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1.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 301-312, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953638

ABSTRACT

Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are one of the important bioresources of medicine, which works by unlocking nature's ability to prevent diseases and recover from illnesses. Recently, it has ascended to the world stage and become a global icon. Nowadays, a considerable of researches have focused on the quality evaluation of CHMs. However, it is difficult to meet the reasonable needs of human beings for safe drug use to evaluate the quality of a huge number of inferior goods for the CHMs contaminated by pesticides and heavy metals. Hence to explore an eligible medicinal plant cultivation pattern, which can provide high quality CHMs sustainably, is most promising. This review analyzed the situation and characteristics of medicinal plant resources in different periods, including wild-harvested and cultivated resources during different stages, putting forward that ecological cultivation must be the way to develop medicinal plant cultivation and to obtain high quality CHMs.

2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3881-3888, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310970

ABSTRACT

Genuine medicinal materials with special characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is recognized as high quality medicine. Both ancient records and modern research considered that the origin is an important reason for the formation of genuine medicinal materials. However, blindly transplanting of genuine medicinal materials has led to the quality decline and counterfeit medicines appeared in production or sale progress, which may increase the risk of accidents in TCM. Frequent accidents emerged in Chinese herbal affects its export. What's more, it is a great threat to the medication safety in TCM clinical. There is an urgent need to implement traceability systems of TCM, which could provide convenient information record and traceability of TCM circulation. This paper reviews a variety of technical methods for genuine medicinal materials traceability, and proposed the establishment of genuine medicinal materials traceability system based on two-dimensional code and network database.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Economics , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1650-1657, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251840

ABSTRACT

RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a newly-developed method in transcriptome research, it can afford more accurate transcription information and be more quickly by using Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. RNA-Seq has been widely used in various biological fields. Genuine traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), with good quality and therapeutic effect, were always praised highly and used by famous physicians. The geo-herbalism formation of TCM is based on the product of the gene expression at specific space and time. So it has been a research hotspot to analyze the mechanism of biosynthesis through RNA-Seq in the study on the secondary metabolism of medicinal plant. This article mainly illustrates the RNA-Seq and its advantages, it also discusses the potential application in genuine TCM, and it can provide useful information for other researchers.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , RNA , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 141-148, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318703

ABSTRACT

Since the research of molecular identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) using DNA barcode is rapidly developing and popularizing, the principle of this method is approved to be listed in the Supplement of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Based on the study on comprehensive samples, the DNA barcoding systems have been established to identify CMM, i.e. ITS2 as a core barcode and psbA-trnH as a complementary locus for identification of planta medica, and COI as a core barcode and ITS2 as a complementary locus for identification of animal medica. This article introduced the principle of molecular identification of CMM using DNA barcoding and its drafting instructions. Furthermore, its application perspective was discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , DNA , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Classification , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Materia Medica , Classification , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1338-1344, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259472

ABSTRACT

To identify Salvia shandongensis and its relatives at molecular level, the psbA-trnH intergenic region of three species including Salvia shandongensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were amplified and sequenced. Sequences were assembled with CodonCode Aligner. The K2P genetic distances between Salvia shandongensis and its relatives were calculated and UPGMA tree was performed by MEGA5.0. The results indicated that the lengths of psbA-trnH regions of Salvia shandongensis were about 391 bp, while the lengths of psbA-trnH regions of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were about 386 bp. The psbA-trnH sequences showed considerable variations between species and thus were revealed as a promising candidate for barcoding of Salvia shandongensis and its relatives. The intra-specific genetic distances of Salvia shandongensis were 0, while the intra-specific genetic distances of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were 0.002 and 0.001 respectively. Additionally, the genetic distance of Salvia shandongensis and Salvia miltiorrhiza ranged from 0.034 to 0.04, and the genetic distance of Salvia shandongensis and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba ranged from 0.005 to 0.008, the intra-specific genetic distances of Salvia shandongensis were much smaller than that of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba; clustering results showed that there were obvious differences between Salvia shandongensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba, which was consistent with morphological characteristics. This study not only firstly provides the scientific basis for establishing the taxonomy position in molecular level and revealing their genetic relationships of S. shandongensis, S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba; but also provides DNA molecular identification scientific basis for the development of new medicinal plant resources of Salvia shandongensis. Our results suggest that the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer region can be used as a barcoding to identify Salvia shandongensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Genetics , Plastids , Genetics , Salvia , Classification , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
6.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 121-127, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812683

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED@#The DNA barcoding method was used to accurately and rapidly identify Corni Fructus and its adulterants.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA extracted from Corni Fructus and its adulterants were used as templates. The ITS (internal trascribed spacer) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. Genetic distances were computed using MEGA V 5.0. Species identification was conducted using neighbor-joining (NJ) trees.@*RESULTS@#The ITS sequence length of Corni Fructus was 659 bp. The average intra-specific genetic distance of Corni Fructus was 0.005, markedly lower than the inter-specific genetic distance between Corni Fructus and its adulterants (0.357). The ITS2 sequence length of Corni Fructus was 250 bp. No variation was found among the different samples. The interspecific genetic distance of ITS2 between Corni Fructus and its adulterants was 0.571. NJ trees and BLAST results indicated that Corni Fructus and its adulterants can be easily differentiated with monophyly.@*CONCLUSION@#ITS/ITS2 regions can accurately and efficiently distinguish Corni Fructus and its adulterants. In addition, the results not only established the foundation for the clinical safety in the utilization of Corni Fructus, but also provided reference for molecular identification of other Chinese herbal medicine and Chinese herbal pieces.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cornus , Classification , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Methods , Phylogeny , Species Specificity
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1098-1105, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276194

ABSTRACT

In this study, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix was used to verify the stability and accuracy of DNA barcodes in identification of Chinese materia medica for the first time. All genomic DNAs from thirty one samples were extracted. The ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Obtained sequences were assembled using the CodonCode Aligner. And the sequences of the ITS regions were aligned through Clustal-W and the genetic distances were computed using MEGA 5.0 in accordance with the kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model. The neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed. The ITS2 regions were obtained by using the hidden Markov model (HMM)-based annotation methods from the ITS sequences. Results indicated that the lengths of ITS regions of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix were 603-604 bp, while the lengths of ITS2 regions were 228 bp. The haplotypes of ITS/ITS2 regions of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix were the same as those of the original plant leaves. The intra-specific genetic distances were smaller than inter-specific ones in ITS/ITS2 regions of Notopterygium incisum and N. franchetii. The NJ trees showed that N. incisum, N. franchetii and its adulterants can be easily differentiated according to their monophyly. Therefore, ITS/ITS2 regions as DNA barcodes can stably and accurately distinguish Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix from its adulterants and could provide a new technique to ensure clinical safety in utilization of traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Classification , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Roots , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Rhizome , Genetics
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1408-1412, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323109

ABSTRACT

To identify the original plant of Daturae Flos from its adulterants by DNA barcoding, the sequences of ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL of four species including Datura metel, Darura innoxia, Darura stramonium and Brugmansia arborea were compared and analyzed. The PCR and sequencing success rate of the four regions (ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL) was 100%, 90%, 100% and 85%, respectively. Sequences were assembled with CodonCode Aligner. K2P distances were calculated and NJ tree was performed by MEGA 4.1. Thirty SNPs were found among ITS2 sequences, and 33 insert/deletes were found among psbA-trnH intergenic regions. The interspecific K2P distance of ITS2 and psbA-trnH was obviously higher than that of the intraspecific one. As to matK and rbcL, there was no "Barcoding Gap" existing between inter- and intra-specific distances. The NJ trees of the four regions/combinations were built separately. Samples of Brugmansia arborea were clustered into one clade, and the other species of Datura L. formed another clade. The results showed that either ITS2 or psbA-trnH was useful to identify Daturae Flos from its adulterants.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Datura , Classification , Genetics , Datura metel , Genetics , Datura stramonium , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Flowers , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Solanaceae , Genetics , Species Specificity
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 126-130, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250656

ABSTRACT

The dried succulent stems of Cistanche (Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma and Cistanche tubulosa Wight.) are one of the most widely used components of traditional Chinese medicines. However, it is often confused and substituted with the roots of Orobanche pycnostachya, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) Standl., Cistanche sinensis Beck, and Cistanche salsa (C. A. Mey.) Beck. In this study, we identified psbA-trnH regions from species and tested their suitable for the identification of the above mentioned taxa. The psbA-trnH sequences showed considerable variations between species and thus were revealed as a promising candidate for barcoding of Cistanche species. Additionally, the average genetic distance of psbA-trnH ranging from 0.077% to 0.743%. In contrast, the intra-specific variation among Cistanche species was found to be significantly different from those of other species, with percentages of variation studied ranged from 0% to 0.007%. The sequence difference between the psbA-trnH sequences of Cistanche species and Orobanche pycnostachya ranged from 0.979% to 1.149%. The distance between the Cistanche species and Boschniakia rossica ranged from 1.066% to 1.224%. Our results suggest that the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer region represent a barcode that can be used to identify Cistanche species and other morphologically undistinguishable species.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cistanche , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Orobanche , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Stems , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Plastids , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Methods , Species Specificity
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 23-27, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276653

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the relationship between plant growth and accumulation of active ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Transplants of S. miltiorrhiza were sampled at 20 day intervals. At each stage, the growth of seedling and root system was recorded and the contents of tanshinone II (A) and salvia acid were measured.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>This study showed that the rapid growth stage of the root system lags behind that of the seedling system, but the growing period of root system lasts longer. The quantitative change of roots reveals a double "S" curve; two rapid growth stages emerge during 30 - 70 days and 140 - 200 days after the seedlings were transplanted. The content of salvia acid reaches the highest level during 140 - 180 days, whereas the content of tanshinone peaks during 100 - 120 days.</p>


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , Abietanes , Phenanthrenes , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry , Seedlings , Chemistry
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 207-211, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256391

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To confirm the amount of fertilizer and the ration of fertilizer.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Through the experiment of planting Salvia miltiorrhiza in pot and in field were carried out.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>When N:P = 1:1, The production was 1.8 times more than the contrast group in plotting experiment, and in field the production of the highest fertilizer plot were 2.5 times more than the contrast and the higher and high fertilizer plot is 2.25 and 1.2 times respective were than those in the contrast group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The proper ration of nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer is 1:1. Nitrogen shows negative effects to the accumulation of tanshinon IIA, the more the nitrogen ous fertilizer, The less the content of tanshinon IIA. In contrast, phosphor ous fertilizer shows good effects on the accumulation of tanshinon IIA. Phosphorous fertilizer could alleviate the decline of the content of tanshinon IIA by using nitrogenous fertilizer. The accumulation peak of the tanshinon IIA emerge in the period of 150 d.</p>


Subject(s)
Abietanes , Fertilizers , Nitrogen , Pharmacology , Phenanthrenes , Phosphorus , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry
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