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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 265-271, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927154

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the radiologic and clinical outcomes of direct internal fixation for unstable atlas fractures. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 12 patients with unstable atlas fractures surgically treated using C1 lateral mass screws, rods, and transverse connector constructs. Nine lateral mass fractures with transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) avulsion injury and three 4-part fractures with TAL injury (two avulsion injuries, one TAL substance tear) were treated. Radiologic outcomes included the anterior atlantodental interval (AADI) in flexion and extension cervical spine lateral radiographs at 6 months and 1 year after treatment. CT was also performed to visualize bony healing of the atlas at 6 months and 1 year. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for neck pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) values, and cervical range of motion (flexion, extension, and rotation) were recorded at 6 months after surgery. @*Results@#The mean postoperative extension and flexion AADIs were 3.79±1.56 (mean±SD) and 3.13±1.01 mm, respectively. Then mean AADI was 3.42±1.34 and 3.33±1.24 mm at 6 months and 1 year after surgery, respectively. At 1 year after surgery, 11 patients showed bony healing of the atlas on CT images. Only one patient underwent revision surgery 8 months after primary surgery due to nonunion and instability findings. The mean VAS score for neck pain was 0.92±0.99, and the mean NDI value was 8.08±5.70. @*Conclusion@#C1 motion-preserving direct internal fixation technique results in good reduction and stabilization of unstable atlas fractures. This technique allows for the preservation of craniocervical and atlantoaxial motion.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919968

ABSTRACT

A 67-year-old male patient with a history of epididymectomy and anti-tuberculosis treatment for epididymis tuberculosis was admitted for acute low back pain and radiating pain. The patient had no history of gout but showed hyperuricemia and a bone destruction lesion in the facet joint and lamina of the lumbar spine. A histology examination was performed after a computed tomography-guided needle biopsy, and the findings were compatible with gout spondyloarthropathy and tuberculous spondylitis. The acute symptoms improved after conservative treatment for gouty arthritis. When patients with hyperuricemia risk factors, such as taking anti-tuberculosis drugs, complain of acute low back pain, gout spondyloarthropathy should be considered in a differential diagnosis.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data are lacking on the association between the allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype and sensitization to specific allergens or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in children. We here investigated risk factors and comorbidities, including sensitization to specific allergens and BHR, for the AR phenotype by AR and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification in a general population-based birth cohort study. METHODS: We enrolled 606 children aged 7 years from the Panel Study of Korean Children. The AR phenotype was assigned in accordance with the ARIA classification in children. Skin prick tests and Provocholine provocation test were performed. Risk factors and comorbidities for AR phenotypes were then analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe AR in our study cohort was 37.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Recent use of analgesics or antipyretics and current cat ownership were associated with the risk of mild persistent AR. Sensitizations to Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus (Der p), Japanese hop and cat were associated with moderate to severe persistent AR. Children with moderate to severe AR had a higher risk of current asthma and BHR compared to mild AR cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–15.62). Moderate to severe AR with allergic sensitization was associated with the highest risk of BHR (aOR, 11.77; 95% CI, 3.40–40.74). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe-persistent AR is more closely related to respiratory comorbidities and sensitizations than mild AR. Stratifying the AR phenotype by ARIA classification may assist in disease management.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Analgesics , Animals , Antipyretics , Asians , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Cats , Child , Classification , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Disease Management , Humans , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Phenotype , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Skin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Childhood asthma has a considerable social impact and economic burden, especially in severe asthma. This study aimed to identify the proportion of childhood asthma severity and to evaluate associated factors for greater asthma severity. METHODS: This study was performed on 667 children aged 5–15 years with asthma from the nationwide 19 hospitals in the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS). Asthma was classified as mild intermittent, mild persistent, and moderate/severe persistent groups according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recommendations. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify the associated factors for greater asthma severity. RESULTS: Mild persistent asthma was most prevalent (39.0%), followed by mild intermittent (37.6%), moderate persistent (22.8%), and severe persistent asthma (0.6%). Onset later than 6 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.92 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) tended to increase asthma severity. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (aOR, 1.53 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.85 for moderate/severe persistent asthma), and current dog ownership with sensitization to dog dander (aOR, 5.86 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 6.90 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) showed increasing trends with greater asthma severity. Lower maternal education levels (aOR, 2.32) and no usage of an air purifier in exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution (aOR, 1.76) were associated with moderate/severe persistent asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Modification of identified environmental factors associated with greater asthma severity might help better control childhood asthma, thereby reducing the disease burden due to childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution , Animals , Asthma , Child , Dander , Dogs , Education , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Risk Factors , Smoke , Social Change , Tobacco
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913296

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Both allergic rhinitis and asthma are considered one airway disease, which interacts with each other in disease onset and symptom worsening. We evaluated factors developing new or persistent asthma symptoms in elementary school children with allergic rhinitis. @*Methods@#We selected 343 children aged 6 to 7 years who had rhinitis symptoms within 12 months and allergic sensitization on skin prick tests among 2,491 elementary school children. The questionnaires on symptoms, medical history and environments, blood eosinophils, serum total IgE, pulmonary function test, and bronchial provocation tests were obtained. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated factors for later asthma symptoms during a follow-up period of 4 years. @*Results@#The independent risk factors for later asthma symptoms among children with allergic rhinitis were higher body mass index (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.56; P= 0.012), a parental diagnosis of asthma (aOR, 6.19; 95% CI, 1.59–24.06; P= 0.008), residence in the rural area (aOR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.34–21.42; P= 0.017), and a history of bronchiolitis in the first 2 years (aOR, 5.82; 95% CI, 1.42–23.80; P= 0.014). However, pulmonary functions, the levels of bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and the patterns of sensitization showed not significant factors. Children whose allergic rhinitis was treated in the follow-up period were less likely to have asthma symptoms later (aOR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10–0.93; P= 0.036). @*Conclusion@#In the school-aged children with allergic rhinitis, body mass index and asthma-related risk factors are crucial for developing asthma symptoms. The appropriate treatment of rhinitis may decrease asthma symptoms.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836251

ABSTRACT

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a small vessel vasculitides mostly associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The kidney is the most commonly affected organ in MPA. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with ANCA-negative MPA who initially presented with respiratory symptoms, including cough, sputum, and dyspnea. Based on her symptoms, atypical pneumonia was suspected. Also, childhood interstitial lung disease was considered based on findings seen on chest CT. Despite initial improvement of symptoms with oral corticosteroid therapy, dyspnea with initiation of corticosteroid tapering was noted. A final diagnosis of MPA was made after lung biopsy. ANCA was negative in both the initial and repeat blood tests. Oral cyclophosphamide and prednisolone treatments led to full remission. Since then, the patient has been treated with low dose prednisolone and azathioprine for maintenance. A good treatment response was achieved and her clinical symptoms, pulmonary functions, and radiologic findings have since improved. Thus, early and precise diagnosis of MPA is crucial for remission induction and prevention of symptom relapse.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831989

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the risk of low back pain (LBP) and related spinal diseases between smokers (exposure group) and nonsmokers (non-exposure group). No large registry study has so far investigated the association between smoking and LBP-related spinal diseases such as intervertebral disc disease, spinal stenosis, spinal instability, and spondylolisthesis. @*Methods@#A random sample was taken from the Korean National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 204,066 men (160,105 smokers, 43,961 nonsmokers) who were followed up between 2002 and 2013 were included in the analysis. Patients with previous back pain or spinal disease in 2003 and 2004, patients with inappropriate data, and women (due to the lower percentage of smokers) were excluded. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to investigate the risk of LBP and related spinal diseases associated with smoking, while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic factors. @*Results@#The overall median follow-up period was 5.6 years (interquartile range, 3.48–8.43 years). Compared to the nonsmoker group, the smoker group had a higher incidence of LBP (p = 0.01), intervertebral disc disease (p < 0.001), spinal stenosis (p = 0.004), spinal instability (p < 0.001), and spondylolisthesis (p = 0.023). Compared to the nonsmoker group, the smoker group had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per year of LBP (HR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.21), intervertebral disc disease (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.30), spinal stenosis (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.64), spinal instability (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.44), and spondylolisthesis (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.80). @*Conclusions@#Smokers in male samples were at higher risk for LBP and related spinal diseases than nonsmokers.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is controversial whether indoor pet exposure is either a risk or protective factor developing sensitization to pet allergens or asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether indoor pet ownership entails a risk for the development of asthma and sensitization in childhood. METHODS: The Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) is a general-population-based birth cohort study that recruited 2,078 mother-baby dyads in Korea between April and July of 2008. Among 1,577 children who were followed up in 2015, 559 underwent skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests using Provocholine. Having a cat or a dog and the prevalence of asthma were evaluated by using self-reported questionnaires and physicians’ medical records. RESULTS: During infancy, the rate of dog ownership was 4.5% (71 of 1,574) and that of cat ownership was 0.5% (8 of 1,574). Of the subjects, 7.9% (n=109) currently had at least 1 dog and 2.5% (n=34) had at least 1 cat. Pet ownership during infancy was associated with sensitization to cats or dogs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–13.98), wheezing within 12 months (aOR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.65–18.75) and current asthma (wheezing episode in the last 12 months+diagnosed asthma by physicians) (aOR, 6.36; 95% CI, 1.54–26.28). In contrast, pet ownership during the last 12 months was not associated with sensitization to cats or dogs or current asthma. CONCLUSION: Indoor pet exposure during infancy can be critical for developing sensitization to cats or dogs and asthma in childhood. Avoidance of pet exposure in early life may reduce sensitization to cats or dogs and development of asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Cats , Child , Cohort Studies , Dogs , Humans , Infant , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Pets , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Respiratory Sounds , Risk Factors , Skin , Spirometry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719564

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the difference in micronutrient levels between oral feeding and enteral feeding in chronic stroke patients to assess the risks of enteral feeding. METHODS: Patients with chronic stroke who were admitted to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine between January 2011 and June 2012 were enrolled. The serum concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, folate, and vitamin B12, as well as the absolute CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts, were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 73 patients enrolled in this study, 50 were fed orally, while the other 23 were fed through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or nasogastric (NG) tube. The serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group than in the oral feeding group. However, the serum concentration of zinc was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. CONCLUSION: There is little difference between enteral feeding and oral feeding in terms of micronutrient provision except that the serum concentration of zinc in the enteral feeding group was significantly lower than that in the oral feeding group. Clinicians should recognize that chronic stroke patients who require tube feeding have a risk of micronutrient deficiency. Early detection of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is important for providing the necessary nutrients.


Subject(s)
Copper , Enteral Nutrition , Folic Acid , Gastrostomy , Humans , Iron , Lymphocyte Count , Malnutrition , Micronutrients , Rehabilitation , Stroke , Vitamin B 12 , Zinc
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786174

ABSTRACT

Presbyopia is an aging eye. All parts of our body may lose their function with aging. The representative aging diseases in the field of ophthalmology are cataract and macular degeneration. Presbyopia is also a natural aging phenomenon that people has difficulty in focusing on near subject. There is a structure called lens in our eye and the function of lens is a refraction of lignt. Lens helps us focusing an object that we want to see with changing its thickness. When we try to focus on near subjects, ciliary muscle contracts to release the lens zonule and the lens becomes thicker. When we try to see far subjects, ciliary muscle relaxes and lens becomes thinner. These changes of lens thickness occurs very fast in young people, but with aging, the speed of changing the thickness of lens becomes slow. Finally, aged people can't change the lens thickness and can't focus on near subject without the help of near glasses and so on. In this case, we call it presbyopia.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cataract , Eyeglasses , Glass , Macular Degeneration , Ophthalmology , Presbyopia
12.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 179-183, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760582

ABSTRACT

Pierre Robin sequence (PRS), also called Robin sequence, is a congenital anomaly characterized by a triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. Infants with PRS can present with varying degrees of respiratory difficulty secondary to upper airway obstruction. There has been no consensus for the treatment of upper airway obstruction in infants with PRS, but recent studies recommend attempting non-surgical interventions before surgical treatment. In this case report, we present 3 cases of infants diagnosed with PRS who showed persistent respiratory difficulties after birth. Before considering surgical intervention, insertion of a nasopharyngeal airway was attempted in these infants. Following this procedure, symptoms of upper airway obstruction were relieved, and all infants were discharged without surgical interventions; the nasopharyngeal airway was removed 1 to 2 months later. To date, no infant has shown signs of upper airway obstruction. Nasopharyngeal airway insertion is a highly effective and less invasive treatment option for infants with PRS. However, it is not widely known and used in Korea. Nasopharyngeal airway insertion can be preferentially considered before surgical intervention for upper airway obstruction in such infants.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Consensus , Glossoptosis , Humans , Infant , Korea , Micrognathism , Parturition , Pierre Robin Syndrome
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916191

ABSTRACT

Presbyopia is an aging eye. All parts of our body may lose their function with aging. The representative aging diseases in the field of ophthalmology are cataract and macular degeneration. Presbyopia is also a natural aging phenomenon that people has difficulty in focusing on near subject. There is a structure called lens in our eye and the function of lens is a refraction of lignt. Lens helps us focusing an object that we want to see with changing its thickness. When we try to focus on near subjects, ciliary muscle contracts to release the lens zonule and the lens becomes thicker. When we try to see far subjects, ciliary muscle relaxes and lens becomes thinner. These changes of lens thickness occurs very fast in young people, but with aging, the speed of changing the thickness of lens becomes slow. Finally, aged people can't change the lens thickness and can't focus on near subject without the help of near glasses and so on. In this case, we call it presbyopia.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug methacholine chloride (Provocholine®) was recently introduced to Korea where it is now widely used in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and cutoff value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to Provocholine in 7-year-old children. METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-three children from the Panel Study on Korean Children who visited 16 regional hospitals were evaluated. Skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests for Provocholine as well as a detailed history and physical examinations were performed. The bronchial provocation test was reliably performed on 559 of these children. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-diagnosed asthma via medical records was 7.7%, and that of current asthma (wheezy episode in the last 12 months + diagnosed asthma by physicians) was 3.2%. The prevalence of BHR to Provocholine was 17.2% and 25.8%, respectively, for a PC20 < 8 and < 16 mg/mL. The risk factors for BHR (PC20 < 16 mg/mL) were atopic dermatitis diagnosis and current dog ownership, whereas those for current asthma were allergy rhinitis diagnosis, a history of bronchiolitis before the age of 3, recent use of analgesics/antipyretics and maternal history of asthma. The BHR prevalence trend showed an increase along with the increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) quartile. The cutoff value of PC20 for the diagnosis of current asthma in children at age 7 was 5.8 mg/mL (sensitivity: 47.1%, specificity: 87.4%). CONCLUSIONS: BHR to Provocholine (PC20 < 8 mg/mL) was observed in 17.2% of 7-year-olds children from the general population and the cutoff value of PC20 for the diagnosis of current asthma was 5.8 mg/mL in this age group. The risk factors for BHR and current asthma showed discrepancies suggesting different underlying mechanisms. Bronchial provocation testing with Provocholine will be a useful clinical tool in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchiolitis , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis , Dogs , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Ownership , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Rhinitis , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin , Spirometry , United States Food and Drug Administration
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49035

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The nature of allergic rhinitis (AR) in preschool aged children remains incompletely characterized. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AR and its associated risk factors in preschool-aged children and to assess the clinical utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). METHODS: This general population-based, cross-sectional survey included 933 preschool-aged (3- to 7-year-old) children from Korea. Current AR was defined as having nasal symptoms within the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed AR. RESULTS: The prevalence of current AR in preschool children was 17.0% (156/919). Mold exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.43) and the use of antibiotics (aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.33-2.90) during infancy were associated with an increased risk of current AR, whereas having an older sibling (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75) reduced the risk. Children with current atopic AR had significantly higher geometric mean levels of FeNO compared to those with non-atopic rhinitis (12.43; range of 1standard deviation [SD], 7.31-21.14 vs 8.25; range of 1SD, 5.62-12.10, P=0.001) or non-atopic healthy children (8.58; range of 1SD, 5.51-13.38, P<0.001). The FeNO levels were higher in children with current atopic AR compared with atopic healthy children (9.78; range of 1SD, 5.97-16.02, P=0.083). CONCLUSIONS: Mold exposure and use of antibiotics during infancy increases the risk of current AR, whereas having an older sibling reduces it. Children with current atopic AR exhibit higher levels of FeNO compared with non-atopic rhinitis cases, suggesting that FeNO levels may be a useful discriminatory marker for subtypes of AR in preschool children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fungi , Humans , Korea , Nitric Oxide , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Siblings
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features of compound nevus. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the medical records for 32 eyes of 32 patients who were clinically diagnosed as having a compound nevus from February 2011 to February 2017 was performed. RESULTS: The average follow-up period was 21.38 (range, 6–70) months for the 32 patients (9 males and 32 females), and the average age was 21 (range, 7–41) years old. The development or detection of a nevus varied between patients. There were no associated symptoms except for one patient who experienced foreign body sensation. An increase in size was noted in 5 cases (15%). The most common location in the conjunctiva was bulbar in 30 cases (93.8%), and the most common quadrant was temporal in 21 cases (65.6%) followed by nasal conjunctiva in 11 cases (34.4%). The most common locations of anterior margin and posterior margin were on the limbus (56%) and bulbar conjunctiva (92%), respectively. The mean horizontal length was 2.59 ± 1.9 mm and the mean vertical length was 2.62 ± 2.1 mm. All horizontal and vertical lengths were within 5 mm. An elevated nevus was observed in 25 cases (78.1%), and 18 cases (56.3%) had cystic lesions. The color of the nevi were largely brown (26 cases, 81.3%), and 29 cases (90.6%) had feeder vessels. Excisional biopsy and histologic exam were performed in 22 cases (68.8%). The purpose of the treatment was mostly cosmetic (20 cases, 93.8%) or for differential diagnosis with malignant melanoma (2 cases, 6.3%). In the surgery group, no one showed recurrence or any significant complications. CONCLUSIONS: A conjunctival compound nevus is a benign conjunctival mass and can be found in all age groups. Compound nevus can be diagnosed with clinical features, and complete excision with histological exam is an appropriate treatment to differentiate from malignant melanoma.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Conjunctiva , Diagnosis, Differential , Follow-Up Studies , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Melanoma , Nevus , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sensation
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194875

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a successful case of intractable vernal keratoconjunctivitis treated by papillectomy and amniotic membrane transplantation. CASE SUMMARY: A 20-year-old female patient presented with repeated vernal keratoconjunctivitis in both eyes since the age of 14. Despite medical therapy, she developed severe itching, burning and foreign body sensations, and limbal nodules with mutiple giant papillae of the upper tarsal plate. Surgical resection of the giant papillae and amniotic membrane transplantation in her left eye was performed. One month later, the same procedure was performed in her right eye. The patient's symptoms then improved. Neither recurrence nor serious complication were observed during the 6 months follow up period after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In intractable vernal keratoconjunctivitis, papillectomy with amniotic membrane transplantation may potentially be a good treatment option for better clinical outcome and low recurrence rates.


Subject(s)
Amnion , Burns , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Pruritus , Recurrence , Sensation , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90236

ABSTRACT

Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants.


Subject(s)
Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Cesarean Section , Clostridium , Colon , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Microbiota , Parturition , Pregnancy
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. RESULTS: A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. CONCLUSIONS: The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arachis , Child , Contrast Media , Egg White , Epidemiology , Fagopyrum , Humans , Juglans , Korea , Male , Medical Records , Milk , Retrospective Studies , Seafood , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32967

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the degree, distribution, and change in refractive error in the pediatric population 5 to 20 years of age. METHODS: We collected data from 7,695 subjects aged 5 to 20 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012. Non-cycloplegic refractive error was measured using an autorefractor. Mean spherical equivalent calculated from the measured refractive error data in both eyes was used. The subjects were categorized into mild, moderate, or high refractive abnormality or emmetropia according to the degree of refractive error. The degree and distribution of refractive error in all subjects and age-matched subjects were analyzed. The change in refractive error was analyzed according to age. RESULTS: Mean refractive error of the study subjects was -1.82 diopters. As subject age increased, myopia increased from +0.04 diopters at 5 years of age to -2.88 diopters at 20 years of age. Myopia was observed in 66.2% of subjects and accounted for only 18.5% of the 5-year-old subjects, but increased to 84.3% in the 20-year-old subjects. The rate among all study subjects was -0.19 diopters per year. The greatest myopic progression rate (-0.46 diopters per year) among all age groups was in subjects 7 to 9 years of age. Myopic progression continued until 16 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of pediatric myopia subjects between 5 and 20 years of age was high in Korea. The rate of myopic progression was the fastest in subjects 7 to 9 years of age. After 16 years of age, myopic change paused.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Emmetropia , Humans , Korea , Myopia , Nutrition Surveys , Refractive Errors , Young Adult
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