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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921701

ABSTRACT

The freeze-drying technique, characterized by low-temperature processing, is especially suitable for sensitive volatile oils with thermal instability. However, there are few studies focusing on the retention of volatile oils in the processing of freeze-dried preparations. This study evaluated the effects of different addition methods(adsorption, emulsification, solid dispersion, and inclusion) on the retention rate of the main components in peppermint oil, aiming to explore the application feasibility of freeze-dried preparations of volatile oils. Firstly, the addition method was determined based on the retention rates of menthol in four freeze-dried preparations. Secondly, an orthogonal test was designed to optimize the preparation process based on the characteristics of the preferred addition method. The results showed that the most suitable preparation form of peppermint oil was inclusion with beta-cyclodextrin(β-CD), and the retention rate of menthol in freeze-drying was 86.36%. According to the two-step preparation process of inclusion and freeze-drying, we introduced the product of inclusion rate and retention rate, i.e., comprehensive retention rate, to determine the optimum processing parameters. The results showed that β-CD/oil ratio of 7∶1, inclusion temperature of 40 ℃, and inclusion time of 2 h were the optimum processing parameters. The product prepared with these parameter had the comprehensive retention rate of 68.41%, retention rate of 92.53%, and inclusion rate of 73.93%. The inclusion compound was white powder with significantly increased solubility. The pre-paration process based on cyclodextrin inclusion in this study is stable and reliable and provides a new idea for ensuring the efficacy and stability of volatile components in freeze-dried preparations.


Subject(s)
Cyclodextrins , Freeze Drying , Mentha piperita , Oils, Volatile , Plant Oils , Solubility , Technology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913067

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of reported imported malaria cases in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the management of imported malaria in the city. Methods All data pertaining to cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China, including individual demographic data, and malaria onset, initial diagnosis and definitive diagnosis data. All data were descriptively analyzed. The duration from malaria onset to initial diagnosis, from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis and from onset to definitive diagnosis was compared among cases. In addition, the diagnoses of imported malaria cases in which definitive diagnosis was made were compared with the reexaminations by Zhengzhou Municipal Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory. Results A total of 302 cases with definitive diagnosis of malaria were reported in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, and all were imported cases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria as the predominant type (230 cases, 76.2%). There were 293 malaria cases imported from Africa (293 cases, 97.0%), which mainly included Nigeria (48 cases, 15.9%), Angola (40 cases, 13.2%), and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (29 cases, 9.6%). There was no obvious seasonality found in the date of malaria onset and time of reporting malaria. The ratio of male to female malaria cases was 49.3:1, and there were 103 cases (34.1%) with the current residency address in Zhengzhou City, 193 cases (63.9%) with the current residency address in other cities of Henan Province and 6 cases (2.0%) in other provinces of China. There were 271 cases (89.7%) seeking initial diagnosis in medical institutions, and the diagnostic accuracy of malaria was 56.6% (171/302) at initial diagnosis institutions. A total of 122 cases (40.4%) sought medical care on the day of malaria onset, and 252 cases (86.4%) within 3 days; however, only 22 cases (7.3%) were definitively diagnosed on the day of onset, and 162 cases (53.6%) diagnosed within 3 days. There were no significant differences between malaria cases seeking initial diagnosis at medical institutions and disease control and prevention institutions in terms of the duration from malaria onset to initial diagnosis (Z = −1.663, P > 0.05), from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis (Z = −0.413, P > 0.05) or from malaria onset to definitive diagnosis (Z = −0.838, P > 0.05). The median duration (interquartile range) from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis of malaria was 3.00 (2.00), 3.00 (6.00), 2.00 (4.00) d and 1.00 (1.00) d among cases seeking medical care at township-level and lower, county-, city- and province-level medical institutions, and the median duration from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis of malaria was significantly longer among cases seeking medical care at township-level and lower medical institutions than at city (Z = −3.286, P < 0.008 33) and province-level medical institutions (Z = −9.119, P < 0.008 33), while the median duration from initial diagnosis to definitive diagnosis [1.00 (3.00) d vs. 2.00 (4.00) d; Z = −4.099, P < 0.016] and from malaria onset to definitive diagnosis [3.00 (4.00) d vs. 4.00 (5.00) d; Z = −2.868, P < 0.016] among malaria cases with the current residency address in Zhengzhou City was both shorter than in other cities of Henan Province. The diagnostic accuracy was 89.1% (269/302) among malaria cases in which definitive diagnosis was made, and the accuracy of malaria reexaminations was 94.0% (284/302) in Zhengzhou Municipal Malaria Diagnosis Reference Laboratory. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria was predominant among reported imported malaria cases in Zhengzhou City from 2016 to 2020, and these imported malaria cases were predominantly diagnosed at medical institutions; however, the diagnostic capability of malaria is poor in township-level and lower medical institutions. Strengthening the collaboration between medical institutions and disease control and prevention institutions and improving the diagnostic capability building at medical institutions are recommended to consolidate malaria elimination achivements.

3.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1133-1137, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911333

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-mediated deacetylation activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Methods:Twenty-five SPF clean-grade healthy male C57BL/6 mice including 10 wild-type (WT) and 15 NMNAT1 conditional-knockout (KO) mice, aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 20-25 g, were selected.The WT mice were divided into 2 groups ( n=5 each) using a random number table method: control group (group WT+ C) and ALI group (group WT+ ALI). The KO mice were divided into 3 groups ( n=5 each) using a random number table method: control group (group KO+ C), ALI group (group KO+ ALI) and ALI plus NAD + precursor substances nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) group (KO+ LPS+ NMN group). ALI was produced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 15 mg/kg injected intravenously.NMN 500 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h before injection of LPS in KO+ ALI+ NMN group, while the equal volume of normal saline was given instead in control group.Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta at 12 h after LPS or normal saline injection for blood gas analysis, and the animals were then sacrificed and the lung tissues were removed for microscopic examination of pathologic changes which were scored and for determination of wet/dry weight ratio (W/D ratio), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) contents (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)and content of NAD + (using a spectrophotometer) and levels of SIRT1, acetylated nuclear factor kappaB (Ac-NF-κB), acetylated p53 (Ac-p53), acetylated FoxO1 (Ac-FoxO1) and acetylated PGC1α (Ac-PGC1α) (by Western blot). Results:Compared with group C, pH value and PaO 2 were significantly decreased, the PaCO 2, W/D ratio, lung injury score, contents of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and NAD + were increased, expression of SIRT1 was up-regulated, and expression of Ac-NF-κB, Ac-p53, Ac-FoxO1 and Ac-PGC1α was down-regulated in group ALI ( P<0.05). Compared with group WT+ ALI, pH value and PaO 2 were significantly decreased, the PaCO 2, W/D ratio, lung injury score, contents of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were increased, NAD + content was decreased, expression of SIRT1 was down-regulated, and expression of Ac-NF-κB, Ac-p53, Ac-FoxO1 and Ac-PGC1α was up-regulated in group KO+ ALI ( P<0.05). Compared with group KO+ ALI, pH value and PaO 2 were significantly increased, the PaCO 2, W/D ratio, lung injury score, contents of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased, NAD + content was increased, expression of SIRT1 was up-regulated, and expression of Ac-NF-κB, Ac-p53, Ac-FoxO1 and Ac-PGC1α was down-regulated in group KO+ ALI+ NMN ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The enhanced NAD + -mediated deacetylation activity of SIRT1 is involved in the endogenous protective mechanism in mice with endotoxin-induced ALI.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911194

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on synaptic damage to hippocampal neurons in rats with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE).Methods:A total of 48 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (Sham group), SAE group, SAE+ EA group and SAE+ sham EA group (SAE+ SEA group). SAE was induced by cecal ligation and puncture in anesthetized rats.Baihui, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints were stimulated with constant voltage (2/15 Hz) and disperse-dense waves for 30 min once a day for 10 consecutive days, and the stimulation intensity was defined as less than 1.5 mA causing slight muscle contraction at 2 days before operation in group SAE+ EA.In group SAE+ SEA, stimulating electrodes were placed at the points 5 mm lateral to the corresponding acupoints, but no electrical stimulation was applied.On day 14 after operation, the rats were sacrificed, and hippocampal tissues were obtained and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for examination of the pathological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region, for determination of the expression of synaptophysin (SYN) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) (by Western blot), and for calculation of dendritic spine density of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area (using Golgi staining) and pyramidal neurons counts. Results:Compared with Sham group, the expression of SYN and PSD-95 in hippocampus was significantly decreased, and the basal and apical dendrite spine density of neurons in hippocampal CA1 area was decreased in SAE group, the expression of PSD-95 was decreased, and the apical dendrite spine density of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area was increased in SAE+ EA group, and the pyramidal neuron counts in the hippocampal CA1 area were reduced in SAE, SAE+ EA and SAE+ SEA groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group SAE, the expression of SYN and PSD-95 was significantly up-regulated, the basal and apical dendrite spine density of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area was increased and the pyramidal neuron counts were increased in group SAE+ EA ( P<0.05), the pathological damage of hippocampal CA1 area was alleviated and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group SAE+ SEA ( P>0.05). Compared with group SAE+ EA, the expression of SYN and PSD-95 was down-regulated, the basal and apical dendrite spine density of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area was decreased, and the pyramidal neuron counts were reduced in SAE+ SEA group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which EA alleviates SAE may be related to reducing synaptic damage to hippocampal neurons in rats.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906332

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects and mechanism of zedoary turmeric oil and its active components on the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the ovarian cancer (OC). Method:Network pharmacology technology was employed to analyze the mechanism of Curcumae Rhizoma on OC. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the expression of VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR in OC and the effect on the prognosis of OC to explore the feasibility of zedoary turmeric oil in regulating VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR in OC.The xenograft tumor model of nude mice was established, and the effects of zedoary turmeric oil and its active components on VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR in OC were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Result:Bioinformatics analysis and literature research showed that VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR played a special regulatory role in the occurrence and development of OC, and were potential key targets for the proliferation of OC. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that Curcumae Rhizoma could regulate multiple disease targets of OC, and mediate VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR in OC through these multiple targets. As demonstrated by HE staining, the tumor cells in the model group were densely arranged, with no erosion on the edge and no vesicles inside. Compared with the model group, the cell density in other treatment groups was reduced, and strip-shaped erosion on the edge and small empty vesicles were observed in the tumor tissue, especially in the zedoary turmeric oil group. According to the results of Real-time PCR and IHC, zedoary turmeric oil and its active components could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR in the OC tissue (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Zedoary turmeric oil and its active components could reduce the expression of VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR in tumor tissue of nude mice, and inhibited the proliferation of OC through VEGFA, STAT3, and mTOR.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906304

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy and mechanism of Shugan Bushen Huoxue decoction in the treatment of perimenopausal perio syndrome (PPS) with kidney deficiency, liver depression and blood stasis syndrome. Method:One hundred and twelve patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group according to random number table. Both groups took Remifemin orally, 1 tablet/time, by swallowing in the morning and evening. The patients in control group additionally took Fuke Yangrong capsules, 4 capsules/time, 3 times/day. The patients in observation group additionally took Shugan Bushen Huoxue decoction, 1 dose/day. The course of treatment was 12 weeks in both groups. Before and after treatment, scores were graded for modified Kupperman index (KI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes, menopausal quality of life scale (MENQOL), self-rating depression scale (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH),serum estrogen (E<sub>2</sub>), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), endothelin (ET), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were detected before and after therapy. Result:In the observation group, scores of KI, TCM syndrome, SDS and SAS were lower than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). All dimensions of MENQOL scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). FSH and LH levels in the observation group were lower than those in the control group, and the E<sub>2</sub> level was higher than that of the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, DA and NE in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The ET level in the observation group was lower than that in the control group, and the NO level was higher than that of the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). In observation group,the clinical efficacy was superior to that in control group (<italic>Z</italic>=2.073<italic>,P</italic><0.05), and the efficacy of TCM syndromes was also superior to that in control group (<italic>Z</italic>=2.086<italic>,P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Shugan Bushen Huoxue decoction in the treatment of PPS in patients with kidney deficiency and liver depression and blood stasis can significantly reduce clinical symptoms, depression and anxiety, regulate the sex hormones, vasomotor factors and monoamine neurotransmitters levels, and improve the quality of life, with obvious clinical efficacy and high safety, so it is worthy of clinical use.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906281

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the grade evaluation standard of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces combining traditional character evaluation and modern intrinsic quality analysis. Method:The appearance character parameters (thickness and weight) and contents of internal index components (tanshinones and salvianolic acid B) of 18 batches of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces were determined, and the relative quality constant was calculated. The maximum value of the percentage quality constants of the tested samples was assumed to be 100%, the value ≥80% was classified as the first-class, ≥50% and <80% as the second-class, <50% as the third-class. Result:The relative quality constants of 18 batches of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces ranged from 349 to 884. According to the percentage quality constant, 18 batches of samples were successfully divided into three grades. The relative quality constant of the first-class product was ≥707, including samples ds5, ds8 and ds14, accounting for about 17% of the total number of samples. The relative quality constant of the second-class product was ≥442 and <707, accounting for about 61% of the total number of samples. the other samples were of the third-class, and their relative quality constants were all <442. Conclusion:The method of relative quality constant overcomes the one-sidedness of the single method in the grade evaluation of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces, and the evaluation results can objectively, reasonably and scientifically classify the grade of the decoction pieces, which can provide reference for the establishment of the grade standard of other decoction pieces.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905270

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the reliability and validity of extended Barthel Index (EBI) in the assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) for stroke patients. Methods:From January, 2018 to October 2019, 136 stroke inpatients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were conveniently sampled. They were assessed with EBI by rater A twice within 48 hours after admission, with interval above twelve hours; and by rater B within 24 hours. They were also assessed with modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Function Independence Measure (FIM) within 48 hours after admission by rater C. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of retest and inter-rater of EBI were calculated, as well as the Cronbach's α coefficient, Spearman correlation coefficient between scores of items and total, and Spearman correlation coefficient of EBI to MBI or FIM. The construct validity of EBI was tested with factor analysis. Results:The retest ICC of items was 0.766 to 0.953; the retest ICC of motor and cognitive items was 0.938 and 0.845, respectively; the retest ICC of total was 0.891. The inter-rater ICC of items was 0.728 to 0.976, the inter-rater ICC of motor and cognitive items was 0.948 and 0.717, respectively; the inter-rater ICC of total was 0.866. The Cronbach's α coefficient of EBI was 0.885. The correlation coefficients were above 0.4 in all the items (P < 0.001) to the total, except the item of vision (r = 0.215, P < 0.05). The correlation of items of EBI to MBI was significant (r = 0.648 to 0.958, P < 0.01), as well as those of EBI to FIM (r = 0.722 to 0.976, P < 0.01). Four components were extracted with principal component analysis, accumulated to 72.19% of the variable; after the vision item was removed, three principal components were extracted, accumulated to 69.09% of the variable. The component 1 was mainly about sphincter control and some advanced brain functions (communication and social cognition), component 2 mainly about ADL related to lower extremities, and component 3 mainly about ADL related to upper extremities. Conclusion:EBI is reliable and valid in the assessment of ADL for stroke patients.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888121

ABSTRACT

Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills(QSYQ) are used clinically to treat various myocardial ischemic diseases, such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart failure; however, the molecular mechanism of QSYQ remains unclear, and the scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) compatibility has not been systematically explained. The present study attempted to screen the critical pathway of QSYQ in the treatment of myocardial ischemia by network pharmacology and verify the therapeutic efficacy with the oxygen-glucose deprivation(OGD) model, in order to reveal the molecular mechanism of QSYQ based on the critical pathway. The key targets of QSYQ were determined by active ingredient identification and target prediction, and underwent pathway enrichment analysis and functional annotation with David database to reveal the biological role and the critical pathway of QSYQ. Cell counting Kit-8(CCK-8), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), and Western blot tests were launched on high-content active ingredients with OGD cell model to reveal the molecular mechanism of QSYQ based on the critical pathway. The results of network pharmacology indicated that QSYQ, containing 18 active ingredients and 82 key targets, could protect cardiomyocytes by regulating biological functions, such as nitric oxide biosynthesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis, through TNF signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway, etc. HIF-1 signaling pathway was the critical pathway. As revealed by CCK-8 and LDH tests, astragaloside Ⅳ, salvianic acid A, and ginsenoside Rg_1 in QSYQ could enhance cell viability and reduce LDH in the cell supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner(P<0.05). As demonstrated by the Western blot test, astragaloside Ⅳ significantly down-regulated the protein expression of serine/threonine-protein kinase(Akt1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α(HIF-1α) in the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and up-regulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA). Salvianic acid A significantly down-regulated the protein expression of upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha(PIK3 CA) and downstream HIF-1α of Akt1. Ginsenoside Rg_1 significantly down-regulated the expression of HIF-1α protein and up-regulated the expression of VEGFA. The therapeutic efficacy of QSYQ on myocardial ischemia was achieved by multiple targets and multiple pathways, with the HIF-1 signaling pathway serving as the critical one. The active ingredients of QSYQ could protect cardiomyocytes synergistically by regulating the targets in the HIF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit its expression.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885058

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between changes in Golgi apparatus morphological structure and endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.Methods:Twenty healthy male C57BL/6J mice, weighing 18-20 g, aged 6-8 weeks, were divided into 2 groups ( n=10 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (group Sham) and endotoxin-induced ALI group (group ALI). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 10 mg/kg was injected intravenously in group ALI, while the equal volume of normal saline 0.5 ml was given instead in group Sham.The animals were sacrificed at 12 h after LPS injection and the lung tissues were taken for detection of the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and wet to dry weight ratio (W/D ratio), for observation of the pathological changes (using HE staining) and Golgi apparatus morphological structure (with a transmission electron microscope) and for determination of expression of Golgi matrix protein 130 (GM130), Golgin97 and mannosidase alpha class II member 1 (MAN2A1) and its mRNA (by Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Results:Compared with group Sham, ROS content and the W/D ratio in lung tissues were significantly increased, GM130, MAN2A1, Golgin97 protein and its mRNA expression were down-regulate ( P<0.01), the pathological changes of lung tissues were accentuated, the Golgi cisternae was swollen, and Golgi fragments were dispersed in the cytoplasm in group ALI. Conclusion:The mechanism of endotoxin-induced ALI may be related to the changes in Golgi apparatus morphological structure.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873098

ABSTRACT

Objective::To establish a scientific and reasonable grade evaluation standard for Polygoni Multiflori Caulis. Method::The quality constant method was used to conduct a grade evaluation study on Polygoni Multiflori Caulis. A total of 16 batches of samples were collected from Chinese herbal slices enterprises and medicinal materials markets. By measuring its appearance traits (average quality and average thickness of the decoction pieces) and the intrinsic quality indicators (content of 2, 3, 5, 4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside), then its quality constant and percentage quality constant were calculated comprehensively, finally, the grades of Polygoni Multiflori Caulis were classified by quality constant method. Result::The quality constant of 16 batches of the decoction pieces was 0.054-0.417, and the percentage quality constant was 12.98-100.00.If these samples were divided into three grades, the quality constant shall be ≥0.334 for the first-grade decoction pieces, the quality constant shall be <0.334 and ≥0.209 for the second-grade decoction pieces, while for the third-grade decoction pieces, the quality constant shall be <0.209. Conclusion::The grade evaluation method based on quality constant can overcome the shortcomings of traditional evaluation method for decoction pieces, and can realize scientific, objective and simple classification of Polygoni Multiflori Caulis. This study enriches the research data of modern grade evaluation of Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, and provides reference for grade evaluation and market circulation of other decoction pieces.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869919

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-induced endogenous protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-caused apoptosis in rat alveolar macrophages and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress.Methods:Alveolar macrophages of rats were randomized into 4 groups ( n=32 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), LPS group (group L), Con siRNA group and HO-1 siRNA group. Cells were cultured normally in group C, and 10 μg/ml LPS was added to the culture medium in the other three groups. Con siRNA and HO-1 siRNA transfection was performed at 48 h before adding LPS in Con siRNA and HO-1 siRNA groups. At 24 h of treatment with LPS, MTT method was used to measure the cell viability, flow cytometry was used to determine the cell apoptosis rate, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated kinase receptor-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), phosphorylated type I endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein kinase (p-IRE-1), phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase (p-JNK) and caspase-12. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, cell apoptosis rate was increased, and the expression of HO-1, GRP78, CHOP, p-PERK, p-IRE-1, p-JNK and caspase-12 was up-regulated in the other three groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group L, the cell viability was significantly decreased, cell apoptosis rate was increased, and the expression of HO-1 was down-regulated, and the expression of GRP78, CHOP, p-PERK, p-IRE-1, p-JNK and caspase-12 was up-regulated in group HO-1 siRNA ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in each parameter in group Con siRNA ( P>0.05). Compared with group Con siRNA, the cell viability was significantly decreased, cell apoptosis rate was increased, and the expression of HO-1 was down-regulated, and the expression of GRP78, CHOP, p-PERK, p-IRE-1, p-JNK and caspase-12 was up-regulated in group HO-1 siRNA ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism of HO-1-induced endogenous protection is related to inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and then reducing LPS-induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages of rats.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869868

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between melatonin receptors and mitochondrial fission proteins and to clarify the mechanism of melatonin alleviating lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced damage to type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells of rats.Methods:The rat type Ⅱalveolar epithelial cells were seeded in 6-well plates at a density of 2×10 5 cells/ml and divided into 5 groups ( n=10 each) using a random number table method: control group (C group), LPS group (L group), LPS plus melatonin group (LM group), LPS plus melatonin receptor blocking group (LL group), and LPS plus melatonin plus melatonin receptor blocker group (LML group). The model of LPS-induced damage to cells was established by incubating with LPS 10 μg/ml for 24 h. Melatonin 0.1 mmol/L and/or melatonin receptor blocker luzindole 0.2 μmol/L was added in LM group, LL group and LML group.The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after the end of incubation.The mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR) was measured by GENMED purified mitochondrial RCR quantitative detection kit in each group.Western blot was used to detect the expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial adaptor fission 1 (Fis1). Results:Compared with C group, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in culture medium were significantly increased, RCR was decreased, and the expression of Drp1 and Fis1 was up-regulated in L, LM, LL and LML groups ( P<0.05). Compared with L group, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in culture medium were significantly decreased, RCR was increased, and the expression of Drp1 and Fis1 was down-regulated in LM group ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in parameters mentioned above in LL group ( P>0.05). Compared with LM group, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in culture medium were significantly increased, RCR was decreased, and the expression of Drp1 and Fis1 was up-regulated in LML group ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism by which melatonin attenuates LPS-induced damage to type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells is related to activating melatonin receptors and inhibiting the expression of mitochondrial fission proteins in rats.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869786

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) signaling pathway and mitochondrial fission in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged alveolar type Ⅱ epithelial cells (AECⅡ) of rats.Methods:The cultured AECⅡ were subcultured and inoculated in 96-well plates (about 2 × 10 5 cells/ml) and divided into 7 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: blank control group (group C), LPS group (group L), carbon monoxide release molecule-2 (CORM -2) + LPS group (group CL), HO-1 inducer hemin+ LPS group (group HL), HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-Ⅸ+ LPS group (group ZL), CORM-2+ ZnPP-Ⅸ+ LPS group (group CZL) and hemin+ ZnPP-Ⅸ+ LPS group (group HZL). In group C, the cells were continuously incubated and received no treatment.Cells were incubated with LPS 10 μg/ml in group LPS. In CL, HL and ZL groups, cells were incubated with 100 μmol/L CORM-2 for 1 h, with 20 μmol/L hemin for 1 h and with 10 μmol/L ZnPP- Ⅸ for 0.5 h, respectively, and then the cells were incubated with 10 μg/ml LPS.In group CZL, the cells were incubated with 100 μmol/L CORM-2 for 1 h, then with 10 μmol/L ZnPP-Ⅸ for 0.5 h, and finally with 10 μg/ml LPS.In group HZL, the cells were incubated with 20 μmol/L hemin for 1 h, then with 10 μmol/L ZnPP-Ⅸ for 0.5 h, and finally with 10 μg/ml LPS.Cell viability was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay at 48 h of culture or incubation with LPS.The expression of HO-1, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1) was determined using Western blot. Results:Compared with group C, the cell viability was significantly decreased, and the expression of HO-1, Drp1 and Fis1 was up-regulated in other six groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group L, the cell viability was significantly increased, the expression of HO-1 was up-regulated, and the expression of Drp1 and Fis1 was down-regulated in CL and HL groups, the cell viability was decreased, HO-1 expression was down-regulated and the expression of Drp1 and Fis1 was up-regulated in group ZL ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in CZL and HZL groups ( P>0.05). Compared with CL and HL groups, the cell viability was significantly decreased, HO-1 expression was down-regulated, and the expression of Drp1 and Fis1 was up-regulated in group ZL ( P<0.05). Conclusion:HO-1/CO signaling pathway can inhibit mitochondrial fission, which exerts endogenous protection when LPS induces injury to AEC Ⅱ in rats.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868128

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of Da Vinci robotic-assisted surgery in the early stage of ovarian cancer without inverted position.Method:s A retrospective chart review of the patients with early stage ovarian cancer was performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2014 to October 2018. Patients with early stage ovarian cancer underwent robotic-assisted surgical staging: 26 patients underwent the inverted position approach (inverted group) and 32 received the non-inverted position approach (no-inverted group). The operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, the number of lymph nodes resection, post-operative anal exhaust time, the average hospitalization days and complications between two groups were compared.Result:s Surgeries were successfully performed between both groups. (1) The perioperative related indicators: the operation time and the postoperative anal exhaust time in the inverted group were significantly longer than those in the no-inverted group [(208±33) minutes vs (158±32) minutes, P<0.01; (2.6±0.5) days vs (2.1±0.8) days, P<0.01, respectively]. There were no significant differences (all P>0.05) in the intraoperative bleeding volume, the average hospitalization days and the number of lymph nodes resection. (2) The comparison of the incidence of surgical complications: there were no significant difference (χ 2=0.000, P>0.05) in the rate of lymphatic retention cyst [4% (1/26), 6% (2/32)]. Conclusions:Da Vinci robot system without inverted position in omentectomy is safe and feasible. Compared to the inverted position approach, it also provides remarkable advantages, including reduced operative time and faster return of bowel movement, but its long-term effects remain to be followed-up.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV). Methods: Clinical data (general information, clinical manifestation, and laboratory indexes) of 168 patients newly diagnosed as AAV between Jul. 2008 and Dec. 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for a median period of 12 months (range, 1-96 months). End-point event was death. Results: There were 152 cases of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), 14 cases of granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA) and 2 cases of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). MPO-ANCA was positive in 145 (86.3%) patients and PR3-ANCA was positive in 20 (11.9%) patients. Forty-nine patients died, 91 patients survived, and 28 patients lost their visits. Interstitial lung disease and renal involvement were more common in MPA patients as compared with GPA patients (50.7% [77/152] vs 14.3% [2/14], 78.9% [120/152] vs 50.0% [7/14], all P<0.05). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in MPA patients was significantly lower than that in GPA patients (14.23 [7.27, 71.49] mL/[min · 1.73 m2] vs 104.08 [16.61, 135.72] mL/[min · 1.73 m2], P<0.05). Compared with PR3-ANCA positive patients, MPO-ANCA positive patients was more elder ([64.01 ± 10.62] years vs [50.50±16.88] years), had more renal involvement (77.9% [113/145] vs 50.0% [10/20]) and lower eGFR (19.00 [9.40, 42.85] mL/[min · 1.73 m2] vs 149.40 [86.75, 249.45] mL/[min · 1.73 m2], all P<0.05). Compared with the survivals, the dead patients were older ([67.45±10.61] years vs [61.98 ± 12.52] years), had higher incidence of interstitial lung disease (59.2% [29/49] vs 41.8% [38/91]), higher Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) (18.53 ± 8.02 vs 13.68 ± 5.98), lower eGFR (8.58 [5.73, 22.07] mL/[min · 1.73 m2] vs 45.15 [11.54, 120.79] mL/[min · 1.73 m2], lower blood sodium concentration (137.00 [134.00, 140.00] mmol/L vs 139.00 [136.00, 141.00] mmol/L), lower albumin level ([28.41 ± 5.24] g/L vs [31.92 ± 5.91] g/L), and higher serum D-dimer level (2.84 [1.20, 6.28] mg/L vs 2.24 [0.80, 3.69] mg/L) (all P<0.05). Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis showed that age, eGFR, serum albumin level and BVAS were independent influence factors of death (hazard ratio =1.058, 0.987, 0.932, and 1.086, all P<0.05). Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of AAV are mostly pulmonary and renal involvement. Age, eGFR, serum albumin level and BVAS are independent risk factors of death in AAV patients. Interstitial lung disease, high level of D-dimer and hyponatremia may be associated with prognosis of AAV.

17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2466-2475, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877853

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used in lung cancer therapy due to their effectiveness and minimal side effects. However, only a few lung cancer patients benefit from ICI therapy, driving the need to develop alternative biomarkers. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecules expressed in tumor cells and immune cells play a key role in the immune checkpoint pathway. Therefore, PD-L1 expression is a prognostic biomarker in evaluating the effectiveness of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors. Nevertheless, adverse predictive outcomes suggest that other factors are implicated in the response. In this review, we present a detailed introduction of existing biomarkers concerning tumor abnormality and host immunity. PD-L1 expression, tumor mutation burden, neoantigens, specific gene mutations, circulating tumor DNA, human leukocyte antigen class I, tumor microenvironment, peripheral inflammatory cells, and microbiome are discussed in detail. To sum up, this review provides information on the current application and future prospects of ICI biomarkers.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 667-672, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805801

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the efficacy of HLA-haploidentical peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-PBSCT) following reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen to treat the patients with hematological malignancies who were older than 50 years old.@*Methods@#Eighteen patients with hematological malignancies over 50 years were enrolled, including 8 male and 10 female patients. The median age of all patients was 52 (range: 50–66) years. Of them, 8 patients had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) , 2 chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) , 5 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , 2 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , and 1 aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) . All patients received fludarabine, cytarabine and melphalan with rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (FAB+rATG regimen) and transplanted with high dose non-T cell-depleted peripheral hematopoietic stem cells from donors. Enhanced graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and infection prevention were administered.@*Results@#Fifteen days after transplantation, 16 patients achieved complete donor chimerism. One of them rejected the donor graft completely at thirty days after transplantation, and the other 2 patients had mixed chimerism 15 days after transplantation and converted to complete recipient chimerism at 30 days after transplantation. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 61.1% (95%CI49.6%-72.6%) . The incidence of grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD was 35.4% (95%CI 21.1%-49.7%) , whereas grade III-IV was 13.8% (95%CI 4.7%-22.9%) . The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) rate was estimated at 38.2% (95%CI 25.5%-50.9%) . Patients were followed-up for a median of 14.5 months (range, 3-44 months) . The Kaplan Meier estimates of 2-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 72.6% (95%CI 60.1%-85.1%) and 63.7% (95%CI 49.2%-78.2%) , respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse-mortality (NRM) was 31.2% (95%CI 16.5%-45.9%) and 12.5% (95%CI 4.2%-20.8%) , respectively.@*Conclusion@#RIC-haplo-PBSCT protocol can achieve better results in patients with hematologic malignancies over 50 years old.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802150

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a better near infrared quantitative model for quality control of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma of components (moisture,total ash,liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid) in liquorice,in order to realize rapid detection.Method: The contents of moisture,total ash,liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid were determined in 97 samples based on the methods set forth in Chinese Pharmacopoeia.Meanwhile,the near infrared spectrum was scanned using near infrared spectroscope.R software was used to screen out the spectral pretreatment and build the quantitative models.Result: The optimum spectral pretreatment method for establishing the near infrared quantitative model of moisture and liquiritin was the first order derivative.For moisture,the correlation coefficients of test and validation were 0.930 0 and 0.929 9,and the root mean square errors were 0.243 2 and 0.203 8,respectively.For liquiritin,the correlation coefficients of test and validation were 0.930 3 and 0.907 6,and the root mean square errors were 0.093 9 and 0.128 9,respectively.The optimum spectral pretreatment method for establishing the near infrared quantitative model of total ash was MSC.The correlation coefficients of test and validation were 0.926 5 and 0.917 7,and the root mean square errors were 0.109 6 and 0.103 7,respectively.The optimum spectral pretreatment method for establishing the near infrared quantitative model of glycyrrhizic acid was SNV.The correlation coefficients of test and validation were 0.918 1 and 0.915 7,and the root mean square errors were 0.274 8 and 0.236 0,respectively.Conclusion: In this study,a better near infrared quantitative models for quality control of components of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were established,with a high accuracy,which laid a foundation for rapid detection of the components in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802080

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a quality control method of standard decoction of Aurantti Fructus Immaturus(AFI),and to provide reference for quality evaluation of AFI dispensing granules and other related products of AFI. Method: A total of 16 batches of AFI pieces with different quality were collected from the market,including 13 batches of Citrus aurantium and 3 batches of C. sinensis,and the standard decoction of AFI was prepared according to the standard decoction process.Transfer rate of synephrine,dry extract rate and others of the standard decoction were regarded as evaluation indicators and relative assessment are conducted. Result: Transfer rates of synephrine in 13 batches of standard decoction of AFI(C. aurantium) were ranged from 35.7% to 92.7% with the average value was 61.9%;dry extract rates were varied from 20.7% to 43.8% and the average value was 28.4%;pH values were 4.48-5.32 with the average value was 4.99;the HPLC fingerprint similarities were >0.9 by comparing with the corresponding control fingerprint,6 common peaks were found and 3 of them were identified as naringin,hesperidin and neohesperidin.Transfer rates of synephrine in 3 batches of standard decoction of AFI(C. sinensis) were changed from 53.1% to 84.4%,and the average value was 73.2%;dry extract rates were shifted from 13.8% to 17.6% and the average value was 15.4%;pH values were 4.77-5.38 with the average value was 5.06;the HPLC fingerprint similarities were >0.9 by comparing with the corresponding control fingerprint,2 common peaks were found and one of them were identified as hesperidin. Conclusion: From the HPLC fingerprint of standard decoction of AFI,we can easily understand that the number of peaks in C. aurantium is obviously more than that of C. sinensis.This method has good precision,reproducibility and stability,it is suitable for quality evaluation for related products of AFI.Simultaneously,the research provides a good reference for identifying sources of AFI.

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