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1.
Intestinal Research ; : 481-492, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000605

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Immunocompromised patients with acute colonic diverticulitis are at high risk for complications and failure of non-surgical treatment. However, evidence on the comparative outcomes of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis is lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the outcomes of medical treatment in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis. @*Methods@#A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis were included. @*Results@#A total of 10 studies with 1,946,461 subjects were included in the quantitative synthesis. The risk of emergency surgery and postoperative mortality after emergency surgery was significantly higher in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis (risk ratio [RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.38 and RR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.70–5.45, respectively). Overall risk of complications associated with diverticulitis was non-significantly higher in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent patients (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95–1.63). Overall mortality irrespective of surgery was significantly higher in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis (RR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.73–7.69). By contrast, postoperative mortality after elective surgery was not significantly different between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis. In subgroup analysis, the risk of emergency surgery and recurrence was significantly higher in immunocompromised patients with complicated diverticulitis, whereas no significant difference was shown in mild disease. @*Conclusions@#Immunocompromised patients with diverticulitis should be given the best medical treatment with multidisciplinary approach because they had increased risks of surgery, postoperative morbidity, and mortality than immunocompetent patients.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 672-682, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003062

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Some management strategies for acute colonic diverticulitis remain controversial in Korean real-world practice because their clinical features differ from those in the West. This study aimed to investigate the opinions of Korean physicians regarding the diagnosis and treatment of acute diverticulitis. @*Methods@#A web-based survey was conducted among gastroenterologists specializing on treating lower gastrointestinal disorders. The questionnaires concerned overall management strategies for colonic diverticulitis, including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. @*Results@#In total, 209 gastroenterologists responded to the survey. Less than one-fourth of the respondents (23.6%) answered that left-sided colonic diverticulitis is more likely to be complicated than right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Most respondents agreed that immunocompromised patients with diverticulitis have worse clinical outcomes than immunocompetent patients (71.3%). Computed tomography was the most preferred tool for diagnosing diverticulitis (93.9%). Approximately 89% of the respondents answered that they believed antibiotic treatment is necessary to treat acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Most respondents (92.6%) agreed that emergency surgery is not required for diverticulitis with an abscess or microperforation without panperitonitis. Further, 94.7% of the respondents agreed that colon cancer screening is necessary in patients aged ≥ 50 years with diverticulitis after they have recovered from acute illness. Many respondents (71.4%) agreed that surgery for recurrent diverticulitis should be individualized. @*Conclusions@#Opinions regarding management strategies for colonic diverticulitis among Korean gastroenterologists were well agreed upon in some areas but did not agree well in other areas. Evidence-based guidelines that meet the practical needs of the Korean population should be developed.

3.
Intestinal Research ; : 171-183, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925133

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

4.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 105-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903562

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the ability to prevent or control chronic disease due to the concerns about safety in accessing health care. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition requiring long- term sustained treatment, which is difficult in the current panedemic situation. The Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) has developed an expert consensus statement on the clinical practice management of adult inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. This expert consensus statement is based on guidelines and clinical reports from several countries around the world. It provides recommendations to deal with the risk of COVID-19 and medication use in IBD patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and emphasizes the importance of right treatment approach to avoid worsening of the disease condition in IBD patients.

5.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 117-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903561

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 105-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895858

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the ability to prevent or control chronic disease due to the concerns about safety in accessing health care. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition requiring long- term sustained treatment, which is difficult in the current panedemic situation. The Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) has developed an expert consensus statement on the clinical practice management of adult inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. This expert consensus statement is based on guidelines and clinical reports from several countries around the world. It provides recommendations to deal with the risk of COVID-19 and medication use in IBD patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and emphasizes the importance of right treatment approach to avoid worsening of the disease condition in IBD patients.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 117-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895857

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 572-278, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833350

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Wnt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are major molecular signaling pathways associated with the development and progression of tumor, as well as the maintenance and proliferation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), in colorectal cancer (CRC). Identifying patients at risk of poor prognosis is important to determining whether to add adjuvant treatment in stage II CRC and thus improve survival. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of Wnt, mTOR, and CSC markers as survival predictors in stage II CRC. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified 148 cases of stage II CRC and acquired their tumor tissue. Tissue microarrays for immunohistochemical staining were constructed, and the expressions of CD166, CD44, EphB2, β-catenin, pS6 were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. @*Results@#The expressions of CD166 (p=0.045) and pS6 (p=0.045) and co-expression of pS6/CD166 (p=0.005), pS6/CD44 (p=0.042), and pS6/CD44/CD166 (p=0.013) were negatively correlated with cancer-specific survival. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed the combination of CD166/pS6 [hazard ratio, 9.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.36–37.59; p=0.002] to be the most significant predictor related with decreased cancer-specific survival. In addition, co-expression of CD44/CD166 (p=0.017), CD166/ β-catenin (p=0.036), CD44/β-catenin (p=0.001), and CD44/CD166/β-catenin (p=0.001) were significant factors associated with liver metastasis. @*Conclusion@#Specific combinations of CSC markers and β-catenin/mTOR signaling could be a significant predictor of poor survival in stage II CRC.

9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 719-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897702

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records. @*Results@#Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.85; p=0.013). @*Conclusions@#Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.

10.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 719-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889998

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records. @*Results@#Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.85; p=0.013). @*Conclusions@#Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.

12.
Intestinal Research ; : 599-608, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers and appropriate vaccination are required in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We evaluated immunogenicity for HBV in IBD patients and the response to the HBV vaccination. METHODS: From May 2014 to August 2016, patients diagnosed with IBD were prospectively included and evaluated for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. Among the 73 patients who were confirmed with nonimmunity to HBV, 44 patients who had completed the 3-dose HBV vaccination series received a single booster vaccination, while 29 patients who had not completed the vaccinations series or were unsure of receiving the vaccination received a full vaccination series. RESULTS: An optimal response was obtained in 70.5% of the patients in the booster group, and 89.7% of the patients in the full vaccination group. Age younger than 26 years (odds ratio [OR], 6.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–31.32; P=0.033) and a complete previous vaccination series (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03–0.80; P=0.026) were associated with optimal vaccine response. Previous complete vaccination series (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.73; P=0.022) was the only predictive factor for lower compliance. CONCLUSIONS: The response to the HBV vaccination was lower in patients older than 26 years and for those patients with a complete vaccination history. Since patients with a complete vaccination history also had poor compliance, serum HBV-titers should be checked more thoroughly, and a full vaccination series should be administered in cases when there is a negative response to the booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Compliance , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Korea , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 24-30, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used method for long-term tube feeding. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who utilized long-term feeding tube via PEG. METHODS: The medical records of 137 patients who underwent PEG tube insertion at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital between January 2002 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: PEG was indicated most frequently for cerebrovascular accidents (66 patients, 48.2%), followed by head and neck cancer (20 patients, 14.6%), and Parkinson's disease (10 patients, 7.3%). The tubes were endoscopically inserted in 133 patients (97.1%); 4 patients (2.9%) underwent radiologic intervention. The tubes of 90 patients (65.7%) were exchanged at least once during the follow-up period. At the first exchange, 71 patients (78.9%) had their tubes exchanged by endoscopy, 24 patients (16.7%) by manually, and 4 patients (4.4%) by radiologic intervention. Of the 61 patients (44.5%) who had their tubes exchanged twice, 44 patients (72.1%) changed their tubes by endoscopic exchange, 13 patients (21.3%) by manually, and 4 patients (4.4%) via radiologic intervention. The mean time interval between the initial insertion and the first exchange was 9.83±6.19 months, and that between the initial insertion and the second exchange was 10.7±6.25 months. Of all the 137 patients, acute complications at initial insertion occurred in only 18 patients (13.1%), with insertion site infection (9 patients, 6.6%) being the most common acute complication. CONCLUSIONS: PEG appears to be a safe procedure for providing long-term tube feeding. Our results may help to develop strategies for further management of subjects receiving feeding tubes via PEG.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endoscopy , Enteral Nutrition , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrostomy , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Medical Records , Methods , Observational Study , Parkinson Disease , Stroke
14.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 185-189, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Appropriate sedation during endoscopy can significantly reduce the discomfort experienced by a patient when the procedure is performed; however, it is associated with several potential risks. Very few reports describe sedation-related adverse events occurring during endoscopy. Our study evaluated the current status of sedation-related adverse events during a diagnostic upper endoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 5,564 cases of diagnostic upper endoscopy performed using midazolam for sedation at the Ewha Womans University, Mokdong Hospital, between January 2015 and March 2016. RESULTS: Among the 5,564 cases, sedation-related adverse events were reported in 56 cases (1.0%). Among these 56 patients, 30 patients (53.6.%) were men and 26 patients (46.4%) were women. Mean age of the patients was 63.7±15.4 years. The most common adverse event reported was hypoxia, which was observed in 37 patients (0.7%). Other adverse events included sedation failure (18 patients, 0.3%) and delayed discharge from the recovery room due to delayed recovery of consciousness (one patient, 0.02%). Among patients presenting with hypoxia, 35 patients recovered after administration of intravenous flumazenil and oxygen via nasal prongs. Administration of oxygen alone helped recovery in 2 patients. All patients recovered uneventfully with no mortalities registered. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the use of sedative midazolam is relatively safe during an upper endoscopy. The rate of occurrence of adverse events was very low, and no fatal adverse events were observed. However, close observation and continuous monitoring is an essential component of safe sedation during endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Hypoxia , Conscious Sedation , Consciousness , Endoscopy , Flumazenil , Medical Records , Midazolam , Mortality , Oxygen , Recovery Room
15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 827-835, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Duodenitis is not infrequent finding in patient undergoing endoscopy. However, hospitalized patients have a higher incidence of secondary duodenal mucosal lesions that might be related with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, tuberculosis, immunologic disorders, or other rare infections. We aimed to identify clinicopathologic features of duodenal mucosal lesions in hospitalized patients. METHODS: All hospitalized patients having duodenal mucosal lesions were identified by endoscopic registration data and pathologic data query from 2011 to 2014. The diagnostic index was designed to be sensitive; however, a detailed review of medical record and endoscopic findings was undertaken to improve specificity. Secondary duodenal lesion was defined as having specific reason to explain the duodenal lesion. RESULTS: Among 6,334 hospitalized patients have undergone upper endoscopy, endoscopic duodenal mucosal lesions was detected in 475 patients. Secondary duodenal lesions was 21 patients (4.4%) and the most frequent secondary cause was IBD (n = 7). The mean age of secondary group was significantly lower than that in primary group (42.3 ± 18.9 years vs. 58.5 ± 16.8 years, p = 0.00), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were less frequently used in secondary group, but there was no differences of gender or presence of Helicobacter pylori. The involvement of distal part of duodenum including postbulbitis or panduodenitis was more frequently detected in secondary group than in primary group. By multivariate regression analysis, younger age of 29 years and the disease extent were significant predictors for the secondary mucosal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary duodenal mucosal lesions with different pathophysiology, such as IBD or CMV infection, are rare. Disease extent and age seems the most distinctive feature of secondary duodenal mucosal lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Duodenal Ulcer , Duodenitis , Duodenum , Endoscopy , Helicobacter pylori , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Medical Records , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 241-251, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184905

ABSTRACT

The immune response after stroke is known to play a major role in ischemic brain pathobiology. The inflammatory signals released by immune mediators activated by brain injury sets off a complex series of biochemical and molecular events which have been increasingly recognized as a key contributor to neuronal cell death. The primary immune mediators involved are glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocyte. After ischemic stroke, activation of glial cells and subsequent release of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals are important for modulating both neuronal cell damage and wound healing. Infiltrated leukocytes release inflammatory mediators into the site of the lesion, thereby exacerbating brain injury. This review describes how the roles of glial cells and circulating leukocytes are a double-edged sword for neuroinflammation by focusing on their detrimental and protective effects in ischemic stroke. Here, we will focus on underlying characterize of glial cells and leukocytes under inflammation after ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Injuries , Cell Death , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Neuroglia , Neurons , Neutrophils , Stroke , Wound Healing
17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 41-46, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70880

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 23-year-old female immigrant from China who was diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis affecting her lung and brain, resistant to the standard first-line therapeutics and streptomycin. She was treated with prothionamide, moxifloxacin, cycloserine, and kanamycin. However, her headache and brain lesion worsened. After the brain biopsy, the patient was confirmed with intracranial tuberculoma. Linezolid was added to intensify the treatment regimen, and steroid was added for the possibility of paradoxical response. Kanamycin was discontinued 6 months after initiation of the treatment; she was treated for 18 months with susceptible drugs and completely recovered. To our knowledge, this case is the first multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that disseminated to the brain in Korea.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Biopsy , Brain , China , Cycloserine , Emigrants and Immigrants , Headache , Kanamycin , Korea , Linezolid , Lung , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Prothionamide , Streptomycin , Tuberculoma, Intracranial , Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
18.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 171-172, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108403

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter , Learning
19.
Korean Journal of Medical Education ; : 289-294, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The promotion of educators is challenged by the lack of accepted standards to evaluate the quality and impact of educational activities. Traditionally, promotion is related to research productivity. This study developed an evaluation tool for educational performance of medical school faculty using educator portfolios (EPs). METHODS: Design principles and quantitative items for EPs were developed in a consensus workshop. These principles were tested in a simulation and revised based on feedback. The changes of total educational activities following introduction of the system were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 71% faculty members answered the simulation of the system and the score distributed widely (mean±standard deviation, 65.43±68.64). The introduction of new system significantly increased the total educational activities, especially in assistant professors. CONCLUSION: The authors offer comprehensive and practical tool for enhancing educational participation of faculty members. Further research for development of qualitative evaluation systems is needed.


Subject(s)
Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Education , Education, Medical , Efficiency , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Schools, Medical
20.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 166-173, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Borrmann type 4 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is difficult to diagnose. There are no typical endoscopic findings. Endoscopic biopsies have a high false negative rate because Borrmann type 4 AGC frequently resides below the submucosal cells from which it develops. The aim of this study was to investigate the endoscopic findings of Borrmann type 4 AGC in order to improve diagnosis rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 patients with pathologically proven Borrmann type 4 AGC at the Ewha Womans University Medical Center between January 2008 and May 2013 were included. We divided the cases according to their distinguishing endoscopic findings. The diagnostic yield for endoscopic biopsies was evaluated. RESULTS: The most common endoscopic findings were cases with Bormann type 4 AGC like lesions (diffuse infiltrative, n=10), followed by Bormann type 3 AGC like lesions (ulceroinfiltrative, n=9), Borrmann type 2 AGC like lesions (ulcerofungating, n=4) and early gastric cancer like lesion (n=1). Among the 23 cases in which endoscopic biopsies was performed, the diagnostic yield for the first endoscopic biopsy was 87.0% (n=20). All of the second endoscopic biopsies failed to diagnose the malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic findings of Borrmann type 4 AGC are atypical and diverse. In cases where negative results are accompanied by a malignant impression, further meticulous evaluation should be performed with careful targeting.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Academic Medical Centers , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Stomach Neoplasms
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