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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 93-103, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940591

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Wenyang Jieyu decoction (WYJY) on the hippocampal structure of depressed rats with kidney-yang deficiency. MethodThe 105 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, fluoxetine group (4.17 mg·kg-1), Xiaoyaosan group (1.88 g·kg-1), and low-, medium- and high-dose (1.25,2.50,5.00 g·kg-1) WYJY groups,15 in each group. The depression model was induced by subcutaneous injection of corticosterone in rats except for those in the normal group and the rats were orally administered once a day for 28 days. The depression-like behaviors of rats were observed by sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, forced swimming test, and open field test. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the density of hippocampal neurons was detected by Nissl staining. The ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of synaptophysin (SYP), postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), and apoptosis-related protein Caspase-3 in hippocampal neurons was observed by immunohistochemistry, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) were used to observe the apoptosis and regeneration of hippocampal neurons. ResultWYJY could improve weight loss in depressed rats. As revealed by the behavioral tests, the model group showed depression-like behaviors, which were relieved in the WYJY groups and the positive drug groups. HE staining showed that the nuclei of hippocampal neurons in the model group were constricted, deeply stained, and sparsely arranged, while the neurons in the WYJY groups and the positive drug groups were significantly improved. Nissl staining demonstrated that the cell density of the model group was lower than that of the normal group (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the groups with drug intervention showed increased cell density (P<0.05) and compact arrangement. According to the results in TEM, compared with normal group, the model group showed shortened synaptic active zone (P<0.05), widened synaptic cleft (P<0.05), and thinned tight zone (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the groups with drug intervention showed shortened synaptic active zone (P<0.05), narrowed synaptic cleft (P<0.05), and thickened tight zone (P<0.05). As displayed by the results of immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence, compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased protein expression of SYP, PSD95, BrdU, and DCX in the hippocampus (P<0.05) and increased protein expression of Caspase-3 (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed increased protein expression of SYP, PSD95, BrdU, and DCX in the hippocampus (P<0.05) and decreased protein expression of Caspase-3 (P<0.05). ConclusionWYJY can promote the regeneration of hippocampal neurons in rats and improve the depression of rats.

2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2410-2414, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred during the flu season around the world. This study aimed to analyze the impact of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure on COVID-19.@*METHODS@#Seventy COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital during January and February 2020 in Wuhan, China were included in this retrospective study. Serum tests including respiratory pathogen immunoglobulin M (IgM) and inflammation biomarkers were performed upon admission. Patients were divided into common, severe, and critical types according to disease severity. Symptoms, inflammation indices, disease severity, and fatality rate were compared between anti-IAV IgM-positive and anti-IAV IgM-negative groups. The effects of the empirical use of oseltamivir were also analyzed in both groups. For comparison between groups, t tests and the Mann-Whitney U test were used according to data distribution. The Chi-squared test was used to compare disease severity and fatality between groups.@*RESULTS@#Thirty-two (45.71%) of the 70 patients had positive anti-IAV IgM. Compared with the IAV-negative group, the positive group showed significantly higher proportions of female patients (59.38% vs. 34.21%, χ = 4.43, P = 0.035) and patients with fatigue (59.38% vs. 34.21%, χ = 4.43, P = 0.035). The levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (median 791.00 vs. 1075.50 IU/mL, Z = -2.70, P = 0.007) and tumor necrosis factor α (median 10.75 vs. 11.50 pg/mL, Z = -2.18, P = 0.029) were significantly lower in the IAV-positive group. Furthermore, this group tended to have a higher proportion of critical patients (31.25% vs. 15.79%, P = 0.066) and a higher fatality rate (21.88% vs. 7.89%, P = 0.169). Notably, in the IAV-positive group, patients who received oseltamivir had a significantly lower fatality rate (0 vs. 36.84%, P = 0.025) compared with those not receiving oseltamivir.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study suggests that during the flu season, close attention should be paid to the probability of IAV exposure in COVID-19 patients. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify whether IAV increases the fatality rate of COVID-19 and to elucidate any benefits of empirical usage of oseltamivir.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 567-571, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941081

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the cardiovascular damage of patients with COVID-19, and determine the correlation of serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) with the severity of COVID-19, and the impact of concomitant cardiovascular disease on severity of COVID-19 was also evaluated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed on 150 consecutive patients with COVID-19 in the fever clinic of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from January 19 to February 13 in 2020, including 126 mild cases and 24 cases in critical care. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation of past medical history including hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), as well as the levels of serum NT-proBNP and cTnI to the disease severity of COVID-19 patients. Results: Age, hypersensitive C-reactive protein(hs-CRP) and serum creatinine levels of the patients were higher in critical care cases than in mild cases(all P<0.05). Prevalence of male, elevated NT-proBNP and cTnI, hypertension and coronary heart disease were significantly higher in critical cases care patients than in the mild cases(all P<0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male, elevated NT-proBNP, elevated cTnI, elevated hs-CRP, elevated serum creatinine, hypertension, and CHD were significantly correlated with critical disease status(all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that elevated cTnI(OR=26.909,95%CI 4.086-177.226,P=0.001) and CHD (OR=16.609,95%CI 2.288-120.577,P=0.005) were the independent risk factors of critical disease status. Conclusions: COVID-19 can significantly affect the heart function and lead to myocardial injury. The past medical history of CHD and increased level of cTnI are 2 independent determinants of clinical disease status in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Myocardium/pathology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): E001-E001, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817253

ABSTRACT

Background: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. Methods: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Jin Yin-tan Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. Results: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown β-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8–99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6–87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. Conclusion: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1015-1024, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans.@*METHODS@#We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed.@*RESULTS@#Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown β-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Betacoronavirus , Genetics , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnostic Imaging , Therapeutics , Virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnostic Imaging , Therapeutics , Virology , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
6.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 150-2, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-638158

ABSTRACT

The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group (3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group (51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (62.8%) (P<0.001). Our study suggested that the village-based health education of tobacco control was effective in lowering the male current smoking rate in rural areas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.

7.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 150-152, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285295

ABSTRACT

The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group (3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group (51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (62.8%) (P<0.001). Our study suggested that the village-based health education of tobacco control was effective in lowering the male current smoking rate in rural areas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Case-Control Studies , China , Delivery of Health Care , Methods , Health Education , Methods , Rural Population , Smoking Prevention , Tobacco Use Cessation
8.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 667-676, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285216

ABSTRACT

The function of the spleen in tumor development has been investigated for years. The relationship of the spleen with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a huge health burden worldwide, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effect of splenectomy on the development of HCC and the possible mechanism. Mouse hepatic carcinoma lines H22 and Hepa1-6 as well as BALB/c and C57 mice were used to establish orthotopic and metastatic mouse models of liver cancer. Mice were divided into four groups, including control group, splenectomy control group (S group), tumor group (T group) and tumor plus splenectomy group (T+S group). Tumor growth, metastases and overall survival were assessed at determined time points. Meanwhile, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were isolated from the peripheral blood (PB), the spleen and liver tumors, and then measured by flow cytometery. It was found that liver cancer led to splenomegaly, and increased the percentage of MDSCs in the PB and spleen in the mouse models. Splenectomy inhibited the growth and progression of liver cancer and prolonged the overall survival time of orthotopic and metastatic models, which was accompanied by decreased proportion of MDSCs in the PB and tumors of liver cancer-bearing mouse. It was suggested that splenectomy could be considered an adjuvant therapy to treat liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , General Surgery , Cell Line, Tumor , Flow Cytometry , Liver Neoplasms , General Surgery , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Pathology , Neoplasms, Experimental , General Surgery , Spleen , General Surgery , Splenectomy , Methods
9.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 337-42, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636619

ABSTRACT

Alveolar epithelial type II (AT II) cells are essential for lung development and remodeling, as they are precursors for type I cells and also produce other non-repair cells (fibroblasts). Progenitor cells are believed to possess capability of multi-potent transdifferentiation, which is closely related to the niche, suggesting the importance of establishment of a lung progenitor cell niche model. We hypothesized that pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SPA) suicide gene system would cause AT II cell to kill itself through apoptosis and leave its niche. In vitro, the recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors-SPA-thymidine kinase (rAAV-SPA-TK) system was established to get targeted apoptotic AT II cells. The apoptosis of AT II cells was detected by using MTT. The results showed that cloned SPA gene promoter had specific transcriptional activity in SPA high expression cells, and SPA high expression cells (H441) transfected with TK gene had higher sensitivity to ganciclovir (GCV) than SPA low expression cells (A549). In vivo, increased apoptosis of AT II cells induced by GCV in rAAV-SPA-TK system was observed by TUNEL. Finally, the successful packaging and application of rAAV-SPA-TK system provide experimental basis to get specific lung progenitor cell (AT II) niche in vitro and in vivo.

10.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 337-342, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351075

ABSTRACT

Alveolar epithelial type II (AT II) cells are essential for lung development and remodeling, as they are precursors for type I cells and also produce other non-repair cells (fibroblasts). Progenitor cells are believed to possess capability of multi-potent transdifferentiation, which is closely related to the niche, suggesting the importance of establishment of a lung progenitor cell niche model. We hypothesized that pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SPA) suicide gene system would cause AT II cell to kill itself through apoptosis and leave its niche. In vitro, the recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors-SPA-thymidine kinase (rAAV-SPA-TK) system was established to get targeted apoptotic AT II cells. The apoptosis of AT II cells was detected by using MTT. The results showed that cloned SPA gene promoter had specific transcriptional activity in SPA high expression cells, and SPA high expression cells (H441) transfected with TK gene had higher sensitivity to ganciclovir (GCV) than SPA low expression cells (A549). In vivo, increased apoptosis of AT II cells induced by GCV in rAAV-SPA-TK system was observed by TUNEL. Finally, the successful packaging and application of rAAV-SPA-TK system provide experimental basis to get specific lung progenitor cell (AT II) niche in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Dependovirus , Genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Ganciclovir , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, Transgenic, Suicide , Genetics , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Luciferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics , Pulmonary Alveoli , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A , Genetics , Metabolism , Thymidine Kinase , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 470-8, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636561

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to examine the effect of interleukin (IL)-4 on neutrophil chemotaxis in airway inflammation in asthmatic rats and the possible mechanism. Male Wistar rats were intranasally instilled with recombinant rat (rr) IL-4 (rrIL-4) at different doses [2, 4 or 8 μg/animal, dissolved in 200 μL normal saline (NS)] or rrIL-4 at 4 μg/animal (dissolved in 200 μL NS). NS (200 μL) and LPS (6 mg/kg/animal, dissolved in 200 μL NS) were intranasally given respectively in the negative and positive control groups. Moreover, the asthmatic lung inflammation was induced in rats which were then intranasally treated with rrIL-4 (4 μg/animal) or LPS (6 mg/kg/animal). The normal rats treated with different doses of rrIL-4 and those asthmatic rats were sacrificed 6 h later. And animals instilled with rrIL-4 at 4 μg were sacrificed 6, 12 or 24 h later. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were harvested for detection of leukocyte counts by Wright-Giemsa staining and lung histopathology by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in BALF were determined by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of CINCs (CINC-1, CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3) and ICAM-1 in lung tissues. The results showed that the intranasal instillation of IL-4 did not induce a recruitment of neutrophils in BALF in rats. However, IL-4 could increase the CINC-1 level in BALF in a dose-dependent manner at 6 h. But the mRNA expression levels of CINC-1, CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3 were not significantly increased in lungs of IL-4-treated rats relative to NS negative control group. Moreover, IL-4 was found to augment the mRNA expression of ICAM-1 in lungs and the ICAM-1 level in BALF at 6 h. However, the increase in CINC-1 and ICAM-1 levels in BALF of IL-4-treated asthmatic rats was not significantly different from that in untreated asthmatic rats. These findings indicate that IL-4 does not directly recruit neutrophils in the rat lungs, but it may contribute to airway neutrophilia through up-regulation of CINC-1 and ICAM-1.

12.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 827-33, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636470

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoke is associated with the development of several diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to investigate genotoxicity and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). HASMCs was exposed to CSE with different doses for 24 h. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by using HPLC-ECD, the DNA damage was analyzed by using comet assay, and apoptosis was examined by using Annexin-FITC/PI staining. The production of Hsp70 after CSE stimulation was tested. Results indicated that CSE significantly increased the level of 8-OHdG, DNA damage and cell apoptosis, and reduced the production of Hsp70. In particular, levels of Hsp70 were inversely correlated with 8-OHdG, DNA damage and cell apoptosis. It was concluded that cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and decreased the production of cell protective protein Hsp70, which may contribute to the development of some airway diseases.

13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3283-3288, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354495

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Expression of murine calcium-activated chloride channel family member 3 (mCLCA3) has been reported to be increased in the airway epithelium of asthmatic mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). However, its role in asthmatic airway inflammation under no OVA exposure has not yet been clarified.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>mCLCA3 plasmids were transfected into the airways of normal BALB/c mice. mCLCA3 expression and airway inflammation in mouse lung tissue were evaluated. Cell differentials and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed. The expression of mCLCA3 protein and mucus protein mucin-5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) were analyzed by Western blotting. The mRNA levels of mCLCA3, MUC5AC and interleukin-13 (IL-13) were determined quantitatively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>mCLCA3 expression was not detected in the control group while strong immunoreactivity was detected in the OVA and mCLCA3 plasmid groups, and was strictly localized to the airway epithelium. The numbers of inflammatory cells in lung tissue and BALF were increased in both mCLCA3 plasmid and OVA groups. The protein and mRNA levels of mCLCA3 and MUC5AC in the lung tissue were significantly increased in the mCLCA3 plasmid and OVA groups compared to the control group. The level of IL-13, but not IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, CCL2, CCL5 or CCL11, was significantly increased compared with control group in BALF in the mCLCA3 plasmid and OVA groups. The level of IL-13 in the BALF in the mCLCA3 plasmid group was much higher than that in the OVA group (P < 0.05). The level of mCLCA3 mRNA in lung tissue was positively correlated with the levels of MUC5AC mRNA in lung tissue, IL-13 mRNA in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BALF, and the content of IL-13 protein in BALF. The level of IL-13 mRNA in lung tissue was positively correlated with the number of eosinophils in BALF and the level of MUC5AC mRNA in lung tissue.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These findings suggest that increased expression of a single-gene, mCLCA3, could simulate an asthma attack, and its mechanism may involve mCLCA3 overexpression up-regulating IL-13 expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Allergens , Asthma , Chloride Channels , Inflammation , Metabolism , Interleukin-13 , Metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Genetics , Metabolism , Interleukin-5 , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mucin 5AC , Genetics , Metabolism , Ovalbumin , Pharmacology
14.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 470-478, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251446

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to examine the effect of interleukin (IL)-4 on neutrophil chemotaxis in airway inflammation in asthmatic rats and the possible mechanism. Male Wistar rats were intranasally instilled with recombinant rat (rr) IL-4 (rrIL-4) at different doses [2, 4 or 8 μg/animal, dissolved in 200 μL normal saline (NS)] or rrIL-4 at 4 μg/animal (dissolved in 200 μL NS). NS (200 μL) and LPS (6 mg/kg/animal, dissolved in 200 μL NS) were intranasally given respectively in the negative and positive control groups. Moreover, the asthmatic lung inflammation was induced in rats which were then intranasally treated with rrIL-4 (4 μg/animal) or LPS (6 mg/kg/animal). The normal rats treated with different doses of rrIL-4 and those asthmatic rats were sacrificed 6 h later. And animals instilled with rrIL-4 at 4 μg were sacrificed 6, 12 or 24 h later. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were harvested for detection of leukocyte counts by Wright-Giemsa staining and lung histopathology by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in BALF were determined by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of CINCs (CINC-1, CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3) and ICAM-1 in lung tissues. The results showed that the intranasal instillation of IL-4 did not induce a recruitment of neutrophils in BALF in rats. However, IL-4 could increase the CINC-1 level in BALF in a dose-dependent manner at 6 h. But the mRNA expression levels of CINC-1, CINC-2α, CINC-2β, CINC-3 were not significantly increased in lungs of IL-4-treated rats relative to NS negative control group. Moreover, IL-4 was found to augment the mRNA expression of ICAM-1 in lungs and the ICAM-1 level in BALF at 6 h. However, the increase in CINC-1 and ICAM-1 levels in BALF of IL-4-treated asthmatic rats was not significantly different from that in untreated asthmatic rats. These findings indicate that IL-4 does not directly recruit neutrophils in the rat lungs, but it may contribute to airway neutrophilia through up-regulation of CINC-1 and ICAM-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Asthma , Allergy and Immunology , Chemotactic Factors , Allergy and Immunology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-4 , Allergy and Immunology , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Neutrophils , Allergy and Immunology , Rats, Wistar
15.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 827-833, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251386

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoke is associated with the development of several diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to investigate genotoxicity and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). HASMCs was exposed to CSE with different doses for 24 h. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by using HPLC-ECD, the DNA damage was analyzed by using comet assay, and apoptosis was examined by using Annexin-FITC/PI staining. The production of Hsp70 after CSE stimulation was tested. Results indicated that CSE significantly increased the level of 8-OHdG, DNA damage and cell apoptosis, and reduced the production of Hsp70. In particular, levels of Hsp70 were inversely correlated with 8-OHdG, DNA damage and cell apoptosis. It was concluded that cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and decreased the production of cell protective protein Hsp70, which may contribute to the development of some airway diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , DNA Damage , Deoxyguanosine , Metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Lung , Cell Biology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Smoke , Nicotiana , Toxicity , Tumor Cells, Cultured
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 65-71, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302480

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (MitoK(ATP)) channel on the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in asthmic rats. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups (18 in each): (1) Asthma group: the asthmic rat model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and excitation; (2) Normal group: rats were subjected to inhalation of equal amount of normal saline. The rat ASMCs were isolated from fresh lung tissues and cultured respectively as follows: (1) CONTROL GROUP: normal ASMCs were cultured under normoxia for 24 h; (2) Diazoxide group: normal ASMCs were cultured under normoxia for 24 h with diazoxide (an opener of MitoK(ATP) channel); (3) 5-HD group: normal ASMCs were cultured under normoxia for 24 h with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) (an antagonist of MitoK(ATP) channel); (4) Asthma group: Asthmic ASMCs were cultured under normoxia for 24 h; (5) Asthma + diazoxide group: Asthmic ASMCs were cultured under normoxia with diazoxide for 24 h; (6) Asthma + 5-HD group: Asthmic ASMCs were cultured under normoxia with 5-HD for 24 h. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected using Rhodamine 123 (R-123). The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by DCF fluorescence. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) mRNA was examined by RT-PCR. The proliferation and apoptosis of rat ASMCs were examined respectively by MTT colorimetric assay and cell cycle analysis. The results were as follows. (1) After exposure to diazoxide for 24 h, the R-123 fluorescence intensity, the ROS level, NF-κB mRNA expression and the MTT absorbance value (A value) in normal ASMCs were significantly increased, and the apoptosis of rat ASMCs was significantly decreased compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant changes in those indices after the normal ASMCs had been exposed to 5-HD for 24 h. (2) In Asthma and Asthma + diazoxide groups, the R-123 fluorescence intensity, ROS level and the MTT A value were markedly increased, and the apoptosis was markedly decreased compared to control group (P<0.05). These changes were more obvious in Asthma + diazoxide group than those in Asthma group (P<0.05). 5-HD partly weakened the effect of asthma on the R-123 fluorescence intensity, ROS level and the MTT A value and the apoptosis of rat ASMCs (P<0.05). R-123 fluorescence intensity and NF-κB mRNA expression were positively correlated with ROS level. NF-κB mRNA expression was positively correlated with the MTT A value and negatively correlated with the apoptosis of rat ASMCs. All the results suggest that the opening of MitoK(ATP) channel followed by a depolarization of ΔΨm contributes to the increase in ROS level and NF-κB mRNA expression in rat ASMCs and to the unbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis of ASMCs induced by asthma. This might be a mechanism of the development of airway remodeling in asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Airway Remodeling , Apoptosis , Asthma , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Decanoic Acids , Pharmacology , Diazoxide , Pharmacology , Hydroxy Acids , Pharmacology , Lung , Cell Biology , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1177-1182, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258509

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The decrease of surfactant protein (SP) secreted by the alveolar type II cell is one of the important causes of limiting air of pulmonary emphysema. However, the SP-A gene and protein changes in this disease are rarely studied. This study was undertaken to investigate alterations in SP-A gene activity and protein, and to explore their roles in the pathogenesis of emphysematous changes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty Wistar rats were divided randomly into a normal control group (n = 10) and a cigarette smoking (CS) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n = 10). Ultra-structural changes were observed under an electron microscope. The number of cells positive for SP-A was measured by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression and protein level of SP-A in the lung tissues were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot separately. The protein level of SP-A in lavage fluid was determined by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The number of cells positive for SP-A of the CS + LPS group (0.35 +/- 0.03) was lower than that of the blank control group (0.72 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05). The level of SP-A in the lung tissues of rats in the CS + LPS group (0.2765 +/- 0.0890) was lower than that in the blank control group (0.6875 +/- 0.1578, P < 0.05). The level of SP-A in the lavage fluid of rats in the CS + LPS group (0.8567 +/- 0.1458) was lower than that in the blank control group (1.3541 +/- 0.2475, P < 0.05). The lung tissues of rats in the CS + LPS group showed an approximate increase (0.4-fold) in SP-A mRNA levels relative to beta-actin mRNA (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The changes of SP-A may be related to emphysematous changes in the lung. And cigarette smoke and LPS alter lung SP-A gene activity and protein homeostasis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blotting, Western , Emphysema , Metabolism , Pathology , Homeostasis , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Wistar
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 157-162, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258676

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (MitoK(ATP)) channels on the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and cell proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of rats. Cultured PASMCs were divided into six groups as follows: (1) normoxia group: cultured under normoxia for 24 h; (2) normoxia + diazoxide group: cultured under normoxia with diazoxide, an opener of MitoK(ATP) channel, for 24 h; (3) normoxia + 5-HD group: cultured under normoxia with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), an antagonist of MitoK(ATP) channel, for 24 h; (4) hypoxia group: cultured under hypoxia (37 degrees C, 5% O(2), 5% CO(2), 90% N(2)) for 24 h; (5) hypoxia + diazoxide group: cultured under hypoxia (37 degrees C, 5% O(2), 5% CO(2), 90% N(2)) with diazoxide for 24 h; (6) hypoxia + 5-HD group: cultured under hypoxia (37 degrees C, 5% O(2), 5% CO(2), 90% N(2)) with 5-HD for 24 h. The relative changes in mitochondrial potential were tested with Rhodamine 123 (R-123) fluorescence technique. Immunohistochemical method was used to trace the expression of HIF-1alpha. The proliferation of PASMCs was examined by MTT colorimetric assay. The results were as follows: The intensity of R-123 fluorescence in normoxia + diazoxide group was significantly increased as compared with that in normoxia group (P<0.05), and the intensity of R-123 fluorescence in hypoxia + diazoxide group was also significantly increased as compared with that in hypoxia group (P<0.05). 24-hour hypoxia or 24-hour hypoxia + diazoxide markedly increased the intensity of R-123 fluorescence in PASMCs as compared with normoxia (P<0.05), and the change was more prominant in hypoxia + diazoxide group than that in hypoxia group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the intensity of R-123 fluorescence between normoxia group and normoxia + 5-HD group (P>0.05). However, 5-HD weakened the effect of 24-hour hypoxia on the intensity of R-123 fluorescence. The intensity of R-123 fluorescence in hypoxia + 5-HD group was significantly decreased as compared with that in hypoxia group (P<0.05). After exposure to hypoxia or hypoxia + diazoxide for 24 h, the expression of HIF-1alpha and the proliferation of PASMCs were significantly increased as compared with that in normoxia or normoxia + diazoxide group (P<0.05), and the change was more significant in hypoxia + diazoxide group than that in hypoxia group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression of HIF-1alpha and the proliferation of PASMCs between normoxia group and normoxia + 5-HD group (P>0.05). However, the expression of HIF-1alpha and the proliferation of PASMCs in hypoxia + 5-HD group were significantly decreased as compared with that in hypoxia group (P<0.05). All these results suggest that the opening of MitoK(ATP) channels followed by a depolarization of mitochondrial membrane might contribute to the increase of the expression of HIF-1alpha and the proliferation of PASMCs. This might be a mechanism of the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Cell Biology , Physiology , Potassium Channels , Physiology , Pulmonary Artery , Cell Biology , Physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 319-324, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258650

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this paper were to observe the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic condition and to test if hypoxia-induced proliferation of PASMCs was mediated by ROS. PASMCs were divided into three groups: normal group, hypoxia group and hypoxia + Mn-TBAP (a ROS scavenger) group. The level of ROS was determined by a laser scanning confocal microscope. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). HIF-1alpha protein was detected using immunohistochemical staining, and the proliferation of PASMCs was examined by MTT colorimetric assay. The results were as follows: (1) The level of ROS in hypoxia group was significantly increased as compared with that in the normal group (P<0.05). The level of ROS in hypoxia + Mn-TBAP group was significantly decreased as compared with that in hypoxia group (P<0.05), but was increased as compared with that in the normal group (P<0.05). (2) The expressions of HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein in hypoxia group and hypoxia + Mn-TBAP group were increased as compared with those in the normal group (P<0.05), and these changes were more significant in hypoxia group than those in hypoxia + Mn-TBAP group. (3) The proliferation of PASMCs in hypoxia group was more obvious than that in the normal group and hypoxia + Mn-TBAP group (P<0.05), and the proliferation of PASMCs in hypoxia + Mn-TBAP group was increased more significantly than that in the normal group (P<0.05). The results indicate that ROS is significantly increased in rat PASMCs under hypoxia, and that ROS affects the expression of HIF-1alpha and the proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxia. Therefore, ROS may play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic signal transductions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Proliferation , Colorimetry , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Immunohistochemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Pulmonary Artery , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 262-268, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265456

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper was to investigate the contribution of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mitoK(ATP)) and mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) to the distribution of cytochrome C in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) and to the proliferation of HPASMCs induced by hypoxia. HPASMCs were divided into 6 groups, as following: (1) control group: cultured under normoxia; (2) diazoxide group: cultured in normoxia with diazoxide, an opener of mitoK(ATP); (3) 5-HD group: cultured in normoxia with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), an antagonist of mitoK(ATP); (4) 24-hour hypoxia group: cultured in hypoxia for 24 h; (5) 24-hour hypoxia + diazoxide group: cultured in hypoxia with diazoxide for 24 h; (6) 24-hour hypoxia + 5-HD group: cultured in hypoxia with 5-HD for 24 h. The relative changes in mitochondrial potential were tested with rhodamine fluorescence (R-123) technique. Western blot was used to detect the expression of cytochrome C protein in cell plasma and mitochondria,respectively. The expression of cell caspase-9 protein was determined with Western blot. The proliferation of HPASMCs was examined by cell cycle analysis and MTT colorimetric assay. The results were as following: after exposure to diazoxide for 24 h, the intensity of R-123 fluorescence in normoxic HPASMCs was significantly increased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant change of the intensity of R-123 fluorescence after the HPASMCs had been exposed to 5-HD for 24 h; 24-hour hypoxia or 24-hour hypoxia + diazoxide could markedly increase the intensity of R-123 fluorescence in HPASMCs compared with normoxia (P<0.05), and the change was more significant in 24-hour hypoxia + diazoxide group than that in 24-hour hypoxia group (P<0.05); 5-HD could weaken the effect of 24-hour hypoxia on the intensity of R-123 fluorescence. After exposure to diazoxide for 24 h, the ratio of the expression of cytosolic cytochrome C protein to that of mitochondrial cytochrome C protein was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05), and the expression of caspase-9 protein was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The percentage of S phase and A value of MTT were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). But there were no significant changes in these tests after HPASMCs had been exposed to 5-HD for 24 h (P>0.05). After exposure to hypoxia or hypoxia + diazoxide for 24 h, the ratio of the expression of cytosolic cytochrome C protein to that of mitochondrial cytochrome C protein and the expression of caspase-9 protein were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). The percentage of S phase and A value of MTT were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). These changes were more significant in 24-hour hypoxia + diazoxide group than those in 24-hour hypoxia group (P<0.05). 5-HD could weaken the effect of hypoxia on the changes of the distribution of cytochrome C, the expression of caspase-9 in HPASMCs and the proliferation of HPASMCs induced by hypoxia (P<0.05). All these results suggest that the opening of mitoK(ATP) followed by a depolarization of Deltapsim induced by hypoxia might contribute to the inhibition of the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to plasma in HPASMCs. This might be a mechanism of the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The signal transduction pathway of mitochondria might play an important role in the relationship between Deltapsim and apoptosis of HPASMCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Pathology , Potassium Channels , Physiology , Pulmonary Artery , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Pathology , Signal Transduction
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