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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874776

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine proposed the first Korean guideline on prenatal aneuploidy screening and diagnostic testing, in April 2019. The clinical practice guideline (CPG) was developed for Korean women using an adaptation process based on good-quality practice guidelines, previously developed in other countries, on prenatal screening and invasive diagnostic testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities. We reviewed current guidelines and developed a Korean CPG on invasive diagnostic testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities according to the adaptation process. Recommendations for selected 11 key questions are: 1) Considering the increased risk of fetal loss in invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for fetal genetic disorders, it is not recommended for all pregnant women aged over 35 years. 2) Because early amniocentesis performed before 14 weeks of pregnancy increases the risk of fetal loss and malformation, chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is recommended for pregnant women who will undergo invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for fetal genetic disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, CVS before 9 weeks of pregnancy also increases the risk of fetal loss and deformity. Thus, CVS is recommended after 9 weeks of pregnancy. 3) Amniocentesis is recommended to distinguish true fetal mosaicism from confined placental mosaicism. 4) Anti-immunoglobulin should be administered within 72 hours after the invasive diagnostic testing. 5) Since there is a high risk of vertical transmission, an invasive prenatal diagnostic testing is recommended according to the clinician's discretion with consideration of the condition of the pregnant woman. 6) The use of antibiotics is not recommended before or after an invasive diagnostic testing. 7) The chromosomal microarray test as an alternative to the conventional cytogenetic test is not recommended for all pregnant women who will undergo an invasive diagnostic testing. 8) Amniocentesis before 14 weeks of gestation is not recommended because it increases the risk of fetal loss and malformation. 9) CVS before 9 weeks of gestation is not recommended because it increases the risk of fetal loss and malformation. 10) Although the risk of fetal loss associated with invasive prenatal diagnostic testing (amniocentesis and CVS) may vary based on the proficiency of the operator, the risk of fetal loss due to invasive prenatal diagnostic testing is higher in twin pregnancies than in singleton pregnancies. 11) When a monochorionic twin is identified in early pregnancy and the growth and structure of both fetuses are consistent, an invasive prenatal diagnostic testing can be performed on one fetus alone. However, an invasive prenatal diagnostic testing is recommended for each fetus in cases of pregnancy conceived via in vitro fertilization, or in cases in which the growth of both fetuses differs, or in those in which at least one fetus has a structural abnormality. The guidelines were established and approved by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences. This guideline is revised and presented every 5 years.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874774

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the Korean Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine developed the first Korean clinical practice guidelines for prenatal aneuploidy screening and diagnostic testing. These guidelines were developed by adapting established clinical practice guidelines in other countries that were searched systematically, and the guidelines aim to assist in decision making of healthcare providers providing prenatal care and to be used as a source for education and communication with pregnant women in Korea. This article delineates clinical practice guidelines specifically for maternal serum screening for fetal aneuploidy and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening. A total of 19 key questions (12 for maternal serum and 7 for cfDNA screening) were defined. The main recommendations are: 1) Pregnant women should be informed of common fetal aneuploidy that can be detected, risks for chromosomal abnormality according to the maternal age, detection rate and false positive rate for common fetal aneuploidy with each screening test, limitations, as well as the benefits and risks of invasive diagnostic testing, 2) It is ideal to give counseling about prenatal aneuploidy screening and diagnostic testing at the first prenatal visit, and counseling is recommended to be given early in pregnancy, 3) All pregnant women should be informed about maternal serum screening regardless of their age, 4) cfDNA screening can be used for the screening of trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex-chromosome aneuploidy. It is not recommended for the screening of microdeletion, 5) The optimal timing of cfDNA screening is 10 weeks of gestation and beyond, and 6) cfDNA screening is not recommended for women with multiple gestations. The guideline was reviewed and approved by the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899940

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899918

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897877

ABSTRACT

Background@#In Korea, in the case of patients with significant bleeding symptoms due to unknown causes, there are very few studies that evaluate bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease (VWD ). VWD should be considered as an important causative factor in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and unexplained menorrhagia. This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of VWD and the significance of evaluation for VWD in premenopausal women in Korea with menorrhagia and ID A. @*Methods@#Premenopausal women who were diagnosed with IDA and menorrhagia from January 2009 to March 2020 were included. IDA was diagnosed by either low ferritin or transferrin saturation with microcytic anemia. Menorrhagia was evaluated based on the medical records obtained from a gynecologist. VWD diagnosis was defined as von Willebrand factor antigen <50% and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity <50%, which were low according to the Hospital for Sick Children criteria. @*Results@#Out of a total of 120 patients, only 12 were tested for VWD, all of whom were pediatric patients. Four of the 12 pediatric patients tested were diagnosed with VWD and 4 of the 120 (3.3%) patients with IDA and menorrhagia were diagnosed with VWD. Three out of the 4 patients was diagnosed with VWD by repeat screening test. Although all parameters are not statistically significant, VWD patients tended to have ID A at a younger age (13.25 vs. 15.00 years) and were more likely to have recurrent IDA than patients without VWD. @*Conclusion@#Clinical doctors should consider VWD if patients have menorrhagia with ID A. If VWD is suspected, repeated VWD screening tests are necessary to increase the diagnosis rate. Accurate diagnosis of VWD in patients with significant bleeding may facilitate decisions for appropriate treatment.

6.
Korean Medical Education Review ; (3): 128-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894904

ABSTRACT

This study examined the relationships among personality traits, coping efficacy, and academic stress in medical and non-medical students in South Korea, and investigated the mediating effect of coping efficacy in the relationship between personality traits and academic stress. The study group comprised 210 medical students and 175 non-medical students. They were asked to rate their personality traits, coping efficacy, and academic stress. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS ver. 26.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and AMOS ver. 26.0 (IBM Corp.). Medical students scored higher for examination stress and lower for extroversion than non-medical students. In both groups, extroversion and conscientiousness positively affected coping efficacy, while neuroticism influenced it negatively. Neuroticism directly influenced all types of academic stress in both groups, while extroversion and conscientiousness only had direct effects on examination stress among medical students. Coping efficacy mediated the associations between personality traits and academic stress, except for the relationship between neuroticism and grade stress among medical students. The study indicates that coping efficacy had a significant effect on relieving academic stress among students with higher scores for extroversion and conscientiousness. Efforts should be made to decrease neuroticism to lower academic stress, as the relationship between neuroticism and academic stress is not directly influenced by coping efficacy. The implications of these results are discussed regarding a consultation system for students, especially those in medical school.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893790

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To determine basic patient characteristics and biomarkers to help in the early diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with pneumonia who visited the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective study evaluated patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or COVID-19 pneumonia in ED at four tertiary medical centers between February 1 and March 31, 2020. Parameters related to the differential diagnosis between CAP and COVID-19 were investigated. Clinical characteristics and laboratory results of biomarkers were analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 81 patients presented to the ED with COVID-19 pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that monocyte count [odds ratio (OR): 0.996; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.994–0.999] and pneumonia severity index (PSI) [OR: 1.025; 95% CI: 1.002–1.049] were associated with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. The area under the curve comprising the combination of monocyte and PSI was 0.789. @*Conclusion@#Differential diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia from pneumonia patients who visited the emergency room can be made by monocyte count and PSI score.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892236

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892214

ABSTRACT

We investigated the relationship between glucose variability and frailty. Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled. The FRAIL scale was used for frailty assessment, and participants were classified into ‘healthy & pre-frail’ (n = 24) and ‘frail’ (n = 24) groups. A continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system was used for a mean of 6.9 days and standardized CGM metrics were analyzed: mean glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), coefficient of variation, and time in range, time above range (TAR), and time below range. The demographics did not differ between groups. However, among the CGM metrics, mean glucose, GMI, and TAR in the postprandial periods were higher in the frail group (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, the post-lunch TAR (OR = 1.12, P = 0.019) affected the prevalence of frailty. Higher glucose variability with marked daytime postprandial hyperglycemia is significantly associated with frailty in older patients with diabetes.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890173

ABSTRACT

Background@#In Korea, in the case of patients with significant bleeding symptoms due to unknown causes, there are very few studies that evaluate bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease (VWD ). VWD should be considered as an important causative factor in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and unexplained menorrhagia. This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of VWD and the significance of evaluation for VWD in premenopausal women in Korea with menorrhagia and ID A. @*Methods@#Premenopausal women who were diagnosed with IDA and menorrhagia from January 2009 to March 2020 were included. IDA was diagnosed by either low ferritin or transferrin saturation with microcytic anemia. Menorrhagia was evaluated based on the medical records obtained from a gynecologist. VWD diagnosis was defined as von Willebrand factor antigen <50% and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity <50%, which were low according to the Hospital for Sick Children criteria. @*Results@#Out of a total of 120 patients, only 12 were tested for VWD, all of whom were pediatric patients. Four of the 12 pediatric patients tested were diagnosed with VWD and 4 of the 120 (3.3%) patients with IDA and menorrhagia were diagnosed with VWD. Three out of the 4 patients was diagnosed with VWD by repeat screening test. Although all parameters are not statistically significant, VWD patients tended to have ID A at a younger age (13.25 vs. 15.00 years) and were more likely to have recurrent IDA than patients without VWD. @*Conclusion@#Clinical doctors should consider VWD if patients have menorrhagia with ID A. If VWD is suspected, repeated VWD screening tests are necessary to increase the diagnosis rate. Accurate diagnosis of VWD in patients with significant bleeding may facilitate decisions for appropriate treatment.

11.
Korean Medical Education Review ; (3): 128-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902608

ABSTRACT

This study examined the relationships among personality traits, coping efficacy, and academic stress in medical and non-medical students in South Korea, and investigated the mediating effect of coping efficacy in the relationship between personality traits and academic stress. The study group comprised 210 medical students and 175 non-medical students. They were asked to rate their personality traits, coping efficacy, and academic stress. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS ver. 26.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and AMOS ver. 26.0 (IBM Corp.). Medical students scored higher for examination stress and lower for extroversion than non-medical students. In both groups, extroversion and conscientiousness positively affected coping efficacy, while neuroticism influenced it negatively. Neuroticism directly influenced all types of academic stress in both groups, while extroversion and conscientiousness only had direct effects on examination stress among medical students. Coping efficacy mediated the associations between personality traits and academic stress, except for the relationship between neuroticism and grade stress among medical students. The study indicates that coping efficacy had a significant effect on relieving academic stress among students with higher scores for extroversion and conscientiousness. Efforts should be made to decrease neuroticism to lower academic stress, as the relationship between neuroticism and academic stress is not directly influenced by coping efficacy. The implications of these results are discussed regarding a consultation system for students, especially those in medical school.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901494

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To determine basic patient characteristics and biomarkers to help in the early diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with pneumonia who visited the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective study evaluated patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or COVID-19 pneumonia in ED at four tertiary medical centers between February 1 and March 31, 2020. Parameters related to the differential diagnosis between CAP and COVID-19 were investigated. Clinical characteristics and laboratory results of biomarkers were analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 81 patients presented to the ED with COVID-19 pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that monocyte count [odds ratio (OR): 0.996; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.994–0.999] and pneumonia severity index (PSI) [OR: 1.025; 95% CI: 1.002–1.049] were associated with diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. The area under the curve comprising the combination of monocyte and PSI was 0.789. @*Conclusion@#Differential diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia from pneumonia patients who visited the emergency room can be made by monocyte count and PSI score.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917580

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to create a 3D printable snack dish model for the elderly with low food or fluid intake along with barriers towards eating. @*Methods@#The decision was made by the hybrid-brainstorming method for creating the 3D model. Experts were assigned based on their professional areas such as clinical nutrition, food hygiene and chemical safety for the creation process. After serial feedback processes, the grape shape was suggested as the final model. After various concept sketching and making clay models, 3D-printing technology was applied to produce a prototype. @*Results@#3D design modeling process was conducted by SolidWorks program. After considering Dietary reference intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) and other survey data, appropriate supplementary water serving volume was decided as 285 mL which meets 30% of Adequate intake. To consider printing output conditions, this model has six grapes in one bunch with a safety lid. The FDM printer and PLA filaments were used for food hygiene and safety. To stimulate cognitive functions and interests of eating, numbers one to six was engraved on the lid of the final 3D model. @*Conclusions@#The newly-developed 3D model was designed to increase intakes of nutrients and water in the elderly with dementia during snack time. Since dementia patients often forget to eat, engraving numbers on the grapes was conducted to stimulate cognitive function related to the swallowing and chewing process. We suggest that investigations on the types of foods or fluids are needed in the developed 3D model snack dish for future studies.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914195

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that exhibit multiple extraglycemic effects. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ipragliflozin (a selective SGLT2 inhibitor) on energy metabolism. @*Methods@#Six-week-old male 129S6/Sv mice with a high propensity for adipose tissue browning were randomly assigned to three groups: normal chow control, 60% high-fat diet (HFD)-fed control, and 60% HFD-fed ipragliflozin-treated groups. The administration of diet and medication was continued for 16 weeks. @*Results@#The HFD-fed mice became obese and developed hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy, but their random glucose levels were within the normal ranges; these features are similar to the metabolic features of a prediabetic condition. Ipragliflozin treatment markedly attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced the size of hypertrophied adipocytes to that of smaller adipocytes. In the ipragliflozin treatment group, uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and other thermogenesis-related genes were significantly upregulated in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and fatty acid oxidation was increased in the brown adipose tissue. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway in the liver and adipose tissue. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibition by ipragliflozin showed beneficial metabolic effects in 129S6/Sv mice with HFD-induced obesity that mimics prediabetic conditions. Our data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors, through their upregulation of energy expenditure, may have therapeutic potential in prediabetic obesity.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893775

ABSTRACT

About 30~50% COVID-19 hospital inpatients is reported to have mild clinical presentation, and the clinical course is known to be good even in the older population. In order to compare the clinical symptoms of mild patients with COVID-19 infection by age, the clinical symptoms and laboratory results were analyzed by dividing mild patients admitted to a dedicated hospital into three groups: under the age of 64, 65-84, and above 85 years of age.There was no difference in gender ratio by age among 555 mild cases. Concomitant diseases with significant differences by age were hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and coronary artery disease.Among the symptoms, cough and sore throat were different by age, and cough was significantly higher in the group under 64 years of age. Among the symptoms, cough and sore throat were different by age, and cough was significantly higher in the group under 64 years of age.The white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count, monocyte, blood sugar, procalcitonin, and creatinine were significantly higher in the 85 years old or older group, and the hemoglobin, albumin, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were significantly lower in the 85 years old or older group.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837075

ABSTRACT

Recurrent bacterial meningitis is the reappearance of two or more episodes of meningitis caused by a different or same organism after an intervening period of full convalescence. Predisposing factors for recurrent bacterial meningitis include immunodeficiency and developmental and traumatic anatomical defects. Therefore, careful evaluation of children with recurrent meningitis is essential. We report the case of a patient with a skull base abnormality who had suffered from four events of bacterial meningitis between 8 and 17 years of age. He experienced another event of bacterial meningitis at the age of 21, without undergoing correction for the anatomical defect. Streptococcus agalactiae was identified in the patient's blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture. Afterwards, he underwent surgical treatment for a meningioma; this meningioma was strongly suspected as the cause of the recurrence.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836589

ABSTRACT

The Korean Dental Association recommends a disability rate (DR) of 1%-3% in the judgment of physical disability owing to sensory disturbance (SD) after dental treatment; however, criteria for deciding the exact percentage have not been suggested. Therefore, this study aims to provide practical criteria in the application of forensic physical disability evaluation by comparing the results of SD using the current perception threshold (CPT) test. A total of 324 patients with SD who visited the Department of Oral Medicine at Pusan National University Dental Hospital between January 2013 and August 2020, underwent the test. The eight stages, as a result of the CPT value, were reorganized as follows: profound sensory loss, very severe and severe as “severe group”, advanced and moderate as “moderate group”, mild and very mild as “mild group”, and normal as “normal group” The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to calculate the statistical difference in the CPT values at 2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz among the four groups. There were significant statistical differences in the average values of CPT among the four groups (P<0.001). Additionally, a significant statistical difference in the CPT value between the affected and nonaffected sides of the patients was observed among the four groups (P<0.001).Therefore, based on the results of this study, the rationale for applying DR from 1%-3% was in accordance with the severity of the mandibular nerve injury.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836518

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to investigate dietary intakes and nutritional status among Uganda primary school children from two selected schools in urban and rural areas. @*Methods@#Data were collected from 350 pupils (6-14 years) in Mpigi district, Uganda. All participants were offered a school lunch meal (usually maize porridge and boiled beans). Dietary survey was conducted in October 2016. Data for dietary intake levels were collected by the 24-hour recall method with trained school staffs. The data were converted into nutrient intakes using the CAN-Pro 5.0 Program and compared with KDRIs to evaluate the nutritional status of the subjects. Diet quality indexes such as nutrient density, nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and index of nutritional quality (INQ) and a diet diversity index such as diet diversity score (DDS) were calculated to evaluate nutritional status among subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical programs. @*Results@#Results show that the intakes of most nutrients were significantly different by schools. The nutritional status of micro-nutrients was very low in both schools according to analysis of nutritional indexes such as NARs and INQs. Students from both schools should improve intakes of micro-nutrients related to child growth such as calcium, Vitamin B6, zinc and folate. According to the analysis of dietary diversity, there was difference in dietary patterns by schools presumably due to their locations. @*Conclusions@#This suggests that current meals could not provide adequate nutrients for the subjects and urgent nutrition interventions for school food services are needed to improve their nutritional well-being. New foods supplements based on local cuisine are also needed to ensure dietary diversity and sustainable development plans.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836453

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine inflammation is defined as the inflammation of the chorion, amnion, and placenta. Untreated inflammation increases the risk of fetal inflammatory response syndrome, which may result in multiorgan diseases involving the brain, cardiovascular system, lung, eye, and intestine. Therefore, controlling inflammation is critical in pregnant women to reduce the risk of diseases. However, there are no safe and effective anti-inflammatory drugs for administration during pregnancy. Although the primary function of melatonin is to control circadian rhythms, it has protective effects against cellular insults occurring from hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. While animal studies support the effective and safe role of melatonin in improving pregnancy-related morbidities, it leaves plenty of opportunities for clinical studies investigating its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and protective effects against insults induced by intrauterine inflammation. Therefore, it will be worthwhile to investigate antenatal supplementation of melatonin in pregnant women with intrauterine inflammation to reduce the incidence of associated comorbidities.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836224

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Ixeris strigosa (IS) is a perennial plant that commonly grows in meadows. The leaves and roots of IS have been used in medicine as a sedative. This study evaluated the antioxidant and carbohydrate-digestive-enzyme inhibitory effects of IS to determine its potential as an essential antioxidant and glycemic inhibitor for type 2 diabetics. @*Methods@#The antioxidative and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were examined using the water extracts (ISW), ethanol extracts (ISE), and solvent fractions from IS. The antioxidative activities were measured using in vitro methods by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activity. @*Results@#Investigations of the total polyphenol, flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the IS extract showed that the ISE had higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than the ISW, as well as high antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extracts of IS (70%) had an α-amylase inhibitory activity of 78.55%. The ethyl acetate fraction (90.56%) showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the positive control, acarbose (83.01%). @*Conclusion@#Among the ISE fractions, the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed the best digestive enzyme inhibitory activity. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract and the carbohydrate, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects showed a stronger correlation with the total phenol and flavonoid contents compared to the ISW. As a result, the antioxidant and digestive enzyme inhibitory activities of high ISE are due to the phenolic compounds, particularly the flavonoid compounds. Therefore, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the 70% ethanol extract are excellent anti-diabetic functional materials.

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