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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915636

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Myofascial syndrome is a chronic muscle pain caused by repetitive motions with stress-related muscle tension. This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the evidence for diagnosing myofascial pain syndrome in trapezius muscle using a pressure algometer and surface electromyography. @*Methods@#The experiments were performed using a total of 10 subjects, and the target locations were determined by means of a pressure algometer in the right upper trapezius muscle. The part with the lowest pain value as the trigger point and the part with the highest pain value as the non-pain trigger point were selected for measuring the locations. The median frequency and average frequency were measured in those locations with electromyography. To check the muscle fatigue, the upper trapezius muscle was moved up and down for 2 seconds at 5-second intervals in 30 seconds. The measured values were evaluated using the independent paired t-test and MannWhitney U-test. @*Results@#The median frequency at the non-trigger point (13.7) was significantly higher than that at the trigger point (7.3). Furthermore, the mean frequency (14.7) at the non-trigger point was significantly higher than that at the trigger point (6.3). @*Conclusion@#The results showed the correlations between the trigger points of the muscle pain and frequency analysis of surface electromyography. Thus, this study may be possible to use as a diagnostic tool for myofascial pain syndrome.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902654

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899947

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899844

ABSTRACT

Background@#Liver fibrosis is defined as the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and scar formation. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been demonstrated to participate in fibrogenesis. S100B is a ligand of RAGE and exerts extracellular functions by inducing a series of signal transduction cascades. However, the involvement of S100B and RAGE in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated S100B and RAGE expression during liver fibrosis in mice that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL). @*Methods@#BDL was performed in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with sham control (n = 26) and BDL (n = 26) groups. Expression levels of S100B, RAGE and fibrotic markers in the livers from both groups at week 1 and 3 after BDL were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Liver fibrotic changes were examined by histological and ultrastructural analysis. @*Results@#Histological staining with Sirius Red and the evaluation of the messenger RNA expression of fibrotic markers showed noticeable periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation. S100B was mainly present in bile duct epithelial cells, and its expression was upregulated in proportion to the ductular reaction during fibrogenesis by BDL. RAGE expression was also increased, and interestingly, triple immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that both S100B and RAGE were expressed in proliferating bile duct epithelial cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the BDL livers. In addition, in rat HSCs (HSC-T6), treatment with recombinant S100B protein significantly increased fibrotic markers in a dose-dependent manner, and RAGE small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed S100B-stimulated upregulation of fibrotic markers compared with cells treated with scramble siRNA and S100B. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the increased expression of S100B and RAGE and the interaction between S100B and RAGE may play an important role in ductular reaction and liver fibrosis induced by BDL.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894950

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892243

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892140

ABSTRACT

Background@#Liver fibrosis is defined as the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and scar formation. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been demonstrated to participate in fibrogenesis. S100B is a ligand of RAGE and exerts extracellular functions by inducing a series of signal transduction cascades. However, the involvement of S100B and RAGE in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated S100B and RAGE expression during liver fibrosis in mice that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL). @*Methods@#BDL was performed in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with sham control (n = 26) and BDL (n = 26) groups. Expression levels of S100B, RAGE and fibrotic markers in the livers from both groups at week 1 and 3 after BDL were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Liver fibrotic changes were examined by histological and ultrastructural analysis. @*Results@#Histological staining with Sirius Red and the evaluation of the messenger RNA expression of fibrotic markers showed noticeable periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation. S100B was mainly present in bile duct epithelial cells, and its expression was upregulated in proportion to the ductular reaction during fibrogenesis by BDL. RAGE expression was also increased, and interestingly, triple immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that both S100B and RAGE were expressed in proliferating bile duct epithelial cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the BDL livers. In addition, in rat HSCs (HSC-T6), treatment with recombinant S100B protein significantly increased fibrotic markers in a dose-dependent manner, and RAGE small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed S100B-stimulated upregulation of fibrotic markers compared with cells treated with scramble siRNA and S100B. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the increased expression of S100B and RAGE and the interaction between S100B and RAGE may play an important role in ductular reaction and liver fibrosis induced by BDL.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835116

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThe main purpose of this study was to identify the effects of physical therapy modalities and exercise therapy on myofascial pain syndrome by assessing the degree of effect size (ES) and related variables.MethodsRelated studies published between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2019were retrieved from national [KCI, RISS, National Assembly Library and DBpia (n = 405)] and international [PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane library (n = 1,600)] databases. According to the selection criteria, 25 studies were selected for review.ResultsThe degree of ES in the physical therapy and exercise therapy combined group (1.83) showed the largest mean ES. The size of the effect according to the number of people to be treated was 41 or more (1.64), and showed the largest mean ES. The size of the effect according to treatment period was 16 to 30 days (1.41). The size of the effect for 6 to 10 treatments (1.51) showed the largest mean ES. Trim and fill results showed that the calibration ES was 0.67.ConclusionPhysical therapy modalities and exercise therapy had a great effect on myofascial pain syndrome in the neck and shoulders, and the effect differed according to the methods of intervention, and the methods of evaluation.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Patients who undergo radical surgery for rectal cancer often experience low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). Symptoms of this syndrome include frequent bowel movements, gas incontinence, fecal incontinence, fragmentation, and urgency. The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity, discriminative validity, and reliability of the Korean version of the LARS score questionnaire. @*Methods@#The English LARS score questionnaire was translated into Korean using the forward-and-back translation method. A total of 146 patients who underwent radical surgery for rectal cancer answered the Korean version of the LARS score questionnaire including an anchor question assessing the impact of bowel function. Participants answered the questionnaire once more after 2 weeks. @*Results@#The Korean LARS score questionnaire showed high convergent validity in terms of high correlation between the LARS score and quality of life (perfect fit 55.5% vs. moderate fit 37.6% vs. no fit 6.8%, respectively; P 8 cm; P = 0.021), and radiotherapy (32 for yes vs. 24 for no; P = 0.001). The LARS score also demonstrated high reliability at test-retest with no difference between scores at the first and second tests (intraclass correlation coefficient: Q1 = 0.932; Q2 = 0.909, Q3 = 0.944, Q4 = 0.931, and Q5 = 0.942; P < 0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#The Korean version of the LARS score questionnaire has proven to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring LARS in Korean patients with rectal cancer.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902640

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of complement C3 (C3) convertase on the strain difference for C3 protein expression in three inbred mice strains, we compared the levels of C2, C3 and C4 mRNA, as well as C3 protein and C3 convertase activity in the serum and liver tissue of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice. The level of mRNA, inactive form (InACF) and active form (ACF) for C3 showed a regular pattern, which they were higher in the FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. However, the level of C3b fragments (C3bα and β) derived from C3 protein were constantly maintained in the liver of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in spite of the strain difference on the transcriptional and translation level of C3. Especially, a reverse pattern of the level of mRNA, InACF and ACF for C3 was observed on the activity level of C3 convertase activity. The highest level of C3 convertase activity was measured in C3H/HeN mice, followed by C57BL/6N and FVB/N mice. In case of C3 convertase components, the level of C2 mRNA was higher in C3H/HeN mice than FVB/N and C57BL/6 N mice, while levels of C4 mRNA were higher in FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. The current study results provide the first scientific evidence that C3 convertase may play complementary role to overcome the strain difference on the C3 protein expression in FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900321

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Endoscopic tattooing is used to mark colorectal lesions for subsequent surgery. As a tattooing agent, India ink has been widely used but is not currently available in Korea. Indocyanine green (ICG) can be applied as an alternative agent. However, studies on colonoscopic tattooing by the direct injection of indocyanine green are lacking. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between an ICG direct injection method and an India ink saline test injection method. @*Methods@#A total of 227 patients who underwent preoperative endoscopic tattooing for colorectal neoplasm (149 patients in the ICG direct injection group and 78 patients in the India ink saline test injection group) were included in the study. The efficacy of the two methods was compared by visualization and safety was compared by evaluating the perioperative tattooing complications. @*Results@#The visualization of lesions in the ICG group was not different from that of the India ink group (p=0.42, 96.0% vs 98.7%, respectively). Only one patient in the ICG group had abdominal pain related to tattooing, but no complications developed in the India ink group. @*Conclusion@#Considering the good visualization and low complication rate, the direct injection of ICG can be used as an alternative tattooing method.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900150

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Some patients who have undergone surgery due to lumbar disc herniation still complain of leg pain and other abnormal sensations. Therefore, the study examined the effects of the neurodynamics on pain and other abnormal nerve sensations in post-operated patients with lumbar disc herniation. @*Methods@#The participants of this study comprised 20 adults (10 males and 10 females) who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation. The subjects were classified into two groups of 10 patients each in the lower extremity neurodynamics (LEN) and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) groups. Each intervention was applied twice a day for one week and was composed of two different exercise patterns; one was applied by a therapist, and the other was performed by the patients themselves. The data were analyzed using assessment methods of Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI), Toronto clinical neuropathy scoring system (TCNSS), Sympathetic Skin Response (SSR) test, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scale. @*Results@#Significant differences in TCNSS, DITI, ODI scale were observed between the LEN and LSE group (p0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results indicated that neurodynamics treatment is effective in pain reduction and abnormal sensations, such as leg muscle cramps, in post-operated patients with lumbar disc herniation.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900149

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the inter-rater reliability of cervical proprioception, dynamic balance ability, and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion using STARmat®, which is a practical clinical tool that can provide practitioners and patients with quantitative and qualitative results. @*Methods@#Thirty healthy young subjects were enrolled in this study, and two well-trained physical therapists participated as a tester. Two testers measured the cervical joint position error at the starting position after neck flexion, extension, side bending, and rotation; three dynamic balance tests, including anterior excursion, anterior reaching with single leg balance, and posterior diagonal excursion; and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion using STARmat®. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability of the tests. @*Results@#The inter-rater reliability for the cervical proprioception ranged from moderate to good (0.66 to 0.83), particularly for flexion (0.82), extension (0.70), right side bending (0.73), left side bending (0.71), right rotation (0.83), and left rotation (0.66). For the dynamic balance, the inter-rater reliability ranged from good to excellent (0.87 to 0.91), particularly for anterior excursion (0.86), posterior diagonal excursion (0.87 to 0.89), and anterior reaching with a single leg balance (0.90 to 0.91). In addition, for the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, the ICC for the inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.95 to 0.96. @*Conclusion@#STARmat® is a reliable tool for measuring cervical proprioception, dynamic balance tests, and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy young adults.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894936

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of complement C3 (C3) convertase on the strain difference for C3 protein expression in three inbred mice strains, we compared the levels of C2, C3 and C4 mRNA, as well as C3 protein and C3 convertase activity in the serum and liver tissue of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice. The level of mRNA, inactive form (InACF) and active form (ACF) for C3 showed a regular pattern, which they were higher in the FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. However, the level of C3b fragments (C3bα and β) derived from C3 protein were constantly maintained in the liver of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in spite of the strain difference on the transcriptional and translation level of C3. Especially, a reverse pattern of the level of mRNA, InACF and ACF for C3 was observed on the activity level of C3 convertase activity. The highest level of C3 convertase activity was measured in C3H/HeN mice, followed by C57BL/6N and FVB/N mice. In case of C3 convertase components, the level of C2 mRNA was higher in C3H/HeN mice than FVB/N and C57BL/6 N mice, while levels of C4 mRNA were higher in FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. The current study results provide the first scientific evidence that C3 convertase may play complementary role to overcome the strain difference on the C3 protein expression in FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892617

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Endoscopic tattooing is used to mark colorectal lesions for subsequent surgery. As a tattooing agent, India ink has been widely used but is not currently available in Korea. Indocyanine green (ICG) can be applied as an alternative agent. However, studies on colonoscopic tattooing by the direct injection of indocyanine green are lacking. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between an ICG direct injection method and an India ink saline test injection method. @*Methods@#A total of 227 patients who underwent preoperative endoscopic tattooing for colorectal neoplasm (149 patients in the ICG direct injection group and 78 patients in the India ink saline test injection group) were included in the study. The efficacy of the two methods was compared by visualization and safety was compared by evaluating the perioperative tattooing complications. @*Results@#The visualization of lesions in the ICG group was not different from that of the India ink group (p=0.42, 96.0% vs 98.7%, respectively). Only one patient in the ICG group had abdominal pain related to tattooing, but no complications developed in the India ink group. @*Conclusion@#Considering the good visualization and low complication rate, the direct injection of ICG can be used as an alternative tattooing method.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892446

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Some patients who have undergone surgery due to lumbar disc herniation still complain of leg pain and other abnormal sensations. Therefore, the study examined the effects of the neurodynamics on pain and other abnormal nerve sensations in post-operated patients with lumbar disc herniation. @*Methods@#The participants of this study comprised 20 adults (10 males and 10 females) who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation. The subjects were classified into two groups of 10 patients each in the lower extremity neurodynamics (LEN) and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) groups. Each intervention was applied twice a day for one week and was composed of two different exercise patterns; one was applied by a therapist, and the other was performed by the patients themselves. The data were analyzed using assessment methods of Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI), Toronto clinical neuropathy scoring system (TCNSS), Sympathetic Skin Response (SSR) test, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scale. @*Results@#Significant differences in TCNSS, DITI, ODI scale were observed between the LEN and LSE group (p0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results indicated that neurodynamics treatment is effective in pain reduction and abnormal sensations, such as leg muscle cramps, in post-operated patients with lumbar disc herniation.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892445

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the inter-rater reliability of cervical proprioception, dynamic balance ability, and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion using STARmat®, which is a practical clinical tool that can provide practitioners and patients with quantitative and qualitative results. @*Methods@#Thirty healthy young subjects were enrolled in this study, and two well-trained physical therapists participated as a tester. Two testers measured the cervical joint position error at the starting position after neck flexion, extension, side bending, and rotation; three dynamic balance tests, including anterior excursion, anterior reaching with single leg balance, and posterior diagonal excursion; and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion using STARmat®. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability of the tests. @*Results@#The inter-rater reliability for the cervical proprioception ranged from moderate to good (0.66 to 0.83), particularly for flexion (0.82), extension (0.70), right side bending (0.73), left side bending (0.71), right rotation (0.83), and left rotation (0.66). For the dynamic balance, the inter-rater reliability ranged from good to excellent (0.87 to 0.91), particularly for anterior excursion (0.86), posterior diagonal excursion (0.87 to 0.89), and anterior reaching with a single leg balance (0.90 to 0.91). In addition, for the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, the ICC for the inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.95 to 0.96. @*Conclusion@#STARmat® is a reliable tool for measuring cervical proprioception, dynamic balance tests, and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy young adults.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918398

ABSTRACT

Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) is a known herbal medicine used in the treatment of some chronic diseases including constipation, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and obesity. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that predict the laxative effects induced by RLP treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation rats after administration of RLP extract (EtRLP) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The urine volume and amounts, and weights and water contents of stools were significantly recovered in the Lop + EtRLP treated group as compared to the No group, whereas body weight and food intake maintained constant levels. Also, significant recoveries in the thickness of mucosa and muscle were detected in the colon of the Lop + EtRLP treated group. Furthermore, pattern recognition showed absolutely different clustering of the serum analysis parameters when comparing the Lop treated group and Lop + EtRLP treated group. Of the 33 endogenous metabolites, 7 amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, threonine and valine) and 8 endogenous metabolites (betaine, creatine, glucose, taurine, ethanol, lactate, glycerol and succinate) were dramatically increased in the Lop + EtRLP treated SD rats. These results provide the first evidence pertaining to metabolic changes in the constipation rats treated with Lop + EtRLP. Additionally, these findings correlate with changes observed in 15 metabolites during the laxative effects of EtRLP.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916182

ABSTRACT

Although colorectal cancer emerged as a major public health concern, its incidence as well as mortality are decreasing during recent years in Korea. Most important contributor for these reduction in disease burden is colorectal cancer screening. Besides screening, primary prevention through risk factor modification could reduce 10% to 54% of colorectal cancer incidence. These factors include limiting alcohol, processed and red meat consumption, and cigarette smoking, maintaining optimal weight, and engaging physical activities.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
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