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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915478

ABSTRACT

Background@#In February 2020, as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly in Daegu, South Korea, students in that region experienced many emotional difficulties. In this study, we analyzed the stress and emotional crisis experienced by students during the COVID-19 pandemic, its causative factors, and the factors that affect negative emotions. @*Methods@#We identified the demographic information related to the experiences of unbearable stress and emotional crisis and their causal factors at three points in time: before the pandemic, during its peak, and at the time of the survey (2–3 months after the peak). In addition, we analyzed the factors related to depression and anxiety experienced by students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Korean version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 was used to assess for depressive and anxiety symptoms in the subject students, respectively. @*Results@#A total of 8,177 students participated in the analysis, with 4,072 boys (49.8%), 4,105 girls (50.2%), and 4,463 middle school students (54.6%) and 3,177 high school students (45.4%). The percentage of students who experienced unbearable stress was 9% before the COVID-19 pandemic, increased to 16% at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, then decreased to 12.7% at the time of the survey. Stress was experienced more by girls (18.1% versus 13.8% in boys; χ2 = 28.159, P < 0.001) and high school students (19.0% versus 13.5% in middle school students; χ2 = 45.437, P < 0.001). Overall, 7.6% experienced emotional crises during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was more prevalent in girls (10.1% versus 5.2% in boys; χ2 = 71.025, P < 0.001) and in high school students (8.8% versus 6.7% in middle school students; χ2 = 12.996, P < 0.001). Depression and anxiety was seen in 19.8% and 12.3% of students during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The risk factors for depression and anxiety included unbearable stress before the COVID-19 pandemic (P < 0.001), mental health (P = 0.044), and age (P = 0.040), whereas resilience was identified as a protective factor for depression and anxiety (P = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Students in Daegu experienced lots of mental difficulties since the COVID-19 pandemic. It will be necessary to improve stress management and resilience to improve students' mental health in disasters such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 103-107, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897500

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant changes in the global health and medical environment. In order to prevent viral transmission, governments implemented strong social distancing, even lockdowns. The closure of schools has reduced physical activity among children and adolescents. Children, especially those with chronic diseases, are often reluctant to visit or even give up visiting hospitals, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missing the right timing for treatment. New guidelines are needed for the management of patients with endocrine diseases such as diabetes or thyroid disease, as well as children with chronic diseases who need regular clinical monitoring.Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the previous research on pediatric endocrinology reported during COVID-19, guide the direction for future research, and establish guidelines to care for pediatric patients with endocrine diseases in the post-pandemic era.

3.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 103-107, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889796

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about significant changes in the global health and medical environment. In order to prevent viral transmission, governments implemented strong social distancing, even lockdowns. The closure of schools has reduced physical activity among children and adolescents. Children, especially those with chronic diseases, are often reluctant to visit or even give up visiting hospitals, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missing the right timing for treatment. New guidelines are needed for the management of patients with endocrine diseases such as diabetes or thyroid disease, as well as children with chronic diseases who need regular clinical monitoring.Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the previous research on pediatric endocrinology reported during COVID-19, guide the direction for future research, and establish guidelines to care for pediatric patients with endocrine diseases in the post-pandemic era.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cardiovascular diseases are representative risk factors for the onset of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly people in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from subjects who were enrolled in the prospective Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were used in this study. Data from 701 subjects whose diastolic blood pressure range did not change (≤79 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg) over 2 years were analyzed. To analyze the differences in cognitive function between the groups at the 2-year follow-up, an analysis of covariance was performed with covariates, which were significantly different between the two groups, and the baseline cognitive function. @*Results@#Significant differences were observed between the two groups, and the mean scores on the constructional praxis (η2=0.010) and word list recall tests (η2=0.018) in the diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg group were higher than those in the diastolic blood pressure ≤79 mm Hg group at the 2-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that maintaining a DBP below 79 mm Hg presents a greater risk of cognitive decline in Korean elderly people.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 744-750, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study estimated the incidence of driving-related adverse events and examined the association of cognitive function with the risk of future driving-related adverse events in the elderly Korean male population. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,172 male drivers aged 60 years or older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD). Using the data from Korean National Police Agency, we classified the participants into three groups: safe driving (drove for 2 years after baseline without a traffic accident or repeated violations), driving cessation (stopped driving), and risky driving (one or more traffic accidents or repeated violations). We estimated the incidences of driving cessation and risky driving, and examined the effect of cognitive function on their risks. @*Results@#The incidence of driving cessation and risky driving in the Korean male drivers aged 60 years or older was 19.3 and 69.9 per 1,000 person-years respectively and increased in the late 80s. Drivers with better baseline Word List Memory Test scores showed less risky driving (OR=0.94, p=0.039). @*Conclusion@#Driving-related adverse events increased in late 80s, and better memory function was protective against these events.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830145

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was conducted on the experiences, limitations, and factors necessary for increasing participation in emergency care outside a medical institution for physicians working in a tertiary hospital. @*Methods@#This study was conducted by analyzing data from 150 physicians working in a tertiary hospital. The physicians’ intent to participate in emergencies outside the medical institution was measured as frequencies and percentages, and chi-square test was performed. Multi-logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting the physicians’ willingness to participate emergencies outside the medical institution. @*Results@#Out of 103 respondents, 52 (50.5%) said that they do not want to participate in future emergency situations. Among them, 38 (73.1%) said that legal burden associated with medical accidents dissuaded them from intervening in future emergencies. Also, 33 (63.5%) said that ‘a firm guarantee of exemption from legal responsibility’ was needed to convince them to participate in emergency patient care. There were no meaningful results in the analysis of factors affecting future participation in emergency care. @*Conclusion@#It was found that the reason they do not participate in emergency care is because they feel that they bear the risk of legal liability. We suggest that providing more legal immunity could be a way to encourage doctors to step up in emergency situations. At the same time, it is recommended that a more suitable environment be provided for physicians in such situations, so that they can be able to fulfill their ethical duties in emergency medical care.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785404

ABSTRACT

Tatton-Brown-Rahman Syndrome (TBRS), an overgrowth syndrome caused by heterozygous mutation of DNMT3A, first was described in 2014. Approximately 60 DNMT3A variants, including 32 missense variants, have been reported, with most missense mutations located on the DNMT3A functional domains. Autosomal dominant inheritance by germ-line mutation of DNMT3A has been reported, but vertical transmission within a family is extremely rare. Herein, we report the first Korean family with maternally inherited TBRS due to the novel heterozygous DNMT3A variant c.118G>C p.(Glu40Gln), located outside the main functional domain and identified by multigene panel sequencing. The patient and her mother had typical clinical features, including tall stature during childhood, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial appearance. TBRS shows milder dysmorphic features than other overgrowth syndromes, potentially leading to underdiagnosis and underestimated prevalence; thus, targeted multigene panel sequencing including DNMT3A will be a useful tool in cases of overgrowth and unexplained mild intellectual disability for early diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Early Diagnosis , Genetic Counseling , Germ-Line Mutation , Growth Disorders , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Mothers , Mutation, Missense , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Wills
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although testing to detect weak D antigens using the antihuman globulin reagent is not required for D− patients in many countries, it is routinely performed in Korea. However, weak D testing can be omitted in D− patients with a C−E− phenotype as this indicates complete deletion of the RHD gene, except in rare cases. We designed a new algorithm for weak D testing, which consisted of RhCE phenotyping followed by weak D testing in C+ or E+ samples, and compared it with the current algorithm with respect to time and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 74,889 test results from January to July 2017 in a tertiary hospital in Korea were analyzed. Agreement between the current and proposed algorithms was evaluated, and total number of tests, time required for testing, and test costs were compared. With both algorithms, RHD genotyping was conducted for samples that were C+ or E+ and negative for weak D testing. RESULTS: The algorithms showed perfect agreement (agreement=100%; κ=1.00). By applying the proposed algorithm, 29.56% (115/389 tests/yr) of tests could be omitted, time required for testing could be reduced by 36% (8,672/24,084 min/yr), and the test cost could be reduced by 16.53% (536.11/3,241.08 USD/yr). CONCLUSIONS: Our algorithm omitting weak D testing in D− patients with C−E− phenotype may be a cost-effective testing strategy in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718302

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and factors related to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in university students. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted using a self-report structured questionnaire with 420 university students. Data collection was done during May and June, 2017. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test, χ² test, and binary logistic regression analysis with IBM SPSS/WIN 22.0 program. RESULTS: The prevalence for IBS was 24% among Korean university students. Family history of IBS (OR=2.98, 95% CI=1.32~6.70), history of stomach and intestinal disease (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.36~3.77), sleep quality (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.16~3.48), mild anxiety (OR=2.75, 95% CI= 1.19~6.33) and more than moderate anxiety (OR=2.02, 95% CI=1.02~4.00) were found to be factors related to IBS. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IBS was high among university students, and sleep quality and anxiety significantly influenced prevalence of IBS in these students. Therefore, interventions to decrease symptom of IBS must focus on management of sleep quality and anxiety.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Data Collection , Humans , Intestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Stomach
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several injectable hydrogels have been developed extensively for a broad range of biomedical applications. Injectable hydrogels forming in situ through the change in external stimuli have the distinct properties of easy management and minimal invasiveness, and thus provide the advantage of bypassing surgical procedures for administration resulting in better patient compliance. METHODS: The injectable in situ-forming hydrogels can be formed irreversibly or reversibly under physiological stimuli. Among several external stimuli that induce formation of hydrogels in situ, in this review, we focused on the electrostatic interactions as the most simple and interesting stimulus. RESULTS: Currently, numerous polyelectrolytes have been reported as potential electrostatically interactive in situ-forming hydrogels. In this review, a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing electrostatically interactive in situ-forming hydrogels, which are produced by various anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes such as chitosan, celluloses, and alginates, has been outlined and summarized. Further, their biomedical applications have also been discussed. CONCLUSION: The review concludes with perspectives on the future of electrostatically interactive in situ-forming hydrogels.


Subject(s)
Alginates , Chitosan , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Patient Compliance , Regenerative Medicine
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 767-774, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to an unprecedented rate of population aging, South Korea is facing a dementia epidemic. For this reason, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD) was launched in 2009 with support from the Korean Health Industry Development Institute to investigate the epidemiology, biopsychosocial risk factors, and outcomes of dementia and dementia-related conditions. METHODS: The KLOSCAD is the first nationwide multi-center population-based prospective cohort study. In October 2010, 12,694 individuals were randomly sampled from residents aged 60 years or older who lived in 13 districts across South Korea. In the baseline assessment, which was conducted from November 2010 through October 2012, 6,818 (53.7%) individuals participated. Follow-up assessments have been conducted every two years, with the first follow-up assessment conducted between November 2012 and October 2014, and the second between November 2014 and October 2016. The third is now in progress, and will span from November 2016 to October 2018. Diagnosis of cognitive disorders, neuropsychological battery, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, activities of daily living, physical and neurologic examination and laboratory tests, life styles, quality of life, and identification of death were evaluated in each assessment. RESULTS: The cumulative drop-out rate at the second follow-up assessment was 38.7%. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment were 5.0% and 27.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The KLOSCAD may provide strong scientific evidence for advancing the fight against dementia both in Korea and globally.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurologic Examination , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pretransfusion tests are essential for safe transfusions, but occasionally, part or all can be omitted when a transfusion is needed urgently in an emergency. The purpose of this study was to share the authors' experience of various pretransfusion test protocols in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea. METHODS: From July 2016 to June 2017, all transfusion cases at Samsung Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. For each pretransfusion test protocol, the parameters regarding issue, return and disposal rate of blood products, occurrence of hemolytic transfusion adverse effect, and prescription frequency of each respective department and ordering site were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 90,539 units of red blood cells, 24,814 units of fresh frozen plasmas, 24,758 units of single donor platelets, and 23,303 units of platelet concentrates were issued during the study period. Among them, 3.6%, 1.8%, 0.3%, and 0.4% of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasmas, single donor platelets, and platelet concentrates were issued according to the emergency transfusion protocols. When various pretransfusion test protocols were applied to issue blood products, there was no case in which an adverse hemolytic transfusion reaction was suspected. When compared with usual pretransfusion test protocol, all emergency transfusion protocols showed significantly higher return and wastage rates in red blood cells and fresh frozen plasmas. Platelets also had a higher return and wastage rate, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These results suggests that there is no different risk of adverse hemolytic transfusion reaction regardless the pre-transfusion protocols, but management about of the increased rate of return and wastage of blood products in emergency transfusions should be considered.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Emergencies , Erythrocytes , Humans , Korea , Plasma , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors , Transfusion Reaction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715807

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This pilot study assessed changes in the growth plate and growth rates in children during a 6-month period. METHODS: The study included 31 healthy children (17 boys, 14 girls) under evaluation for growth retardation. Height, weight, bone age, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) were measured at baseline and after 6 months. In addition, the diameter, thickness, and volume of the femoral and tibial growth plates were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The mean bone age in boys and girls was 11.7 and 10.7 years, respectively. In boys, height (z score) (−0.2 vs. 0.0), weight (z score) (0.8 vs. 1.1), body mass index (BMI) (z score) (1.27 vs. 1.5), IGF-1 (ng/mL) (343.6 vs. 501.8), and IGF-BP3 (ng/mL) (5,088.5 vs. 5,620.0) were significantly higher after 6 months. In girls, height (z score) (−1.0 vs. −0.7), weight (z score) (−0.5 vs. 0.1), BMI (z score) (−0.02 vs. 0.3), IGF-1 (ng/mL) (329.3 vs. 524.6), and IGF-BP3 (ng/mL) (4,644.4 vs. 5,593.6) were also significantly higher after 6 months. In both sexes, the mean diameter and volume of the femoral and tibial growth plates were significantly increased 6 months later. CONCLUSION: No significant correlation was found between changes in the growth plate and clinical parameters in children with growth retardation in this study, other than correlations of change in femoral diameter with weight and BMI. A larger, long-term study is needed to precisely evaluate the correlation between change in the growth plate and growth.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Carrier Proteins , Child , Female , Growth Plate , Humans , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pilot Projects
15.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 55-67, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32615

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to understand and describe nurses' experiences of caring for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in chemotherapy wards. METHODS: Data were collected during 2015 by individual in-depth interviews with 10 nurses working in a chemotherapy ward. Transcribed data were analyzed using the hermeneutic phenomenological method by van Manen. RESULTS: Six essential themes emerged from the analysis. ‘Struggle for safe administration of anticancer drugs,' represents the double effort for patients' safety while receiving anti-cancer drugs. ‘Compassion toward patients suffering from chemotherapy,' describes sympathy and empathy for patients and the transference of the pain caused by excessive empathy. ‘Frustration of caring for no further improvement of patients,' describes ambivalence and helplessness due to ineffective chemotherapy. ‘Disappointment of being the target of criticism,' illustrates the emotional injury caused by projection of anger and denigrated value of caring. ‘Motive power of caring: patients, family and colleagues,' represents the supportive relationship for caring. ‘Take-off for better care,' describes development as patients' advocator through introspection and self-management. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that a more supportive ward environment needs to be created to support and empower oncology nurses in order to provide the best care for cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Anger , Drug Therapy , Empathy , Hermeneutics , Humans , Korea , Methods , Qualitative Research , Self Care
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23878

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parental stress, social support, and coping behavior on burnout among mothers caring for children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional, descriptive study were 185 mothers who completed a self-report structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses with IBM SPSS Win 22 program. RESULTS: Parental stress and coping behavior were strong predictors of burnout among mothers of children with cerebral palsy. These variables explained 50.0% of the variance in burnout. Social support was not a predictor of burnout. A higher level of burnout was associated with higher levels of parental stress and lower levels of social support and coping behavior. CONCLUSION: Mothers of children with cerebral palsy are vulnerable to burnout. These results show that effective strategies for reducing parental stress and improving positive coping behavior are needed to reduce burnout in these mothers.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Cerebral Palsy , Child , Humans , Linear Models , Mothers , Parenting , Parents , Stress, Psychological
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level may be unable to differentiate between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary disease with obstructive jaundice. The study aims to determine the clinical interpretation and the diagnostic value of CA 19-9 level in pancreatobiliary diseases with coexistent obstructive jaundice. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 981 patients who underwent biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice following pancreatobiliary disease at Sanggye Paik Hospital for 5 years. 114 patients with serial follow-up data for CA 19-9 level were included in this study (80 patients with malignancy and 34 patients with benign diseases). We compared the levels of CA 19-9 levels and the biochemical value before and after biliary drainage. RESULTS: The rate of CA 19-9 elevation (>37 U/mL) was significantly different between the benign group and the malignant group (59% vs. 90%, p=0.001). Despite the decrease in serum bilirubin after biliary drainage, CA 19-9 levels remained elevated in 12% of patients in the benign group and in 63% of patients in the malignant group (p<0.001). Finally, 12% of patients in the benign group turned out to have malignant disease. A receiver operating characteristic analysis provided a cut-off value of 38 U/mL for differentiating benign disease from malignant disease after biliary drainage (area under curve, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.703 to 0.871; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 88%). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that we should consider the possibility of malignant causes if the CA 19-9 levels remain high or are more than 38 U/mL after resolution of biliary obstruction.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , CA-19-9 Antigen , Drainage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34205

ABSTRACT

LW antigens are expressed in higher intensities in D-positive blood cells than D-negative cells, which can result in false identification of anti-D in pretransfusion testing. Although several cases of anti-LW have been reported abroad, to the best of our knowledge, none have been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of anti-LW in a 58 year-old RhD positive patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a positive direct Coombs test and a suspicion of the presence of passive anti-D antibodies because of a history of intravenous immunoglobulin administration. However, during a 5-month follow up, the antibody was confirmed as anti-LW on grounds that it showed weakened reaction in dithiothreitol treated cells and enforced reaction in cord O+ cells when compared to the results from antibody identification panel cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Blood Cells , Coombs Test , Dithiothreitol , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 216-218, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166078

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of school violence on depressive symptoms among the offspring of multicultural families in South Korea. Data from the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012, conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute and Statistics Korea, were used in this study. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of school violence on depressive mood. The survey participants were 3999 students between the ages of 9 and 24. Of the participants, 22.1% reported experiencing depressive symptoms and 9.1% reported experiencing school violence within the last year. School violence was a strong risk factor (OR=5.142, 95% CI=4.067–6.500) for depressive symptoms after adjusting for personal, familial and school factors. School violence is a serious contributor to depressive mood among the offspring of multicultural families. There is a significant need to monitor school violence among this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Depression , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Violence
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158036

ABSTRACT

Anti-G positivity can be misinterpreted as the presence of anti-D or -C antigen in an antibody identification test, as this antibody is known to show agglutination to D or C antigen-positive red cells. Correct identification of anti-G is important in pregnant women, as prenatal care or the need for RhIG administration can vary between anti-D and -C versus anti-G cases. We recently encountered a D-negative case with suspected anti-D and -C, which was ruled out by adsorption and elution tests, and ultimately confirmed the presence of anti-G. The pregnant woman was a 33-year-old patient with cde Rh phenotype with a previous history of spontaneous abortion, followed by administration of RhIG. The spouse's Rh phenotype was CDe. Initial antibody identification test showed 2+ positivity to C (homozygotes and heterozygotes) and trace to 1+ positivity to D. Upon additional adsorption and elution with R0r (cDe/cde) and r'r (Cde/ cde) red cells, we identified the antibody present in the patient's serum as anti-G. The patient is currently under close follow-up monitoring for anti-G titer using antibody titer testing with both CDe and CcDEe red cells. Periodic fetal cerebral Doppler examination is being carried out without evidence of fetal distress.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Adsorption , Adult , Agglutination , Female , Fetal Distress , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care , Rho(D) Immune Globulin
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