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1.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 11-20, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812817

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate whether androgens can regulate the expression of eNOS in rat corpus cavernosum through AKT3, PIK3CA, CALM, and CAV1 and influence erectile function.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six 8-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into groups A (4-week control), B (6-week control), C (4-week castration), D (6-week castration), E (4-week castration + testosterone replacement), and F (6-week castration + testosterone replacement). Both the testis and epididymis were removed from the rats in groups C, D, E and F, and on the second day after surgery, the animals of groups E and F were subcutaneously injected with testosterone propionate at 3 mg per kg of the body weight qd alt while all the others with isodose oil instead. At 4 weeks (for groups A, C and E) and 6 weeks (for groups B, D and F) after treatment, we detected the maximum intracavernous pressure (ICPmax), the mean carotid arterial pressure (MAP) and their ratio (ICPmax/MAP), measured the level of serum testosterone (T), and determined the expressions of eNOS, P-eNOS, AKT3, PIK3CA, CALM and CAV1 in the corpus cavernosum by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#No statistically significant differences were observed in the body weight and MAP among different groups. The serum T level and ICPmax/MAP were remarkably lower in groups C and D than in the other four groups (P<0.01) as well as in groups E and F than in A and B (P<0.05) but exhibited no significant differences either between E and F or between A and B. Immunohistochemistry showed that eNOS and P-eNOS were mainly expressed in the vascular endothelial cell membrane and cavernous vascular lumen, while AKT3, PIK3CA, CALM and CAV1 chiefly in the vascular endothelial cell cytoplasm and membrane, with a few in the smooth muscle cells. Western blot analysis manifested that the expressions of eNOS, P-eNOS, AKT3, PIK3CA, CALM and CAV1 were markedly lower in groups C and D than in A, B, E and F (P<0.01) as well as in D than in C (P<0.05) but those in groups E and F did not showed any significant difference from those in A and B, nor E from F or A from B.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Androgens can improve erectile function by upregulating the expressions of AKT3, PIK3CA, CALM and CAV1 protein molecules and activating eNOS after its phosphorylation, though the exact molecular mechanisms are yet to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Blotting, Western , Caveolin 1 , Metabolism , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Erectile Dysfunction , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Male , Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins , Metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Orchiectomy , Penile Erection , Physiology , Penis , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Testosterone Propionate
2.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 110-119, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812801

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To screen lentiviral vectors carrying siRNA which can specifically down-regulate the gene expression of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) cells of rats with spontaneous hypertension (SHT) and investigate the influence of the vectors on the signaling pathways of ROCK1, ROCK2 and eNOS in the CCSM cells of SHT rats.@*METHODS@#Using the S1PR3 mRNA sequence of the rat as an interfering target, we designed and synthesized three pairs of siRNA sequences (siRNA1, 2 and 3) targeting S1PR3 and one pair of negative control, and then constructed and packaged them into lentiviral vectors. We cultured the CCSM cells of SHT and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats in vitro and randomly divided them into groups A (SHT untransfected control), B (SHT transfected and carrying negative control virus), C (SHT transfected and carrying siRNA1 targeting S1PR3), D (SHT transfected and carrying siRNA2 targeting S1PR3), E (SHT transfected and carrying siRNA3 targeting S1PR3), and F (WKY untransfected control). With the multiplicity of infection (MOI) = 60, we transfected the CCSM cells of the SHT rats with the lentiviral vector and then determined the expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as well as the mRNA and protein expressions of S1PR3, ROCK1, ROCK2 and eNOS in the CCSM cells of the SHT and WKY rats by RT-PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Gene sequencing proved the successful construction of the lentiviral vector. The transfection efficiency of the CCSM cells of the rats was >80% in groups B, C, D and E. Compared with group A, the mRNA and protein expressions of S1PR3, ROCK1 and ROCK2 exhibited no significant difference in group B but were remarkably decreased in groups C, D, E and F (P0.05) but remarkably lower than those in group F (P0.05) but markedly increased in groups A, B, C and D (P< 0.05), while those of eNOS remarkably decreased in groups A, B, C, D and E (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The three constructed lentiviral vectors carrying siRNA targeting different loci of the S1PR3 gene could significantly inhibit the expression of S1P3 as well as RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathways in the CCSM cells of SHT rats, and the vector carrying siRNA3 exhibited the highest inhibitory effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Metabolism , Lentivirus , Genetics , Male , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Penis , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Inbred WKY , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors , Transfection , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
3.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 393-400, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262340

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expressions of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 1-3 (S1P1- 3) in the corpus cavernosum of castrated male rats and its relationship with the NOS/NO/cGMP and RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathways.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We equally randomized 18 eight-week-old healthy male SD rats into a sham-operation control, a castration, and a testosterone replacement (TR) group and harvested the bilateral testes and epididymides from the rats in the latter two groups, followed by 4 weeks of subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate at 3 mg per kilogram of the body weight per day for those in the TR group and that of plant oil for those in the control and castration groups. At the age of 12 weeks, we measured the serum testosterone (T) level and maximum intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICPmax/MAP) of the animals and determined the expressions of SlP1-3, eNOS, P-eNOS, ROCK1, and ROCK2 in the corpus cavernosum by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum T level was significantly decreased in the rats of the castration group as compared with those of the control and TR groups ([0.41 ± 0.04] vs [16.01 ± 1.02] and [15.84 ± 1.32] nmol/L, P < 0.01), with no statistically significant difference between the latter two groups. The ICPmax/MAP at 0 V, 3 V, and 5 V electric stimulation was remarkably lower in the rats of the castration group (0.088 ± 0.014, 0.323 ± 0.014, and 0.432 ± 0.012) than in those of the control group (0.155 ± 0.011, 0.711 ± 0. 010, and 0.819 ± 0.024) and TR group (0.153 ± 0.012, 0.696 ± 0.017, and 0.763 ± 0.027) (P < 0.01), with no significant difference between the latter two groups. With GAPDH as internal control, the animals of the castration group showed markedly reduced expressions of S1P1 ([49.99 ± 3.39]%), eNOS ([46.82 ± 3.81]%) , and P-eNOS ([45.42 ± 4.35]%) in comparison with those in the control group ([72.57 ± 3.06], [89.76 ± 3.98], and [82.53 ± 8.92] and TR group ([71.77 ± 4.43], [87.19 ± 4.23], and [79.82 ± 7.38]%) (P < 0.01) , while the expressions of S1P2, S1P3, ROCK1, and ROCK2 were significantly upregulated in the castration group ([82.35 ± 4.13], [61.03 ± 5.14], [74.50 ± 4.02], and [69.83 ± 5.75]%) as compared with those in the control group ([41.67 ± 1.68], [31.66 ± 2.67], [35.69 ± 5.56], and [39.85 ± 7.17]%) and TR group ([42.80 ± 3.87], [32.25 ± 4.22], 38.06 ± 5.21], and [42.36 ± 4.44]%) (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Androgen deficiency induces significant reduction of ICPmax/ MAP in male rats, which is possibly associated with the decline of S1P1 in the corpus cavernosum, inhibition of the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway, increased expressions of S1P2 and S1P3, and activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Orchiectomy , Penis , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Metabolism , Testosterone , Blood , Pharmacology , rho-Associated Kinases , Metabolism
4.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 300-307, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319504

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the levels of secretions from the prostate and seminal vesicles and their association with the expressions of aquaporins (AQP) in the prostatic tissue and seminal vesicles of castrated rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We randomly divided 18 eight-week-old male SD rats into a control, a castration, and a testosterone (T) replacement group. Four weeks after surgical castration, we detected the plasma T level and measured the volumes of the secretions and the expressions of AQPs 3, 7, and 10 - 12 in the prostate and seminal vesicles of the rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The plasma T level was significantly lower in the castrated models ([30. 98 ± 28. 84] ng/dl) than in the rats of the control ([700.78 ± 123.8] ng/dl) and T replacement groups ([688.08 ± 132. 47] ng/dl) (P <0. 05). The castration group, in comparison with the control and T replacement groups, showed remarkably reduced ratios of prostatic secretion volume / prostate weight ([11.1 ± 0.30] vs [2.32 ± 0.61] and [2.13 ± 0.56] %, P <0. 05) and seminal vesicle secretion volume / seminal vesicle weight ( [4. 78 ± 1. 97 ] vs [57. 36 ± 11. 86] and [55. 74 ± 7. 21] %, P < 0. 05). Immunohistochemistry revealed the expressions of AQPs 3 and 7 in the epithelial envelop and cytoplasm and that of AQP 11 the in endothelial envelop and cytoplasm of the prostate and seminal vesicles. Western blot exhibited significantly lower expressions of AQPs 3, 7, and 10 - 12 in the prostate and seminal vesicles of the castrated rats than in the animals of the control and T replacement groups (P <0. 05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Significant decreases of the secretions from the prostate and seminal vesicles may be related to the reduced expressions of AQPs 3, 7, and 10 - 12 in the prostatic tissue and seminal vesicles in castrated rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporins , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Orchiectomy , Prostate , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Seminal Vesicles , Metabolism , Testosterone , Blood
5.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 299-303, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309718

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of hyperglycemia on the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling pathway in rat penile tissue and its relationship with erectile function.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into groups A (4-week healthy control), B (4-week diabetes mellitus model), C (6-week healthy control) and D (6-week diabetes mellitus model). The rats in groups B and D were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg to induce diabetes mellitus, while those in groups A and C with the same volume of normal saline. The animals were killed at 4 (groups A and B) and 6 weeks (groups C and D) after treatment for measurement of the maximal intracavernous pressure/mean arterial blood pressure (ICP(max)/MAP) by electrostimulation, determination of the H2S concentration in the plasma and penile tissue, and detection of the expressions of cystathionine-beta-synthetase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) in the penile corpus cavernosum by immunohisto- chemistry and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>With electrostimulation of the pelvic ganglia at 5V and 7 V, ICP(max)/MAP was significantly reduced in groups B (0.19 +/- 0.03 and 0.29 +/- 0.04) and D (0.14 +/- 0.04 and 0.25 +/- 0.04) as compared with A (0.46 +/- 0.07 and 0.68 +/- 0.09) and C (0.43 +/- 0.07 and 0.65 +/- 0.16) (P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in the level of serum testosterone either between groups A and B ([469.19 +/- 126.46] ng/dl vs [359.08 +/- 60.06] ng/dl, P > 0.05) or between C and D ([470.44 +/- 209.28] ng/dl vs [297.01 +/- 96.58] ng/dl, P > 0.05). Groups B and D showed remarkable reduction in the H2S concentration (P < 0.05) and the expressions of CBS and CSE (P < 0.05) in comparison with A and C, and the CBS and CSE expressions were even more significantly decreased in D than in B (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The reduced concentration of H2S and decreased expressions of CBS and CSE in the penile corpus cavernosum of the diabetic rats suggested that the H2S signaling pathway might be involved in hyperglycemia-induced erectile dysfunction.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Metabolism , Electric Stimulation , Methods , Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Hyperglycemia , Metabolism , Lyases , Metabolism , Male , Penis , Physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Testosterone , Metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 663-667, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278023

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the effects of Ling Qi Juan Gan capsule drug-containing serum at different concentrations on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferative capabilities of and JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSC) using an in vitro system.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five equal groups for intragastric administration of physiological saline (10 ml/kg; group A), Fufang Biejia Ruangan tablet solution (1.5 g/kg; group B), or Ling Qi Juan Gan capsule solution at low dose (2.125 g/kg; group C1), mid dose (4.25 g/kg; group C2), or high dose (8.5 g/kg; group C3). The post-administration serum isolated from each rat (200 ml/L) was used to treat the HSC-T6 cell line following induction by PDGF (10 ng/ml). At 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure, the cells' proliferation was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) colorimetric assay. In addition, at 24 h post-exposure the expression of JAK2 and p-STAT3 was measured by western blotting (expressed as grey scale intensity). Multiple group comparison of repeated measures data was made by one-way ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to group A, groups C2 and C3 had significantly higher inhibited proliferation at all post-exposure time points examined (24 h: A = 1.550 +/- 0.065, C2 = 1.335 +/- 0.106, C3 = 1.241 +/- 0.205; 48 h: A = 1.311 +/- 0.650, C2 = 1.090 +/- 0.106, C3 = 0.909 +/- 0.191; 72 h: A = 1.039 +/- 0.103, C2 = 0.719 +/- 0.116, C3 = 0.641 +/- 0.110, F = 36.292, all P less than 0.05); in contrast, compared to group A, group C1 showed no inhibition of proliferation at 24 h (1.522 +/- 0.128, P = 0.717) but showed significantly higher inhibition of proliferation at 48 h and 72 h (1.153 +/- 0.183 and 0.753 +/- 0.210, respectively, F = 36.292, P less than 0.05). Compared with group A, all Ling Qi Juan Gan capsule-containing serum-treated groups showed significantly lower expression of both JAK2 (A = 1.605 +/- 0.024 vs. C1 = 1.170 +/- 0.042, C2 = 0.842 +/- 0.036, C3 = 0.555 +/- 0.036, F = 43.091) and p-STAT3 (A = 1.401 +/- 0.030 vs. C1 = 1.229 +/- 0.025, C2 = 0.668 +/- 0.034, C3 = 0.630 +/- 0.026, F = 78.426, all P less than 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ling Qi Juan Gan capsule drug-containing serum can inhibit the proliferation of HSC-T6 cells in a dose-dependent manner and cause an overall decrease in the expression of JAK2 and p-STAT3 in activated HSC, thereby leading to a suppression of the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Metabolism , Janus Kinase 2 , Metabolism , Male , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Serum , Signal Transduction
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