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.698–0.759). In Cox regression, AF, IHD, and HF were associated with adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events, whereas HF and active cancer were associated with mortality. @*Conclusion@#Troponin elevation in patients with AIS can be explained by the burden of comorbidities in combination with neurological status, which explains the prognostic significance of troponin assay.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 160-168, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967702

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Nelonemdaz (Neu2000) has both selective antagonism against 2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and antioxidant activity. This drug provides sufficient evidence of neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion models. This phase III trial aims to determine this effect in patients.Design The Rescue on Reperfusion Damage in Cerebral Infarction by Nelonemdaz is a multicenter, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of 496 patients will be randomly assigned into the nelonemdaz (a total of 5,250 mg divided by 10 times for 5 days) and placebo groups. Patients will be included if they have an acute ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥8) caused by intracranial large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score ≥4), and if they are expected to undergo endovascular thrombectomy within 12 hours after stroke onset.Endpoints The primary endpoint is a favorable shift in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days after the first dose of drug. The data will be analyzed by the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel shift test. The secondary endpoints include functional independence (mRS 0–2) at 35 and 90 days, the favorable shift of mRS at 35 days, the proportion of mRS 0 at 35 and 90 days, and the occurrence rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days. @*Conclusion@#This trial will clarify the efficacy and safety of nelonemdaz in patients with acute ischemic stroke and endovascular thrombectomy. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials. gov (NCT05041010).

4.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 428-450, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000915

ABSTRACT

This meta-analysis examined the surgical management of older patients (>80 years) with gastric cancer, who were often excluded from randomized controlled trials. We analyzed 23 retrospective cohort studies involving 18,372 patients and found that older patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (relative risk [RR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–7.17; P<0.01) and more post-operative complications (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19–1.56;P<0.01) than did younger patients. However, the surgical complications were similar between the two groups. Older patients were more likely to undergo less extensive lymph node dissection and longer hospital stays. Although older patients had statistically significant post-operative medical complications, they were not deprived of surgery for gastric cancer.The comorbidities and potential risks of post-operative complications should be carefully evaluated in older patients, highlighting the importance of careful patient selection. Overall, this meta-analysis provides recommendations for the surgical management of older patients with gastric cancer. Careful patient selection and evaluation of comorbidities should be performed to minimize the risk of post-operative complications in older patients, while recognizing that they should not be deprived of surgery for gastric cancer.

5.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 112-120, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977064

ABSTRACT

Background@#For acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with history of prior stroke (PS) and diabetes mellitus (DM), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) therapy in the 3- to 4.5-hour window is off-label in Korea. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of IV-tPA in these patients. @*Methods@#Using data from a prospective multicenter stroke registry between January 2009 and March 2021, we identified AIS patients who received IV-tPA in the 3- to 4.5-hour window, and compared the outcomes of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH), 3-month mortality, 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-1 and 3-month mRS distribution between patients with both PS and DM (PS/DM, n=56) versus those with neither PS nor DM, or with only one (non-PS/DM, n=927). @*Results@#The PS/DM group versus the non-PS/DM group was more likely to have a prior disability, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease and less likely to have atrial fibrillation. The PS/DM and the non-PS/DM groups had comparable rates of SICH (0% vs. 1.7%; p>0.999) and 3-month mortality (10.7% vs. 10.2%; p=0.9112). The rate of 3-month mRS 0-1 was non-significantly lower in the PS/DM group than in the non-PS/DM group (30.4% vs. 40.7%; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.81 [0.41-1.59]). @*Conclusions@#In the 3- to 4.5-hour window, AIS patients with PS/DM, as compared to those with non-PS/DM, might benefit less from IV-tPA. However, given the similar risks of SICH and mortality, IV-tPA in the late time window could be considered in patients with both PS and DM.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 580-591, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976691

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of second non-breast primary cancer (SNBPC) among Korean survivors of breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service were searched to identify women who received curative surgery for initial breast cancer (IBC) between 2003 and 2008 (n=64,340). Among them, patients with the following characteristics were excluded: other cancer diagnosis before IBC (n=10,866), radiotherapy before IBC (n=349), absence of data on sex or age (n=371), or male (n=248). Accordingly, data of 52,506 women until December 2017 were analyzed. SNBPC was defined as a newly diagnosed SNBPC that occurred 5 years or more after IBC diagnosis. @*Results@#The median follow-up time of all patients was 12.13 years. SNBPC was developed in 3,084 (5.87%) women after a median of 7.61 years following IBC diagnosis. The 10-year incidence of SNBPC was 5.78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.56 to 6.00). Higher SNBPC incidence was found in survivors with the following factors: old age at IBC diagnosis, low household income, and receiving combined chemotherapy with endocrine therapy, whereas receiving radiotherapy was related to a lower incidence of SNBPC (hazard ratio, 0.89; p < 0.01). Among the patients with SNBPC, the 5-year survival rate was 62.28% (95% CI, 65.53 to 69.02). @*Conclusion@#Approximately 5% of breast cancer survivors developed SNBPC within 10 years after IBC diagnosis. The risk of SNBPC was associated with patient’s age at IBC diagnosis, income level, and a receipt of systemic treatments.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e294-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001249

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal antiplatelet strategy for patients with ischemic stroke who were already on single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different antiplatelet regimens on vascular and safety outcomes at 1 year after non-cardioembolic stroke in patients previously on SAPT. @*Methods@#We identified 9,284 patients with acute non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke that occurred on SAPT using linked data. Patients were categorized into three groups according to antiplatelet strategy at discharge: 1) SAPT; 2) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT); and 3) triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT). One-year outcomes included recurrent ischemic stroke, composite outcomes (recurrent ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and death), and major bleeding. @*Results@#Of 9,284 patients, 5,565 (59.9%) maintained SAPT, 3,638 (39.2%) were treated with DAPT, and 81 (0.9%) were treated with TAPT. Multiple antiplatelet therapy did not reduce the risks of 1-year recurrent stroke (DAPT, hazard ratio [HR], 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92–1.27, P = 0.339; TAPT, HR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.27–1.91, P = 0.500) and 1-year composite outcome (DAPT, HR, 1.09, 95% CI, 0.68–1.97, P = 0.592; TAPT, HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.68–1.97, P = 0.592). However, the TAPT groups showed an increased risk of major bleeding complications (DAPT, HR, 1.23, 95% CI, 0.89–1.71, P = 0.208; TAPT, HR, 4.65, 95% CI, 2.01–10.74, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Additional use of antiplatelet agents in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke who were already on SAPT did not reduce the 1-year incidence of vascular outcomes, although it increased the risk of bleeding complications.

8.
Ultrasonography ; : 83-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919561

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The accurate detection and quantification of hepatic steatosis using a noninvasive method are important for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the accuracy of the ultrasound-measured attenuation coefficient (AC) in the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. @*Methods@#The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for prospective studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of AC for assessing hepatic steatosis. The meta-analytic pooled sensitivity and specificity of AC for any grade of steatosis (S≥1) and advanced steatosis (S≥2) were estimated using a bivariate random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis was conducted to investigate the causes of heterogeneity among studies. @*Results@#Thirteen studies including 1,509 patients were identified. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of AC for S≥1 were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 80%; I2=43%) and 84% (95% CI, 77% to 89%; I2=74%), respectively, while for S≥2 they were 87% (95% CI, 83% to 91%; I2=0%) and 79% (95% CI, 75% to 83%; I2=59%), respectively. Study heterogeneity was associated with body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of steatosis or significant fibrosis. @*Conclusion@#AC can be clinically useful for assessing hepatic steatosis, with good overall diagnostic performance. The data reported in the published literature differed according to BMI and the prevalence of steatosis or significant fibrosis, and careful interpretation with consideration of these factors might be needed.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e254-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938033

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to present the prognosis after minor acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), using a definition of subsequent stroke in accordance with recent clinical trials. In total, 9,506 patients with minor AIS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤ 5) or high-risk TIA (acute lesions or ≥ 50% cerebral artery steno-occlusion) admitted between November 2010 and October 2013 were included. The primary outcome was the composite of stroke (progression of initial event or a subsequent event) and all-cause mortality. The cumulative incidence of stroke or death was 11.2% at 1 month, 13.3% at 3 months and 16.7% at 1 year. Incidence rate of stroke or death in the first month was 12.5 per 100 person-months: highest in patients with large artery atherosclerosis (17.0). The risk of subsequent events shortly after a minor AIS or high-risk TIA was substantial, particularly in patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e100-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925871

ABSTRACT

Background@#Clinical implications of elevated fasting triglycerides (FTGs) and non-fasting triglycerides (NFTGs) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remain unknown. We aimed to elucidate the correlation and clinical significance of FTG and NFTG levels in AIS patients. @*Methods@#Using a multicenter prospective stroke registry, we identified AIS patients hospitalized within 24 hours of onset with available NFTG results. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke recurrence, myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality up to one year. @*Results@#This study analyzed 2,176 patients. The prevalence of fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia was 11.5% and 24.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age, diabetes, higher body mass index and initial systolic blood pressure were independently associated with both fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher quartiles of NFTG were more likely to be male, younger, eversmokers, diabetic, and have family histories of premature coronary heart disease and stroke (all P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for FTG. The composite outcome was not associated with FTG or NFTG quartiles. @*Conclusion@#The fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia were prevalent in AIS patients and showed similar clinical characteristics and outcomes. High FTG and NFTG levels were not associated with occurrence of subsequent clinical events up to one year.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 561-568, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914821

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the incidence, the survival outcomes and its prognostic factors for male breast cancer (MBC) in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Service database of Korea, we identified MBC patients who had the new claim code of C50. Medical records including type of surgeries and radiotherapy within one year of the first claim and death records were reviewed. Between 2005 and 2016, 838 newly diagnosed MBC patients were included (median follow-up, 1,769 days). The 70–74-year age group had the highest incidence of MBC. The 5-year survival rate was 73.7%. Age > 65 years, low income, no surgical intervention, no tamoxifen use, and > 2 comorbidities correlated with a worse outcome. MBC incidence has increased over time, and its peak is noted at age > 70 years. Age > 65 years, > 2 comorbidities, no surgical intervention, and no tamoxifen use correlate to poor prognosis.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 985-991, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895969

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This nationwide study was undertaken to determine differences in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) according to age using big data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). @*Methods@#The NHIS data including quality assessment of CRC by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service in Korea between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Based on age, patients were divided into three groups: not-old patients (< 65), young-old patients (65 to 74 years old) and old-old patients (≥ 75 years old). @*Results@#We included 71,513 CRC patients. The median follow-up duration was 3.2 years (range, 0.003 to 5.5). Male patients constituted 60%. The median age of patients was 65 years (range, 18 to 102). Colon was the cancer site in 59.8% of not-old patients, 62.9% of young-old patients, and 66.1% of old-old patients. Compared to not-old patients, young-old and old-old patients were more likely to be diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma and well/moderate differentiation or adequate differentiation (all p < 0.001). Old patients underwent more emergency operation (p < 0.001) and received less adjuvant therapy in stage I–III (p < 0.001). The probability of 3-year survival of young-old or old-old patients was worse than that for not-old patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.64) (HR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.03 to 3.37). @*Conclusions@#Old patients with CRC show different histology from younger patients. They are more frequently to have colon as primary lesion. They undergo less adjuvant therapy. Further studies and evidence-based guidelines for older patients with CRC are warranted to improve their outcome.

13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 364-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895242

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Isotretinoin is among the most notorious human teratogens, documented originally as causing up to 30% of malformations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the rates of major malformation (MM) among isotretinoin-exposed pregnant women over the years through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Methods@#Eligible studies were searched and identified using various databases. Single-arm meta-analysis and meta-analysis of odd ratios among controlled studies were performed using Review Manager version 5.3. @*Results@#Ten eligible studies that combined 2,783 isotretinoin-exposed women were included in our study. The rate of MM weighted for the sample size was 15%. Three studies that included an unexposed comparison group were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin-exposed women was 3.76. After 2006, the pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin exposure was significantly lower at 1.04. @*Conclusion@#The current rate of MM in isotretinoin-exposed women was substantially lower after 2006.

14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892938

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892262

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the association between geographic proximity to hospitals and the administration rate of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who visited the hospital within 12 hours of symptom onset from a prospective nationwide multicenter stroke registry. Reperfusion therapy was classified as intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), endovascular therapy (EVT), or combined therapy. The association between the proportion of patients who were treated with reperfusion therapy and the ground transport time was evaluated using a spline regression analysis adjusted for patient-level characteristics. We also estimated the proportion of Korean population that lived within each 30-minute incremental service area from 67 stroke centers accredited by the Korean Stroke Society. @*Results@#Of 12,172 patients (mean age, 68 ± 13 years; men, 59.7%) who met the eligibility criteria, 96.5% lived within 90 minutes of ground transport time from the admitting hospital. The proportion of patients treated with IVT decreased significantly when stroke patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the transport time (P = 0.006). The proportion treated with EVT also showed a similar trend with the transport time. Based on the residential area, 98.4% of Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes. @*Conclusion@#The use of reperfusion therapy for acute stroke decreased when patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the ground transport time from the hospital. More than 95% of the South Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes of the ground transport time.

16.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 563-569, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891466

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeAcute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a common but understudied complication in neurocritically ill patients. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can be used to treat ACPO in patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness and adverse events when using neostigmine to manage ACPO in neurocritically ill patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective study investigated patients with ACPO who were treated using neostigmine in the neurological intensive-care units at two centers between March 2017 and August 2020. Neostigmine was administered intravenously or subcutaneously (at doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 2 mg) according to the protocols at the two centers. The outcomes were bowel movements and the changes in colon diameters on abdominal radiographs. Safety events such as bradycardia, vomiting, salivation, and sweating were evaluated. @*Results@#This study included 31 subjects with a mean age of 46.8 years (65.4% males). All patients had a bowel movement at a median of 120 minutes after administering neostigmine. The colon diameter decreased by a median of 17.5 mm (paired t-test: p<0.001) regardless of the dose and treatment protocols. Multilevel analysis confirmed that the mean colon diameter decreased from 66 mm pretreatment to 47.5 mm posttreatment (p<0.001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 13%. Three patients (9.7%) exhibited hypersalivation, sweating, bradycardia, and vomiting. Bradycardia (heart rate, 42 beats/minute) occurred in one patient (3.2%), and was successfully managed by injecting atropine. @*Conclusions@#Neostigmine injection is a safe and effective treatment option for ACPO in neurocritically ill patients who fail to respond to conservative management.

17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891303

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 985-991, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903673

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This nationwide study was undertaken to determine differences in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) according to age using big data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). @*Methods@#The NHIS data including quality assessment of CRC by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service in Korea between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Based on age, patients were divided into three groups: not-old patients (< 65), young-old patients (65 to 74 years old) and old-old patients (≥ 75 years old). @*Results@#We included 71,513 CRC patients. The median follow-up duration was 3.2 years (range, 0.003 to 5.5). Male patients constituted 60%. The median age of patients was 65 years (range, 18 to 102). Colon was the cancer site in 59.8% of not-old patients, 62.9% of young-old patients, and 66.1% of old-old patients. Compared to not-old patients, young-old and old-old patients were more likely to be diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma and well/moderate differentiation or adequate differentiation (all p < 0.001). Old patients underwent more emergency operation (p < 0.001) and received less adjuvant therapy in stage I–III (p < 0.001). The probability of 3-year survival of young-old or old-old patients was worse than that for not-old patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 1.64) (HR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.03 to 3.37). @*Conclusions@#Old patients with CRC show different histology from younger patients. They are more frequently to have colon as primary lesion. They undergo less adjuvant therapy. Further studies and evidence-based guidelines for older patients with CRC are warranted to improve their outcome.

19.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 364-373, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902946

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Isotretinoin is among the most notorious human teratogens, documented originally as causing up to 30% of malformations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the rates of major malformation (MM) among isotretinoin-exposed pregnant women over the years through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Methods@#Eligible studies were searched and identified using various databases. Single-arm meta-analysis and meta-analysis of odd ratios among controlled studies were performed using Review Manager version 5.3. @*Results@#Ten eligible studies that combined 2,783 isotretinoin-exposed women were included in our study. The rate of MM weighted for the sample size was 15%. Three studies that included an unexposed comparison group were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin-exposed women was 3.76. After 2006, the pooled odds ratio of MM for isotretinoin exposure was significantly lower at 1.04. @*Conclusion@#The current rate of MM in isotretinoin-exposed women was substantially lower after 2006.

20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900642

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

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