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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915519

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective case series of children 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1–8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2–6 days and was improved within 5–32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases.Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9–39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. @*Conclusion@#To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915201

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify ICU nurses‘experiences with patient care after death. @*Methods@#The data were collected through two focus group interviews with eight nurses who had experienced the death of patients in the ICU. Giorgi’s method of descriptive phenomenology was used to interpret the data. @*Results@#Five constituents and 14 subconstituents were extracted from the 68 units of meaning. The five constituents were as follows: respect the body as a person, consideration and support for the family, dichotomy between personal courtesy and performing tasks, overcoming the patient’s death and growing, and care after death: a unique role left to the nurse. @*Conclusion@#These findings illuminate the meaning of care after death as a continuation of person-centered care and can be used as primary data for the development of organizational, educational, and emotional support for nurses to accomplish their roles in the ICU.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Assessing lymph node metastasis, tumor-derived DNA, or tumor-derived RNA has previously been studied in place of immunohistochemical assay. Because a direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (direct RT-LAMP) has been previously developed in order to rapidly identify viruses in place of RNA extraction, our team hypothesized that a direct RT-LAMP assay can be employed as a substitute in order to detect tumor involvement of lymph nodes within breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total amount of 92 lymph nodes removed across 40 patients possessing breast cancer were collected at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital between the months of November 2015 and February 2016. All samples were then evaluated and contrasted via both a direct RT-LAMP assay and routine histopathologic examination. @*Results@#The sensitivity and specificity of the direct RT-LAMP assay were 85.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100% and 94.4%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Direct RT-LAMP assay is capable of facilitating the detection of sentinel lymph node metastasis within breast cancer patients intraoperatively possessing an excellent sensitivity via a cost-effective and time-saving manner.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919202

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypoxemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to reduced ability to exercise, decreased quality of life, and, eventually, increased mortality. Home oxygen therapy in patients with severe COPD reduces distress symptoms and mortality rates. However, there have been few studies on physicians’ prescription behavior toward home oxygen therapy. Therefore, we investigated the respiratory specialists’ perspective on home oxygen therapy. @*Methods@#In this cross-sectional, study, a questionnaire was completed by 30 pulmonary specialists who worked in tertiary hospitals and prescribed home oxygen therapy. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, including 15 items on oxygen prescription for outpatients, four for inpatients, and nine on service improvement. @*Results@#All physicians were prescribing less than 2 L/min of oxygen for either 24 (n = 10, 33.3%) or 15 hours (n = 9, 30.3%). All (n = 30) used pulse oximetry, 26 (86.7%) analyzed arterial blood gas. Thirteen physicians had imposed restrictions and recommended oxygen use only during exercise or sleep. Sixteen (53.3%) physicians were educating their patients about home oxygen therapy. Furthermore, physicians prescribed home oxygen to patients that did not fit the typical criteria for longterm oxygen therapy, with 30 prescribing it for acute relief and 17 for patients with borderline hypoxemia. @*Conclusions@#This study identified the prescription pattern of home oxygen therapy in Korea. Respiratory physicians prescribe home oxygen therapy to hypoxemic COPD patients for at least 15 hours/day, and at a rate of less than 2 L/min. More research is needed to provide evidence for establishing policies on oxygen therapy in COPD patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901845

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Objective: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) increases the risk of negative health outcomes, including drug-related admissions. Tools for structured medication review have been developed to ensure optimal medication use and safety. Here, we aimed to evaluate medication use review (MUR) tools for community-dwelling older patients. @*Methods@#We performed a systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses Statement (PRISMA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 1991 to 2020, excluding tools that are specifically applied to hospitalized patients or nursing home residents. We identified the most common inappropriate medications, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions and prescribing omissions presented among tools. @*Results@#From among 9,788 identified reports screened, 60 met our inclusion criteria; finally, 27 were eligible for data analysis considering originality and up-to-dateness. Most tools presented explicit criteria (93%), and only one was specific to community-dwelling elderly. The most common PIM was tricyclic antidepressants. Use of diltiazem and verapamil in patients with heart failure and the combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics and warfarin were the most frequent disease-specific PIM and druginteraction, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Although several medication review tools have been developed for older adults, specific guidelines for community-dwelling populations remain limited. Furthermore, the list of PIMs differed among available tools. In future, specific but integrating MUR tools need to be developed for clinical practice considering this population.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899946

ABSTRACT

Background@#After the global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lifestyle changes to curb the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., wearing a mask, hand washing, and social distancing) have also affected the outbreak of other infectious diseases. However, few studies have been conducted on whether the incidence of gastrointestinal infections has changed over the past year with COVID-19. In this study, we examined how the incidence of gastrointestinal infections has changed since COVID-19 outbreak through open data. @*Methods@#We summarized the data on the several viruses and bacteria that cause gastrointestinal infections from the open data of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency for 3 years from March 2018 to February 2021 (from Spring 2018 to Winter 2020). Moreover, we confirmed three most common legal gastrointestinal infectious pathogens from March 2016. @*Results@#From March 2020, when the COVID-19 epidemic was in full swing and social distancing and personal hygiene management were heavily emphasized, the incidence of infection from each virus was drastically decreased. The reduction rates compared to the averages of the last 2 years were as follows: total viruses 31.9%, norovirus 40.2%, group A rotavirus 31.8%, enteric adenovirus 13.4%, astrovirus 7.0%, and sapovirus 12.2%. Among bacterial pathogens, the infection rates of Campylobacter and Clostridium perfringens did not decrease but rather increased in some periods when compared to the average of the last two years. The incidence of nontyphoidal Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, or enteropathogenic Escherichia coli somewhat decreased but not significantly compared to the previous two years. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of infection from gastrointestinal viruses, which are mainly caused by the fecal-to-oral route and require direct contact among people, was significantly reduced, whereas the incidence of bacterial pathogens, which have food-mediated transmission as the main cause of infection, did not decrease significantly.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916866

ABSTRACT

Syringomatous adenoma of the nipples, first reported in 1983, is an extremely rare benign tumor extending to the subareolar area and, pathologically, has a shape similar to that of sweat gland tumors. Radiologically, infiltrating patterns and calcifications can cause misdiagnosis of malignant tumors. The authors report a case of syringomatous adenoma that shows only calcifications of the nipple in a screening mammography.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915441

ABSTRACT

As hospitals cater to elderly and vulnerable patients, a high mortality rate is expected if a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurs. Consequently, policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings are essential. This study was conducted to investigate how effectively national and international guidelines provide recommendations for infection control issues in hospitals. After selecting important issues in infection control, we performed a systematic review and analysis of recommendations and guidelines for preventing COVID-19 transmission within medical institutions at national and international levels. We analyzed guidelines from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Recent guidelines do not provide specific solutions to infection control issues. Therefore, efforts need to be made to devise consistent advice and guidelines for COVID-19 control.

9.
Immune Network ; : e41-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914546

ABSTRACT

Correlation between vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Thus, we investigated to determine whether the reactogenicity after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination is associated with antibody (Ab) titers and T cell responses. This study was prospective cohort study done with 131 healthcare workers at tertiary center in Seoul, South Korea. The degrees of the local reactions after the 1st and 2nd doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (ChAdOx1) vaccination were significantly associated with the S1-specific IgG Ab titers (p=0.003 and 0.01, respectively) and neutralizing Ab (p=0.04 and 0.10, respectively) in age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis, whereas those after the BNT162b2 vaccination did not show significant associations. T cell responses did not show significant associations with the degree of reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccination or the BNT162b2 vaccination. Thus, high degree of local reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccine may be used as an indicator of strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Immune Network ; : e29-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914536

ABSTRACT

There are limited data directly comparing humoral and T cell responses to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 vaccines. We compared Ab and T cell responses after first doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. BNT162b2 vaccines. We enrolled healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine in Seoul, Korea. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein-specific IgG Abs (S1-IgG), neutralizing Abs (NT Abs), and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response were evaluated before vaccination and at 1-wk intervals for 3 wks after vaccination. A total of 76 persons, comprising 40 injected with the ChAdOx1 vaccine and 36 injected with the BNT162b2 vaccine, participated in this study. At 3 wks after vaccination, the mean levels (±SD) of S1-IgG and NT Abs in the BNT162b2 participants were significantly higher than in the ChAdOx1 participants (S1-IgG, 14.03±7.20 vs. 6.28±8.87, p<0.0001; NT Ab, 183.1±155.6 vs. 116.6±116.2, p=0.035), respectively. However, the mean values of the T cell responses in the 2 groups were comparable after 2 wks. The humoral immune response after the 1st dose of BNT162b2 developed faster and was stronger than after the 1st dose of ChAdOx1. However, the T cell responses to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 were similar.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875439

ABSTRACT

Recently, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, after recovery has increased; this has caused a dilemma regarding the medical measures and policies. We evaluated the dynamics of viral load and anti-SARSCoV-2 antibodies in four patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery. In all patients, the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies were reached after about a month of the onset of the initial symptoms. Then, the IgG titers plateaued, and the IgM titers decreased, regardless of RT-PCR results.The IgG and IgM levels did not increase after the post-negative positive RT-PCR results in any of the patients. Our results reinforced that the post-negative positive RT-PCR results may be due to the detection of RNA particles rather than reinfection in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.

12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 356-364, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914313

ABSTRACT

Stroke research in non-human primates (NHPs) with gyrencephalic brains is a critical step in overcoming the translational barrier that limits the development of new pharmaceutical and rehabilitative strategies for stroke. White-matter stroke (WMS) has a unique pathophysiology from graymatter stroke and is not well understood because of a lack of pertinent animal models. To create a precise capsular infarct model in the cynomolgus macaque, we first used electrical stimulation to map hand movements, followed by viral tracing of the hand motor fibers (hMFs). This enabled us to identify stereotactic targets in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). Neural tracing showed that hMFs occupy the full width of the PLIC, owing to overlap with the motor fibers for the leg. Furthermore, the hMFs were distributed in an oblique shape, requiring coronal tilting of the target probe. We used the photothrombotic infarct lesioning technique to precisely destroy the hMFs within the internal capsule. Double-point infarct lesioning that fully compromised the hMFs resulted in persistent hand motor and walking deficits whereas single-point lesioning did not. Minor deviations in targeting failed to produce persistent motor deficits. Accurate stereotactic targeting with thorough involvement of motor fibers is critical for the production of a capsular infarct model with persistent motor deficits. In conclusion, the precision capsular infarct model can be translated to the NHP system to show persistent motor deficits and may be useful to investigate the mechanism of post-stroke recovery as well as to develop new therapeutic strategies for the WMS.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903721

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. @*Results@#During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903672

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because gastrointestinal tract is not sterile, primary culture has contamination risk despite of massive washing with antimicrobial media. Microbial contamination can play a key role in initial failure during biopsy-derived primary tumor culture. @*Methods@#Tumor tissue was acquired from esophageal and gastric tumors using endoscopic biopsy. Three-dimensional cultures were performed, and separated spheroids were cultured in media for 7 to 10 days and then transferred to Matrigel (Corning Inc.). We investigated risk factors and patterns of initial fungal contamination. @*Results@#Initial tumor contamination was observed in 23% (7/30) of esophageal cancer and 20% (3/15) of gastric cancer samples. Two cases of bacterial contamination occurred during the establishment of culture protocol. Moderate to thick whitish plaques (p < 0.001) and food retention in lumen (p < 0.001) were risk factors for initial fungal contamination. After exclusion of high risk patients for contamination, no fungal contamination occurred in primary organoid cultures. Fungal contamination was usually detected within 3 days after tumor preparation. However, unusual fungal contamination (GC11 and EC29) was recognized after several passages. Growing spherical shapes resembled cancer organoids. Although they rapidly proliferated and multiple daughter spheroids appeared, the media were translucent. After several passages, yeasts and pseudohyphae were detected on the edges of the solid spherical structures and media. @*Conclusions@#Moderate to thick whitish plaques and food retention are clinical risk factors for initial fungal contamination during biopsy-derived cancer organoid culture. Most initial fungal contamination was detected within 3 days, but it could be unusually recognized after several passages.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903146

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899044

ABSTRACT

Heregulin-β1, a ligand of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3/4 receptors, has been reported to potentiate oncogenicity and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. In the present work, treatment of human mammary cancer (MCF-7) cells with heregulin-β1 resulted in enhanced cell migration and expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and its mRNA transcript. Silencing of MnSOD abrogated clonogenicity and migrative ability of MCF-7 cells. Heregulin-β1 treatment also increased nuclear translocation, antioxidant response element binding and transcriptional activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). A dominant-negative mutant of Nrf2 abrogated heregulin-β1-induced MnSOD expression. Treatment with heregulin-β1 caused activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). The pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, which are upstream of Akt and ERK, respectively, attenuated heregulin-β1-induced MnSOD expression and nuclear localization of Nrf2. In conclusion, heregulin-1 induces upregulation of MnSOD and activation of Nrf2 via the Akt and ERK signaling in MCF-7 cells, which may confer metastatic potential and invasiveness of these cells.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896017

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. @*Results@#During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895968

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because gastrointestinal tract is not sterile, primary culture has contamination risk despite of massive washing with antimicrobial media. Microbial contamination can play a key role in initial failure during biopsy-derived primary tumor culture. @*Methods@#Tumor tissue was acquired from esophageal and gastric tumors using endoscopic biopsy. Three-dimensional cultures were performed, and separated spheroids were cultured in media for 7 to 10 days and then transferred to Matrigel (Corning Inc.). We investigated risk factors and patterns of initial fungal contamination. @*Results@#Initial tumor contamination was observed in 23% (7/30) of esophageal cancer and 20% (3/15) of gastric cancer samples. Two cases of bacterial contamination occurred during the establishment of culture protocol. Moderate to thick whitish plaques (p < 0.001) and food retention in lumen (p < 0.001) were risk factors for initial fungal contamination. After exclusion of high risk patients for contamination, no fungal contamination occurred in primary organoid cultures. Fungal contamination was usually detected within 3 days after tumor preparation. However, unusual fungal contamination (GC11 and EC29) was recognized after several passages. Growing spherical shapes resembled cancer organoids. Although they rapidly proliferated and multiple daughter spheroids appeared, the media were translucent. After several passages, yeasts and pseudohyphae were detected on the edges of the solid spherical structures and media. @*Conclusions@#Moderate to thick whitish plaques and food retention are clinical risk factors for initial fungal contamination during biopsy-derived cancer organoid culture. Most initial fungal contamination was detected within 3 days, but it could be unusually recognized after several passages.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895442

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894141

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Objective: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) increases the risk of negative health outcomes, including drug-related admissions. Tools for structured medication review have been developed to ensure optimal medication use and safety. Here, we aimed to evaluate medication use review (MUR) tools for community-dwelling older patients. @*Methods@#We performed a systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses Statement (PRISMA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 1991 to 2020, excluding tools that are specifically applied to hospitalized patients or nursing home residents. We identified the most common inappropriate medications, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions and prescribing omissions presented among tools. @*Results@#From among 9,788 identified reports screened, 60 met our inclusion criteria; finally, 27 were eligible for data analysis considering originality and up-to-dateness. Most tools presented explicit criteria (93%), and only one was specific to community-dwelling elderly. The most common PIM was tricyclic antidepressants. Use of diltiazem and verapamil in patients with heart failure and the combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics and warfarin were the most frequent disease-specific PIM and druginteraction, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Although several medication review tools have been developed for older adults, specific guidelines for community-dwelling populations remain limited. Furthermore, the list of PIMs differed among available tools. In future, specific but integrating MUR tools need to be developed for clinical practice considering this population.

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