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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1240-1253, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929364

ABSTRACT

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is abnormally activated in lung cancer. However, the anti-lung cancer effect of mTOR inhibitors as monotherapy is modest. Here, we identified that ginsenoside Rh2, an active component of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., enhanced the anti-cancer effect of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, ginsenoside Rh2 alleviated the hepatic fat accumulation caused by everolimus in xenograft nude mice models. The combination of everolimus and ginsenoside Rh2 (labeled Eve-Rh2) induced caspase-independent cell death and cytoplasmic vacuolation in lung cancer cells, indicating that Eve-Rh2 prevented tumor progression by triggering paraptosis. Eve-Rh2 up-regulated the expression of c-MYC in cancer cells as well as tumor tissues. The increased c-MYC mediated the accumulation of tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3)/P62+ aggresomes and consequently triggered paraptosis, bypassing the classical c-MYC/MAX pathway. Our study offers a potential effective and safe strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. Moreover, we have identified a new mechanism of TRIB3/P62+ aggresomes-triggered paraptosis and revealed a unique function of c-MYC.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928203

ABSTRACT

At present, fatigue state monitoring of upper limb movement generally relies solely on surface electromyographic signal (sEMG) to identify and classify fatigue, resulting in unstable results and certain limitations. This paper introduces the sEMG signal recognition and motion capture technology into the fatigue state monitoring process and proposes a fatigue analysis method combining an improved EMG fatigue threshold algorithm and biomechanical analysis. In this study, the right upper limb load elbow flexion test was used to simultaneously collect the biceps brachii sEMG signal and upper limb motion capture data, and at the same time the Borg Fatigue Subjective and Self-awareness Scale were used to record the fatigue feelings of the subjects. Then, the fatigue analysis method combining the EMG fatigue threshold algorithm and the biomechanical analysis was combined with four single types: mean power frequency (MPF), spectral moments ratio (SMR), fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC). The test results of the evaluation index fatigue evaluation method were compared. The test results show that the method in this paper has a recognition rate of 98.6% for the overall fatigue state and 97%, 100%, and 99% for the three states of ease, transition and fatigue, which are more advantageous than other methods. The research results of this paper prove that the method in this paper can effectively prevent secondary injury caused by overtraining during upper limb exercises, and is of great significance for fatigue monitoring.


Subject(s)
Electromyography/methods , Fatigue , Humans , Muscle Fatigue , Muscle, Skeletal , Upper Extremity
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911989

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the detection of copy number variation (CNV) by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) in fetuses with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).Methods:A total of 1 929 fetuses who were ultrasonically found with CAKUT and underwent CMA from Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital and Health Institute were enrolled in this retrospective study from January 2016 to July 2020. These fetuses were divided into isolated CAKUT group ( n=1 567), CAKUT with soft markers group ( n=269), and CAKUT with other structural anomalies group ( n=93) for comparing the detection rate of pathogenic CNV using Chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results:(1)The detection rate of all and pathogenic CNVs were 6.5%(125/1 929) and 4.8%(93/1 929), respectively. The total detection rate of CNV, clinically significant CNV and large chromosome structural variations in the CAKUT with other structural anomalies group were higher than those of the CAKUT with soft markers group and isolated CAKUT groups[31.2%(29/93), 11.5%(31/269) vs 4.2%(65/1 567), χ2=119.002; 18.3%(17/93), 9.0%(24/269) vs 3.6%(56/1 567), χ2=49.677; 9.7%(9/93), 2.2%(6/269) vs 0.3%(4/1 567), χ2=42.727; all P<0.001]. CAKUT with other structural anomalies group had a higher detection rate of pathogenic CNV (18.3%, 17/93) than the CAKUT with soft markers group (8.6%, 23/269) and the isolated CAKUT group [3.4%(53/1 567)] ( χ2=51.932, P<0.001). (2) The detection rate of pathogenic CNV was the highest in fetuses with enhanced renal echo (14.7%, 23/156), followed by renal enlargement (8.2%, 5/61), renal dysplasia (5.0%,13/261), polycystic renal dysplasia (5.0%, 13/261), and hydronephrosis (4.8%, 20/413). Fetuses with polycystic renal dysplasia, renal agenesis, fused kidney and hydronephrosis in the CAKUT with other structural anomalies group had a higher detection rate of pathogenic CNV than those in the isolated CAKUT group [3/9 vs 3.5%(8/230), 2/17 vs 1.3%(3/237), 1/8 vs 0.0%(0/59) and 3/18 vs 3.4%(12/344), all P<0.017]. The CAKUT with other structural anomalies group had a higher detection rate of pathogenic CNV than CAKUT with soft markers group in fetuses with enhanced renal echo [4/8 vs 12.8%(5/39), P<0.017]. (3) The top three microdeletion/microduplication syndrome were 17q12 microdeletion syndrome (36.6%, 34/93), 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (23.7%, 22/93), and 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome (7.5%, 7/93) among those with pathogenic CNV. Conclusions:The risk of CNV in fetuses with isolated CAKUT, CAKUT with soft markers, and CAKUT with additional structural anomalies increased progressively. CMA might be a better choice in fetuses with hydronephrosis, enhanced renal echo, renal enlargement, renal hypoplasia, and multicystic renal dysplasia to improve the detection rate of CNV.

4.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 566-570, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911073

ABSTRACT

Objective:To disiuss the application of liver free technique in renal cell carcinoma patients with Mayo Ⅱ-Ⅳ tumor thrombus.Methods:The clinical data of renal cell carcinoma patients with MayoⅡ-Ⅳ IVC tumor thrombus in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. 25 patients underwent right part of liver or hepatic portal part dissection via open abdominal approach. There were 20 males and 5 females, aged 45-74 years (mean 61±6 years). All patients underwent urinary tract CTU or MRU examination, vena cava enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.There were left 8 cases, right 17 cases; the median length of tumor was 7 cm (3.6-12.1 cm). There were 1 case of Mayo grade Ⅱ tumor thrombus, 7 cases of Mayo grade Ⅲ tumor thrombus, and 17 cases of Mayo grade Ⅳ tumor thrombus. There were 7 cases of distant metastasis, including 6 cases of lung metastasis and 1 case of bone metastasis. After multi-disciplinary consultation (MDT), 19 patients underwent radical nephrectomy and 6 patients underwent tumor reducing nephrectomy. During the operation, the ligaments around the liver were completely dissociated and the space between the liver and kidney was opened. The bare area of the liver was fully dissociated, to expose the inferior vena cava. For Mayo grade Ⅳ tumor thrombus, 11 cases were treated with free diaphragmatic thrombus removal without thoracotomy, and 6 cases were treated with open chest cardiopulmonary bypass.Results:The median operation time was 444(258-694)min, the median intraoperative blood loss was 2 000(250-10 000)ml, and the median value of suspended red blood cell transfusion was 1 300(400-10 400)ml. The median postoperative hospital stay was 10(4-25)days.15 patients (60%) had postoperative complications, including 8 cases of liver injury, 5 cases of respiratory complications, 4 cases of kidney injury, 3 cases of anemia, 3 cases of infection and 1 case of thrombosis. Three patients died during perioperative period.Conclusions:The application of total liver free technique might obtain good exposure of surgical field, effectively control the hemorrhage of inferior vena cava, which is helpful for safe resection of tumor.

5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1275-1279, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the application value of next generation sequencing (NGS) in preimplantation genetic diagnosis of α/β complex thalassemia couple.@*METHODS@#The coding regions of α-globin genes (HBA1, HBA2) and β-globin gene (HBB) were selected as the target regions. The high-density and closely linked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites were selected as the genetic linkage markers in the upstream and downstream 2M regions of the gene. After NGS, the effective SNP sites were selected to construct the haplotype of the couple, and the risk chromosome of the mutation carried by the couple was determined. The NGS technology was used to sequence the variations of HBA1, HBA2 and HBB directly and construct haplotype linkage analysis for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.@*RESULTS@#Direct sequencing and haplotype linkage analysis of HBA1, HBA2 and HBB showed that two of the six blastocysts were α/β complex thalassemia, one was β-thalassemia heterozygote, two were α-thalassemias heterozygotes, and one was intermediate α-thalassemia. A well-developed embryo underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis was implanted into the mother's uterus, and a healthy infant was born at term.@*CONCLUSION@#Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can be carried out by NGS technology in α/β complex thalassemia couples, and abortion caused by aneuploid embryo selection can be avoided.


Subject(s)
Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Pregnancy , Preimplantation Diagnosis , alpha-Thalassemia , beta-Globins/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient featuring autosomal dominant Olmsted syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical features of the patient was reviewed. High-throughput sequencing was carried out to detect potential genetic variants.@*RESULTS@#The proband, a 12-year-old girl, featured excessive keratinization on hands and feet, contracture of finger joints, and abnormal position and residual contraction of the fifth toes. Skin biopsy showed significant hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and mild interepidermal cell edema. A de novo heterozygous missense variant c.2016G>T(p.Met672Ile) was identified in the TRPV3 gene by high-throughout sequencing. The result was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#The destructive palmoplantar keratosis in the child may be attributed to the c.2016G>T(p.Met672Ile) variant of the TRPV3 gene. Aboving finding has provided new evidence for the correlation of genetic variants with clinical phenotypes of Olmsted syndrome.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Keratoderma, Palmoplantar/genetics , Skin , Syndrome , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888359

ABSTRACT

Genomic disorders caused by pathogenic copy number variation (pCNV) have proven to underlie a significant proportion of birth defects. With technological advance, improvement of bioinformatics analysis procedure, and accumulation of clinical data, non-invasive prenatal screening of pCNV (NIPS-pCNV) by high-throughput sequencing of maternal plasma cell-free DNA has been put to use in clinical settings. Specialized standards for clinical application of NIPS-pCNV are required. Based on the discussion, 10 pCNV-associated diseases with well-defined conditions and 5 common chromosomal aneuploidy syndromes are recommended as the target of screening in this consensus. Meanwhile, a standardized procedure for NIPS-pCNV is also provided, which may facilitate propagation of this technique in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Consensus , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2813-2824, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887844

ABSTRACT

Squalene is widely used in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetics and other fields because of its strong antioxidative, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities. In order to produce squalene, a gene ispA encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase was overexpressed in a previously engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of efficiently producing terpenoids, resulting in a chassis strain that efficiently synthesizes triterpenoids. Through phylogenetic analysis, screening, cloning and expression of squalene synthase derived from different prokaryotes, engineered E. coli strains capable of efficiently producing squalene were obtained. Among them, squalene produced by strains harboring squalene synthase derived from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechococcus lividus reached (16.5±1.4) mg/g DCW ((167.1±14.3) mg/L broth) and (12.0±1.9) mg/g DCW ((121.8±19.5) mg/L broth), respectively. Compared with the first-generation strains harboring the human-derived squalene synthase, the squalene synthase derived from T. elongatus and S. lividus remarkably increased the squalene production by 3.3 times and 2.4 times, respectively, making progress toward the cost-effective heterologous production of squalene.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Squalene , Synechococcus
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2048-2053, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increasing number of viral variants are being identified, which poses a challenge for nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests. Rapid tests, such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), play an important role in monitoring COVID-19 infection and controlling its spread. However, the changes in the genotypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants may result in decreased sensitivity of the rRT-PCR assay and it is necessary to monitor the mutations in primers and probes of SARS-CoV-2 detection over time.@*METHODS@#We developed two rRT-PCR assays to detect the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and nucleocapsid (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated these assays together with our previously published assays targeting the ORF1ab and N genes for the detection and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, we also developed two rRT-PCR assays (S484K and S501Y) targeting the spike gene, which when combined with the open reading frames (ORF)1ab assay, respectively, to form duplex rRT-PCR assays, were able to detect SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (lineages B.1.351 and B.1.1.7).@*RESULTS@#Using a SARS-CoV-2 stock with predetermined genomic copies as a standard, the detection limit of both assays targeting RdRp and N was five copies/reaction. Furthermore, no cross-reactions with six others human CoVs (229E, OC43, NL63, HKU1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) were observed using these assays. In addition, the S484K and S501Y assays were combined with the ORF1ab assay, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Four rRT-PCR assays (RdRp, N, S484K, and S501Y) were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 variants, and these assays were shown to be effective in screening for multiple virus strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1576-1583, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Various prediction tools have been developed to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP); however, few of the previous prediction tools used serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir after RP and maximum tumor diameter (MTD) at the same time. In this study, a nomogram incorporating MTD and PSA nadir was developed to predict BCR-free survival (BCRFS).@*METHODS@#A total of 337 patients who underwent RP between January 2010 and March 2017 were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The maximum diameter of the index lesion was measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent predictors of BCR. A nomogram was subsequently developed for the prediction of BCRFS at 3 and 5 years after RP. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve analyses were performed to identify the advantage of the new nomogram in comparison with the cancer of the prostate risk assessment post-surgical (CAPRA-S) score.@*RESULTS@#A novel nomogram was developed to predict BCR by including PSA nadir, MTD, Gleason score, surgical margin (SM), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), considering these variables were significantly associated with BCR in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P < 0.05). In addition, a basic model including Gleason score, SM, and SVI was developed and used as a control to assess the incremental predictive power of the new model. The concordance index of our model was slightly higher than CAPRA-S model (0.76 vs. 0.70, P = 0.02) and it was significantly higher than that of the basic model (0.76 vs. 0.66, P = 0.001). Time-dependent ROC curve and decision curve analyses also demonstrated the advantages of the new nomogram.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PSA nadir after RP and MTD based on MRI before surgery are independent predictors of BCR. By incorporating PSA nadir and MTD into the conventional predictive model, our newly developed nomogram significantly improved the accuracy in predicting BCRFS after RP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Nomograms , Prognosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Seminal Vesicles
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885557

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the prenatal genetic testing for suspected Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) to improve its prenatal diagnosis rate.Methods:This study reported a pregnant woman, who had a pregnant history of termination due to the same reason at 18 weeks, with fetal acromphalus and unusually thickened placenta indicated by ultrasound examination at 13 weeks of gestation. After chorionic villus sampling, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to analyze copy number variations in the whole genome, and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) was also performed to detect the methylation and copy number variations in H19 and KCNQ1 genes on chromosome 11p15. Peripheral blood samples were collected from the couple for chromosome G-banding karyotype analysis and SNP array. Results:The SNP array indicated a 176 kb heterozygous deletion in the 11p15.5 region. MS-MLPA revealed a loss of methylation at imprinting control region 2 and a 50% reduction of copy numbers of KCNQ1 (L02903) gene. No abnormality was found in the parents in the SNP array and G-banding karyotype analysis. The fetus was prenatally diagnosed with BWS. Conclusions:When intrauterine abnormalities, such as acromphalus and abnormal thickening of the placenta, are found by ultrasound during early pregnancy, prenatal genetic tests related to BWS, including MS-MLPA and SNP array, are suggested to avoid a missed diagnosis of BWS.

12.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 198-208, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885495

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related neointimal hyperplasia (NH) of vessels.Methods:Wild type C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into normal control group ( n=6) and experimental group ( n=18), by removal of 5/6 kidney and ligation of left common carotid artery to establish a NH model. After established successfully, the mice in NH experimental group were randomly divided into NH model group, NLRP3 inhibitor group, and drug control group ( n=6/group). C57BL/6J male mice with NLRP3 gene knockout group did not do any treatment after the establishment of NH model. After 3 weeks of feeding, the blood and vascular tissue samples of mice were collected. The pathological changes of vascular tissue samples in mice were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expressions and localization of NLRP3-related protein were observed by immunofluorescence staining. The expression of NLRP3 mRNA in vascular tissue was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The activity of caspase-1 in vascular tissue was measured by colorimetric method. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were treated with 10% uremic serum to simulate the body's internal environment during the uremic phase. NLRP3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected or NLRP3 inhibitor glibenclamide was added to the cell cultures. The expression of NLRP3 mRNA in HASMCs was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The activity of caspase-1 in HASMCs was detected by colorimetric method. Results:Compared with the control group, the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased in the NH model group (both P<0.01). The vascular histopathology showed that vascular intima thickened, vascular smooth muscle cells proliferated and hypertrophied, nuclei were deeply stained, and cells arranged disorderly and migrated to vascular intima in the experimental group. Quantitative analysis showed that the ratio of neointima to lumen increased significantly in the NH model group than that in control group ( P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the immunofluorescence staining of vascular tissue showed that the expressions of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-18, IL-1β and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the NH model group increased (all P<0.01), while the expression of α-SMA decreased ( P<0.01). NLRP3 was mainly located in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMCs showed a synthetic phenotype. Compared with the NH model group, the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-18, IL-1β and PCNA protein in the NLRP3 inhibitor group and NLRP3 gene knockout group decreased (all P<0.01), the expression of α-SMA increased ( P<0.01), and the pathological changes of blood vessels alleviated. Compared with healthy serum group, the expression of NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1β and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake in uremic serum-stimulated group were increased (all P<0.01). After transfection of NLRP3 siRNA and addition of glibenclamide, the expression of NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1β in VSMCs in uremic serum-stimulated group decreased, and BrdU intake decreased (all P<0.01). Conclusions:NLRP3 inflammatory bodies play an important role in promoting CKD-related neointimal hyperplasia of vessels, and glibenclamide can effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883271

ABSTRACT

Interventional medicine plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hepatobiliary tumors and other diseases, which has become the third largest type of treatment technology besides internal and surgical treatment. In recent years, with technological breakthroughs in imaging technology, robotic surgical system, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things and other fields, unprecedented opportunities have been provided for interventional/minimally invasive+robotics. Interventional robotic surgical systems have mushroomed around this field. The authors discuss the current status and future of interventional robotic surgical system with high recognition worldwide, especially the three categories of specialized robotic surgical system for vascular intervention, percutaneous puncture intervention and natural non-vascular luminal intervention.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2973-2982, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922799

ABSTRACT

The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry recognized CRISPR-Cas9, a super-selective and precise gene editing tool. CRISPR-Cas9 has an obvious advantage in editing multiple genes in the same cell, and presents great potential in disease treatment and animal model construction. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas9 has been used to establish a series of rat models of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK), such as

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the pharmacological effect of ursolic acid (UA) on colitis-associated colorec?tal cancer (CAC) and its underlying mechanism based on the Wnt signaling pathway. METHODS The CAC model in mice was established by azoxymethane (AOM) combined and dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS), accompanied by treat?ment with various dosages of UA and concomitant appraisal of body weight, stool and physical state of the mice. After the sacrifice of the mice, the tumor and length of the colorectum were measured, followed by retrieval of the liver, spleen, thymus and tumor tissue for downstream assays. The levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1βand C-reactive protein (CRP) in the tumor and serum were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The pathological changes of colorectal tissues were observed by HE staining. The levels in tumors of Wnt/β-catenin sig?naling pathway-related proteins Wnt4, GSK-3β, β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 were assayed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mRNA expressions of Wnt4, GSK-3β,β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 in tumors were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The protein levels of Wnt4, GSK-3β, β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, phospho-β-catenin, phospho-GSK-3β, Bcl-2 and Bax in tumors were probed by analyzed by Western blotting (WB). Also, RNA-seq was employed to assess the gut microbiota in the mice. RESULTS UA significantly ameliorated the symptoms of AOM/DSS-induced mouse CAC, evidenced by improved physical state, body weight, survival rate, colorectal length, the mass of liver, thy?mus, spleen, and decreased CAC load and colorectal mass. UA attenuated the levels of IL-6, IL-1β and CRP in the mouse serum and colorectal tumor in a dose-dependent manner. HE staining showed that UA lessened carcinogenesis in the colorectum, with lower infiltration of lymphocytes, versus the control. IHC indicated that UA mitigated the expres?sion of Wnt4,β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and promoted the GSK-3βexpression, compared with the control. Furthermore, UA diminished the mRNA expressions of Wnt4, β-catenin, TCF4, LEF1, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and heightened the mRNA levels of GSK-3β, caspase-3, capase-9 and Bax in CAC. The results of mRNA expressions were verified by WB analysis, which revealed that UA impeded the protein expression of Wnt4,β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, TCF4, LEF1, and elevated the protein levels of GSK-3βand Bax, phospho-β-catenin in mouse CAC. In addi?tion, UA substantially ameliorated the gut microbiota to store the metabolic function in the mice with CAC. CONCLU?SION Ursolic acid may protect against CAC, potentially by downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity and restoration of gut microbiota.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of scutellarin on the apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via the Hippo signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS MTT colorimetric method was used to detect the influence of scutellar?in on the survival rate of HCT116 cells. And the effect of scutellarin at various concentrations on cell morphology was observed by microscopy. Cell scratch experiment was used to detect the influence of scutellarin on the migration of HCT116 cells. Hoechst33342/PI double staining method was used to detect the effect of scutellarin on the apoptosis of HCT116 cells. Western blotting method was used to assess the action of scutellarin on the expressions of Hippo signal?ing pathway-related proteins Mst1, Lats1, YAP1, p-YAP(Ser127), TAZ, and its downstream effector proteins c-Myc and cyclin D1, as well as apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in HCT116 cells. RESULTS Scutellarin significantly affected the morphology of HCT116 cells and reduced the survival rate of HCT116 cells. Hoechst33342/PI double stain?ing showed that scutellarin effectively induced the apoptosis of HCT116 cells. Western blotting analysis showed that the expression levels of Hippo signaling pathway-related proteins Mst1, Lats1, YAP1, TAZ and its downstream effector pro?teins c-Myc, cyclin D1 were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by scutellarin, and the expression of p-YAP (ser127) was up-regulated. Moreover, scutellarin substantially lessened the expression level of apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2, and promoted the protein level of Bax. CONCLUSION Scutellarin may inhibit the proliferation and migra?tion of HCT116 cells, while induce its apoptosis, potentially by activation of Hippo signaling pathway.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the inhibition and mechanism of berberine on human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells through canonical Hedgehog signaling pathway. METHODS The effect of berberine on cell morphology was observed by microscopy. MTT colorimetric assay, cell scratch experiment, colony formation assay and Hoechest/PI staining were utilized to detect the activities of berberine on cell viability, cell migration and cell apoptosis. Flow cytome?try was applied to examine the cell apoptosis. The effects of berberine on caspase-3 and caspase-9 were detected by caspase activity detection kit. The expressions of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related proteins SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, SUFU, apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D1 were detected by Western blotting. Additionally, quantitative real time RT-PCR was employed to assess the mRNA expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, SUFU, apoptosis-related genes Bax and Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related genes cyclin D1. RESULTS Berberine sharply altered the morphology of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, demonstrated by that migration ability of HCT116 cells was reduced significantly and the nuclei were densely stained. Berberine could induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased prominently. The expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related protein SUFU and apoptosis-related protein Bax were augmented substantially. The expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related proteins SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related genes cyclin D1 were markedly lessened. Besides, the mRNA expression levels of Hedgehog signaling pathway-related gene SUFU and apoptosis-related gene Bax were augmented substantially. The mRNA expression levels of Hedgehog signaling path?way-related genes SHH, GLI1, PTCH1, SMO, apoptosis-related gene Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-related gene cyclin D1 were markedly lessened. CONCLUSION Berberine, which is the main component of coptidis rhizoma, can remarkably restrain the growth and proliferation, promote apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells HCT116, and the underlying mechanism may be involved in suppressing the activity of the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909606

ABSTRACT

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid chemical component that exists in natural plants with a molecular formula of C30H48O3 and a molecular weight at 456.71 g·mol-1. OA is widespread in traditional Chinese herbal medicine (Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Achyranthis Bidentate Radix, Red Sage) and berries (blueberries, grapes). In recent years, because of the extensive pharmacological effects of OA, its advantages in disease treatment have become increasingly prominent and gradually attracted the attention of pharmaceutical researchers. OA has effective therapeutic effects on a series of chronic diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases through mul?tiple signaling pathways and various targets. Especially in cancers, such as colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and other malignancies, OA presents substantial efficacy. However, its poor aqueous solubility, needy bioavailability, and unsatisfactory pharmacological activity excessively restrict its clinical application. More impor?tantly, the improper utilization of OA can cause adverse reactions, toxic effects and even damage to organs in some spe?cific situations. With the discovery of various pharmacological effects, the complex action mechanisms of OA, the contin?uous progress in structural modification of OA, as well as the synthesis of OA derivatives, its application is expand?ing gradually. Among numerous studies, there is a clear indication that OA and its derivatives, if fully developed, may provide an alternative and cheaper treatment for a variety of chronic diseases. However, the specific molecular mecha?nisms of OA and its derivatives as an alternative therapy and supplementary therapy for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases remain to be clarified. Therefore, it is necessary to further study the pharmacokinet?ics, pharmacological activity, specific targets and related mechanisms of OA to lay a solid foundation for drug devel?opment and the application of OA in clinical settings.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909601

ABSTRACT

Pulsatilla chinensis is a widely used traditional Chinese herb, which contains 56 types of chemical constit?uents, mainly including triterpenoid saponins, organic acids, coumarins and lignans. The largest portion of the ingredi?ents in Pulsatilla chinensis is the family of triterpenoid saponins, in which anemoside B4 is the major effective compound and indexing component. The main components of Pulsatilla chinensis can metabolize into a vast array of active prod?ucts in vivo, which play vital roles in its biological activity. Mounting evidence reveals that Pulsatilla chinensis exerts a wide range of therapeutic activities, such as anti-cancer, immunoregulation, anti-inflammation and anti-schistosome, with fewer adverse reactions, via various signaling pathways and multiple targets. It was documented that the active ingre?dient of Pulsatilla chinensis can lessen the drug resistance and synergize the effects of other natural products includ?ing paclitaxel, as well as ameliorate the clinical efficacy of chemical drugs, such as adriamycin. However, Pulsatilla chi?nensis was also reported to be possibly the main cause of hemolysis and chronic liver injury. The efforts should be made to deeply investigate the pharmacological actions and underlying mechanisms of Pulsatilla chinensis, with a focus on the anti-cancer efficacy, and develop new drugs based on the components of Pulsatilla chinensis for future utilization in the clinical setting.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) are immune checkpoints which can be induced by interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in the tumor microenvironment, leading to immune escape of tumors. Myricetin (MY) is a flavonoid distributed in many edible and medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect and the mechanism of MY on inhibiting IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 and IDO1 in lung cancer cells. METHODS Expressions of PD-L1 and major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I) were evaluated by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the expression of IDO1 was measured by Western blotting. qRT-PCR was used to detect their mRNA levels. The function of T cells was evaluated using a co-culture system consist of lung cancer cells and the Jurkat-PD-1 T cell line that overexpressing PD-1. Molecular docking analysis, Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used for mechanism study. RESULTS MY potently inhibited IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 and IDO1 expression in human lung cancer cells, while didn't show obvious effect on the expression of MHC-I. In addition, MY restored the survival, proliferation, CD69 expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion of Jurkat-PD-1 T cells suppressed by IFN-γ-treated lung cancer cells in the co-culture system. Mechanistically, IFN-γ up-regulated PD-L1 and IDO1 at the transcriptional level through the JAK-STAT-IRF1 axis, which was targeted and inhibited by MY. CONCLUSION Our research revealed a new insight into the anti-tumor effects of MY which inhibited IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 and IDO1 expression, supporting the potential of MY in anti-tumor immunotherapy.

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