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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 944-953, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for severe COVID-19 to improve treatment guidelines.@*METHODS@#A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on 313 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were classified into two groups based on disease severity (nonsevere and severe) according to initial clinical presentation. Laboratory test results and epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to detect potential risk factors associated with severe COVID-19.@*RESULTS@#A total of 289 patients (197 nonsevere and 92 severe cases) with a median age of 45.0 (33.0, 61.0) years were included in this study, and 53.3% (154/289) were male. Fever (192/286, 67.1%) and cough (170/289, 58.8%) were commonly observed, followed by sore throat (49/289, 17.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that patients who were aged ≥ 65 years (OR: 2.725, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.317-5.636; P = 0.007), were male (OR: 1.878, 95% CI: 1.002-3.520, P = 0.049), had comorbid diabetes (OR: 3.314, 95% CI: 1.126-9.758, P = 0.030), cough (OR: 3.427, 95% CI: 1.752-6.706, P < 0.001), and/or diarrhea (OR: 2.629, 95% CI: 1.109-6.231, P = 0.028) on admission had a higher risk of severe disease. Moreover, stratification analysis indicated that male patients with diabetes were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, χ2 = 8.183, P = 0.004).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical characteristics of those with severe and nonsevere COVID-19 were significantly different. The elderly, male patients with COVID-19, diabetes, and presenting with cough and/or diarrhea on admission may require close monitoring to prevent deterioration.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1390-1396, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Critical patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), even those whose nucleic acid test results had turned negative and those receiving maximal medical support, have been noted to progress to irreversible fatal respiratory failure. Lung transplantation (LT) as the sole therapy for end-stage pulmonary fibrosis related to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been considered as the ultimate rescue therapy for these patients.@*METHODS@#From February 10 to March 10, 2020, three male patients were urgently assessed and listed for transplantation. After conducting a full ethical review and after obtaining assent from the family of the patients, we performed three LT procedures for COVID-19 patients with illness durations of more than one month and extremely high sequential organ failure assessment scores.@*RESULTS@#Two of the three recipients survived post-LT and started participating in a rehabilitation program. Pearls of the LT team collaboration and perioperative logistics were summarized and continually improved. The pathological results of the explanted lungs were concordant with the critical clinical manifestation, and provided insight towards better understanding of the disease. Government health affair systems, virology detection tools, and modern communication technology all play key roles towards the survival of the patients and their rehabilitation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#LT can be performed in end-stage patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19-related pulmonary fibrosis. If confirmed positive-turned-negative virology status without organ dysfunction that could contraindicate LT, LT provided the final option for these patients to avoid certain death, with proper protection of transplant surgeons and medical staffs. By ensuring instant seamless care for both patients and medical teams, the goal of reducing the mortality rate and salvaging the lives of patients with COVID-19 can be attained.


Subject(s)
Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Lung Transplantation , Methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Mortality , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Mortality , General Surgery , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mortality , General Surgery
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-701585

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of comprehensive intervention measures on submission of microbiological specimens before therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents.Methods August 2014 to August 2015 was as preintervention group,comprehensive intervention measures were started to carry out from September 2015,Septem ber 2015 to September 2016 was as post-intervention group.Microbiology specimen submission rates before therapeutic antimicrobial use,positive rate of blood culture,and rate of antimicrobial use in all departments and key departments were compared between pre-intervention group and post-intervention group.Results The submission rates of microbiological specimens before general,restricted,and special therapeutic antimicrobial use increased from 42.21%,45.19%,and 74.71% of pre-intervention respectively to 53.54%,55.68%,and 89.70% of postintervrntion respectively,showing significant difference (all P<0.01);after intervention,except gastrointestinal surgery and trauma department of orthopedics,the other departments all met the requirements of the microbiological specimen submission rates set by the hospital;but submission rates of microbiological specimens from department of gastrointestinal surgery and trauma department of orthopedics increased from 5.46% and 11.67% before intervention to 11.66% and 29.45% respectively after intervention,difference was statistically significant (both P<0.001).The missing report rate of healthcare-associated infection(HAI) dropped from 13.56% before intervention to 10.98% (P< 0.05),and the use rate of antimicrobial agents decreased from 57.36% to 54.47% (P<0.001).Conclusion Comprehensive intervention measures can effectively improve the submission rates of microbiological specimens before therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents,reduce missing report rates of HAI and utilization rate of antimicrobial agents,and achieve certain clinical effectiveness.

4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2296-2303, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322209

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major causative agent of severe infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media, and has become a major public health concern. We report the pneumococcal serotype and sequence type (ST) distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of 39 S. pneumoniae strains from seven hospitals in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sputum isolates from patients were analyzed to determine S. pneumoniae serotypes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Neufeld Quellung reaction, the multilocus sequence types (MLST) by PCR and sequencing, and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents by the VITEK Gram Positive Susceptibility Card.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 39 isolates were collected including 21 blood/CSF and 18 sputum isolates. Conventional serotyping by the Quellung reaction required 749 reactions. In contrast, PCR based typing needed only 106 PCR reactions. The most frequent serotypes from the blood/CSF isolates were 14 (38.1%), 19A (14.3%), 23F (9.5%), and 18C (9.5%). In the sputum isolates the most frequent serotypes were 19F (33.3%), 23F (16.7%), 19A (11.1%), and 3 (11.1%). The incidence of penicillin resistance in the blood/CSF and sputum isolates was 66.7% and 55.6%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that patients = 5 years old had a higher resistance to penicillin when they compared with the patients = 65 years old (P = 0.011). Serotypes 14, 19A and 19F were significantly associated with penicillin resistance (P < 0.001). ST320, ST271, and ST876 isolates showed high resistant rates to several antibiotics including penicillin (P = 0.006). All of the isolates of serotype 19A were resistant to both penicillin and erythromycin, and they were all multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex-PCR are good, and this method represents a substantial savings of time and money, and can be widely used in the laboratory and clinical practice. Data from this research showed an extremely high prevalence of penicillin resistance and an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) rate in S. pneumoniae. A distinctive emergence of serotype 19A was observed which was also associated with the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, nationwide surveillance of pneumococcal resistance and serotypes is strongly warranted.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Infant , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Molecular Typing , Methods , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Methods , Pneumococcal Infections , Microbiology , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Classification
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 687-692, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321437

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) remains as an important microbial pathogen resulting in community and nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Few reports for S. aureus in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have been documented. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A multicenter study of the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs was conducted in 21 hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai and twelve other provinces from November 2007 to February 2009. All the collected S. aureus strains were classified as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mecA gene, virulence genes Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and γ-hemolysin (hlg), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, agr type, and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, nine methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 29 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated after culture from a total of 2829 sputums or bronchoalveolar lavages. The majority of MRSA strains (22/29) had a MIC value of ≥ 512 µg/ml for cefoxitin. The mecA gene acting as the conservative gene was carried by all MRSA strains. PVL genes were detected in only one S. aureus strain (2.63%, 1/38). The hlg gene was detected in almost the all S. aureus (100% in MSSA and 96.56% in MRSA strains). About 75.86% of MRSA strains carried SCCmec III. Agr type 1 was predominant (78.95%) among the identified three agr types (agr types 1, 2, and 3). Totally, ten sequence type (ST) of S. aureus strains were detected. A new sequence type (ST1445) was found besides confirming ST239 as the major sequence type (60.53%). A dendrogram generated from our own MLST database showed all the bootstrap values ≤ 50%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our preliminary epidemiology data show SCCmec III, ST239 and agr type 1 of S. aureus as the predominant strains in LRTIs in Mainland of China.</p>


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections , Epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections , Epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2571-2575, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285787

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Acinetobacter baumanii (A. baumanii ) remains an important microbial pathogen resulting in nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which nosocomial bacteria, like A. baumanii, attain multidrug resistance to antibiotics is of considerable interest. The aim in this study was to investigate the spread status of antibiotic resistance genes, such as multiple β-lactamase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes, from A. baumanii strains isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two thousand six hundred and ninety-eight sputum or the bronchoalveolar lavage samples from inpatients with LRTIs were collected in 21 hospitals in the mainland of China from November 2007 to February 2009. All samples were routinely inoculated. The isolated bacterial strains and their susceptibility were analyzed via VITEK-2 expert system. Several kinds of antibiotic resistant genes were further differentiated via polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, 39 A. baumanii strains were isolated from 2698 sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage samples. There was not only a high resistant rate of the isolated A. baumanii strains to ampicillin and first- and second-generation cephalosporins (94.87%, 100% and 97.44%, respectively), but also to the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone at 92.31%, ceftazidine at 51.28%) and imipenem (43.59%) as well. The lowest antibiotic resistance rate of 20.51% was found to amikacin. The OXA-23 gene was identified in 17 strains of A. baumanii, and the AmpC gene in 23 strains. The TEM-1 gene was carried in 15 strains. PER-1 and SHV-2 genes were detected in two different strains. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene aac-3-Ia was found in 23 strains, and the aac-6'-Ib gene in 19 strains. aac-3-Ia and aac-6'-Ib genes hibernated in three A. baumanii strains that showed no drug-resistant phenotype.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A. baumanii can carry multiple drug-resistant genes at the same time and result in multi-drug resistance. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes could be hibernating in aminoglycoside sensitive strains without expressing their phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Genetics , Metabolism , Virulence , Acinetobacter Infections , Microbiology , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections , Microbiology , Sputum , Microbiology
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