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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919630

ABSTRACT

Digital technologies have emerged in various dimensions of human life, ranging from education to professional services to wellbeing. In particular, health products and services have expanded by the use and development of artificial intelligence, mobile health applications, and wearable electronic devices. Such advancements have enabled accurate and updated tracking and modeling of health conditions. For instance, digital health technologies are capable of measuring environmental pollution and predicting its adverse health effects. Several health conditions, including chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, can be exacerbated by pollution. These diseases impose substantial health burdens with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, efforts have been made to develop digital technologies to alleviate such conditions. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has facilitated the application of telemedicine and telemonitoring for patients with chronic airway diseases. This article reviews current trends and studies in digital technology utilization for investigating and managing environmental exposure and chronic airway diseases. First, we discussed the recent progression of digital technologies in general environmental healthcare. Then, we summarized the capacity of digital technologies in predicting exacerbation and self-management of airway diseases. Concluding these reviews, we provided suggestions to improve digital health technologies’ abilities to reduce the adverse effects of environmental exposure in chronic airway diseases, based on personal exposure-response modeling.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919470

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although it is known that inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use may increase the risk of respiratory infection, its influence on the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between ICS use and the positivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with chronic respiratory diseases. @*Methods@#Nationwide data of 44,968 individuals with chronic respiratory diseases tested for SARS-CoV-2 until May 15, 2021 were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Welfare and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea. The positivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was retrospectively analysed according to the prescription, type, and dose of ICS taken one year before SARS-CoV-2 test. @*Results@#Among 44,968 individuals tested, 931 (2.1%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. A total of 7,019 patients (15.6%) were prescribed ICS one year prior to being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Low, medium, and high doses of ICS were prescribed in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 6.5% of total cases, respectively. Among types of ICS, budesonide, fluticasone, beclomethasone, and ciclesonide were prescribed in 3.7%, 8.9%, 2.3%, and 0.6% of total cases, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed no significant increase in infection with ICS use (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.03). Moreover, there were no associations between the positivity of infection and the dose or type of ICS prescribed. @*Conclusion@#Prior ICS use did not increase the positivity for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, different doses or types of ICS did not affect this positivity.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 702-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904230

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to determine the relationship between environmental exposure and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A group of 150 patients with NTM-PD and a control group of 217 patients with other respiratory diseases were prospectively enrolled between June 2018 and December 2020 in Seoul, Korea. They were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire, and their medical records were reviewed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The mean ages of the NTM-PD and control groups were similar (63.8±9.2 years vs. 63.5±10.0 years; p=0.737), and most patients were female (76.0% vs. 68.7%; p=0.157) and nonsmokers (82.0% vs. 72.8%; p=0.021). Mycobacterium avium (49.3%) was the most commonly identified strain among NTM-PD patients, followed by M. intracellulare (32.0%) and M. abscessus subspecies massiliense (12.7%). There were no differences in housing type or frequency of soil- or pet-related exposure between the case and the control groups. However, in subgroup analysis excluding patients with M. intracellulare infection, more case patients frequently visited public baths ≥1 time/week (35.3% vs. 19.4%, p=0.003); this remained significant after multivariate analysis (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.58–5.17). @*Conclusion@#Frequent exposure to water at public baths might affect the odds of contracting NTM-PD, excluding individuals infected with M. intracellulare strains.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 702-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896526

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to determine the relationship between environmental exposure and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A group of 150 patients with NTM-PD and a control group of 217 patients with other respiratory diseases were prospectively enrolled between June 2018 and December 2020 in Seoul, Korea. They were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire, and their medical records were reviewed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The mean ages of the NTM-PD and control groups were similar (63.8±9.2 years vs. 63.5±10.0 years; p=0.737), and most patients were female (76.0% vs. 68.7%; p=0.157) and nonsmokers (82.0% vs. 72.8%; p=0.021). Mycobacterium avium (49.3%) was the most commonly identified strain among NTM-PD patients, followed by M. intracellulare (32.0%) and M. abscessus subspecies massiliense (12.7%). There were no differences in housing type or frequency of soil- or pet-related exposure between the case and the control groups. However, in subgroup analysis excluding patients with M. intracellulare infection, more case patients frequently visited public baths ≥1 time/week (35.3% vs. 19.4%, p=0.003); this remained significant after multivariate analysis (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.58–5.17). @*Conclusion@#Frequent exposure to water at public baths might affect the odds of contracting NTM-PD, excluding individuals infected with M. intracellulare strains.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875499

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Delayed diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are major concerns for TB control. We evaluated characteristics of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB who received a delayed diagnosis and identified risk factors that may have contributed to this delay. @*Methods@#We reviewed medical records of patients with smear-negative culture-positive pulmonary TB treated at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients who initiated anti-TB treatment after positive cultures were included in the missed TB group, and those who initiated empirical treatment before positive cultures were included in the control group. @*Results@#Of 220 patients included, 117 (53.2%) and 103 (46.8%) were in the missed TB and control groups, respectively. Patients in the missed TB group were older (p = 0.001) and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.019). Comorbidities (66.9% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.003) and immunocompromised patients (33.1% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.035) were more common in the missed TB group than in the control group. Old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.030; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012 to 1.048; p = 0.001), high BMI (OR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.237; p = 0.042), and negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results (OR, 9.551; 95% CI, 4.925 to 18.521; p < 0.001) were associated with delayed diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#In more than half of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB, the diagnosis was delayed. Patients with delayed TB diagnosis were older, had higher BMI, and negative PCR results.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837371

ABSTRACT

Background@#Flexible bronchoscopy is one of the essential procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of hypoxia in adults undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under sedation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 2,520 patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy under sedation at our tertiary care university hospital in South Korea January 1, 2013–December 31, 2014. Hypoxia was defined as more than 5%-point reduction in the baseline percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) or SpO2 1 minute during the procedure. @*Results@#The mean age was 64.7±13.5, and 565 patients developed hypoxia during the procedure. The mean sedation duration and midazolam dose for sedation were 31.1 minutes and 3.9 mg, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that older age, a low forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), use of endobronchial ultrasound, the duration of sedation, and the midazolam dose were associated with the occurrence of hypoxia during the procedure, while the multivariate analysis found that age >60 (odds ratio [OR], 1.32), a low FEV1 (OR, 0.99), and a longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes; OR, 1.33) were significant risk factors. @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that patients older than age 60 and those with a low FEV1 tend to develop hypoxia during the bronchoscopy under sedation. Also, longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes) was a significant risk factor for hypoxia.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1034-1041, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833335

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Isoniazid (INH) mono-resistant tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is a highly prevalent type of drug-resistant TB, possibly associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes. However, definitive guidelines on an optimal treatment regimen and duration for Hr-TB are currently under discussion. We evaluated the characteristics and treatment outcomes of Hr-TB patients. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Hr-TB patients treated at a South Korean tertiary referral hospital from January 2005 to December 2018. @*Results@#We included 195 Hr-TB patients. 113 (57.9%) were male, and the median age was 56.6 [interquartile range, 40.2–68.6] years. Mutations in katG were the most frequent [54 (56.3%)], followed by those in the inhA [34 (35.4%)]. Favorable and unfavorable outcomes were noted in 164 (84.1%) and 31 (15.9%) patients, respectively. Smoking history [odds ratio (OR)=5.606, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.695–18.543, p=0.005], low albumin level (OR=0.246, 95% CI: 0.104–0.578, p=0.001), and positive acid-fast bacilli culture at 2 months (OR=7.853, 95% CI: 1.246–49.506, p=0.028) were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusion@#A tailored strategy targeting high-risk patients is imperative for improved treatment outcomes. Further research on the rapid and accurate detection of resistance to INH and other companion drugs is warranted.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), retinoic acid (RA), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MEK signaling play critical roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. We investigated the effect of RA and the role of these signaling molecules on the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) induced by TGF-β1. METHODS: A549 epithelial cells and CCD-11Lu fibroblasts were incubated and stimulated with or without all-trans RA (ATRA) and TGF-β1 and with MAPK or MEK inhibitors. The levels of p-Smad2/3 were analyzed by western blotting. For animal models, we studied three experimental mouse groups: control, bleomycin, and bleomycin+ATRA group. Changes in histopathology, lung injury score, and levels of TGF-β1 and Smad3 were evaluated at 1 and 3 weeks. RESULTS: When A549 cells were pre-stimulated with TGF-β1 prior to RA treatment, RA completely inhibited the p-Smad2/3. However, when A549 cells were pre-treated with RA prior to TGF-β1 stimulation, RA did not completely suppress the p-Smad2/3. When A549 cells were pre-treated with MAPK inhibitor, TGF-β1 failed to phosphorylate Smad2/3. In fibroblasts, p38 MAPK inhibitor suppressed TGF-β1-induced p-Smad2. In a bleomycin-induced lung injury mouse model, RA decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 at 1 and 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: RA had inhibitory effects on the phosphorylation of Smad induced by TGF-β1 in vitro, and RA also decreased the expression of TGF-β1 at 1 and 3 weeks in vivo. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a MAPK inhibitor showed a preventative effect on TGF-β1/Smad phosphorylation in epithelial cells. As a result, a combination of RA and MAPK inhibitors may suppress the TGF-β1-induced lung injury and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bleomycin , Blotting, Western , Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , In Vitro Techniques , Lung Injury , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Models, Animal , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Smad Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factors , Tretinoin
11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 160-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721992

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia is common and important infectious disease in adults. This work represents an update to 2009 treatment guideline for community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. The present clinical practice guideline provides revised recommendations on the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of community-acquired pneumonia in adults aged 19 years or older, taking into account the current situation regarding community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. This guideline may help reduce the difference in the level of treatment between medical institutions and medical staff, and enable efficient treatment. It may also reduce antibiotic resistance by preventing antibiotic misuse against acute lower respiratory tract infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Communicable Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Korea , Medical Staff , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 160-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721487

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired pneumonia is common and important infectious disease in adults. This work represents an update to 2009 treatment guideline for community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. The present clinical practice guideline provides revised recommendations on the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of community-acquired pneumonia in adults aged 19 years or older, taking into account the current situation regarding community-acquired pneumonia in Korea. This guideline may help reduce the difference in the level of treatment between medical institutions and medical staff, and enable efficient treatment. It may also reduce antibiotic resistance by preventing antibiotic misuse against acute lower respiratory tract infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Communicable Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Korea , Medical Staff , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 604-612, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188808

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Serum cystatin C has emerged as a reliable marker of AKI. We sought to assess the value of serum cystatin C for early detection and prediction of renal function recovery in patients with sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sepsis patients (113 AKI patients and 49 non-AKI patients) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels and glomerular filtration rate were measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. RESULTS: Serum cystatin C levels were significantly higher in AKI patients than in non-AKI patients at all time points. Multivariate analysis showed that only serum cystatin C levels on day 0 were associated with AKI development [odds ratio (OR)=19.30; 95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.58–144.50, p<0.001]. Linear mixed model analysis showed significant variation in cystatin C levels between the recovery and non-recovery groups over time (p=0.001). High levels of serum cystatin C at day 0 (OR=1.64; 95% CI=1.00–2.68, p=0.048) were associated with recovery of AKI. CONCLUSION: Serum cystatin C level was found to be associated with the development and worsening of AKI in ICU patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Creatinine , Critical Illness , Cystatin C , Diagnosis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney , Multivariate Analysis , Recovery of Function , Sepsis
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105509

ABSTRACT

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by chronic airway inflammation resulting in airflow limitation. They include various phenotypes and endotypes in their disease entities. For that reason, they lack proper biomarkers and epoch-making progresses in treatment nowadays. Healthy airway has been believed to be sterile traditionally. However, with the help of nonculture sequencing techniques, researchers discovered that it is full of the commensal and symbiotic microbial flora. Therefore, microbiome has emerged as a possible biomarker and a clue to understand the pathogenesis of airway disease. Microbiome research in asthma has focused on the association between characteristics of microbiome, such as composition and diversity. However, now it refers to the role of microbiome, including Proteobacteria, in the development and pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases. Microbiome research in COPD has revealed its different composition according to the existence and severity of the disease. Also, differences in microbiome composition according to exacerbation state or specific treatment of COPD are reported. Therefore, many researchers pay attention to the possible role of microbiome as a biomarker or a treatment target in asthma and COPD. Herein, we review recent studies on microbiome research in asthma and COPD.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Biomarkers , Inflammation , Microbiota , Phenotype , Proteobacteria , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Research Design
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite many ongoing, prospective studies on the topic, sepsis still remains one of the main causes of death in hospital. The hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has a similar molecular structure to that of insulin. IGF-1 exerts anabolic effects and plays important roles in both normal physiology and pathologic processes. Previous studies have observed low serum IGF-1 level in patients with critical illnesses. Here, we evaluated changes in IGF-1 level based on survival of septic patients. METHODS: We evaluated 140 patients with sepsis and septic shock (21 with sepsis and 119 with septic shock) admitted to the intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital in Korea. Serum IGF-1 level was measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Patients with liver disease were excluded from this study. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: Patients with septic shock had significantly lower serum IGF-1 level on days 1 and 3 than patients without septic shock (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Generally, there was a negative relationship between IGF-1 and serum cortisol levels; however, this relationship was only significant on day 3 (p = 0.029). Furthermore, renin showed significantly negative correlation with IGF-1 on day 3 (p = 0.038). IGF-1 level did not show significant difference between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that IGF-1 was associated with septic shock, and that the IGF-1 axis is severely disrupted in septic patients. Additionally, serum cortisol and renin levels were associated with IGF-1 level.


Subject(s)
Anabolic Agents , Cause of Death , Critical Illness , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Liver Diseases , Molecular Structure , Pathologic Processes , Physiology , Prospective Studies , Renin , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Survivors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83859

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Bronchiolitis , Bronchitis, Chronic , Cough , Expert Testimony , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Neoplasms , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Peritoneal Dialysis , Proton Pumps , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Tuberculosis
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 239-246, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61680

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As mental health problems may play an important role in initiating and maintaining cigarette smoking in females and there are an increasing number of female smokers, we evaluated the relationship between smoking status and mental health problems including depression and suicide ideation in women in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed the 5-year cumulative data (19 years of age or older, n=32,184) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between cigarette smoking status and mental health parameters while controlling for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: Among current smokers, females showed higher lifetime prevalence in having a depressive episode, a doctor-diagnosed major depression, a current diagnosis of depression, or receiving treatment for depression in comparison with males. In addition, females were more likely to report on having a depressive episode, suicidal ideation and attempts, and psychiatric counselling within the previous year, as compared to males. Female former smokers showed intermediate characteristics in parameters of mental health status within the previous year, ranking between lifetime non-smokers and the current smokers. CONCLUSION: Identifying the factors related to mental health status among current smokers can increase opportunities for an early intervention and help reduce the prevalence of smoking and increase smoking cessation rates particularly in females. Developing adaptive coping strategies other than smoking in female youth is potentially important in reducing the initiation of smoking.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Depression , Diagnosis , Early Intervention, Educational , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Mental Health , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42557

ABSTRACT

Severe hyperammonemia can occur as a result of inherited or acquired liver enzyme defects in the urea cycle, among which ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common form. We report a very rare case of a 45-year-old Korean male who was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe septic shock with acute respiratory failure caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. During his ICU stay with ventilator care, the patient suffered from marked hyperammonemia (>1,700 µg/dL) with abrupt mental change leading to life-threatening cerebral edema. Despite every effort including continuous renal replacement therapy and use of a molecular adsorbent recirculating system (extracorporeal liver support-albumin dialysis) to lower his serum ammonia level, the patient was not recovered. The lethal hyperammonemia in the patient was later proven to be a manifestation of acquired liver enzyme defect known as OTCD, which is triggered by serious catabolic conditions, such as severe septic shock with acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Brain Edema , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Intensive Care Units , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease , Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase , Ornithine , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Shock, Septic , Urea , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite many ongoing, prospective studies on the topic, sepsis still remains one of the main causes of death in hospital. The hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has a similar molecular structure to that of insulin. IGF-1 exerts anabolic effects and plays important roles in both normal physiology and pathologic processes. Previous studies have observed low serum IGF-1 level in patients with critical illnesses. Here, we evaluated changes in IGF-1 level based on survival of septic patients. METHODS: We evaluated 140 patients with sepsis and septic shock (21 with sepsis and 119 with septic shock) admitted to the intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital in Korea. Serum IGF-1 level was measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Patients with liver disease were excluded from this study. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: Patients with septic shock had significantly lower serum IGF-1 level on days 1 and 3 than patients without septic shock (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Generally, there was a negative relationship between IGF-1 and serum cortisol levels; however, this relationship was only significant on day 3 (p = 0.029). Furthermore, renin showed significantly negative correlation with IGF-1 on day 3 (p = 0.038). IGF-1 level did not show significant difference between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that IGF-1 was associated with septic shock, and that the IGF-1 axis is severely disrupted in septic patients. Additionally, serum cortisol and renin levels were associated with IGF-1 level.


Subject(s)
Anabolic Agents , Cause of Death , Critical Illness , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Liver Diseases , Molecular Structure , Pathologic Processes , Physiology , Prospective Studies , Renin , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Survivors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770933

ABSTRACT

Severe hyperammonemia can occur as a result of inherited or acquired liver enzyme defects in the urea cycle, among which ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common form. We report a very rare case of a 45-year-old Korean male who was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe septic shock with acute respiratory failure caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. During his ICU stay with ventilator care, the patient suffered from marked hyperammonemia (>1,700 µg/dL) with abrupt mental change leading to life-threatening cerebral edema. Despite every effort including continuous renal replacement therapy and use of a molecular adsorbent recirculating system (extracorporeal liver support-albumin dialysis) to lower his serum ammonia level, the patient was not recovered. The lethal hyperammonemia in the patient was later proven to be a manifestation of acquired liver enzyme defect known as OTCD, which is triggered by serious catabolic conditions, such as severe septic shock with acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Brain Edema , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Intensive Care Units , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Deficiency Disease , Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase , Ornithine , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Shock, Septic , Urea , Ventilators, Mechanical
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