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1.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 380-387, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984633

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) /small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) among hematologists, oncologists, and lymphoma physicians from hospitals of different levels in China. Methods: This multicenter questionnaire survey was conducted from March 2021 to July 2021 and included 1,000 eligible physicians. A combination of face-to-face interviews and online questionnaire surveys was used. A standardized questionnaire regarding the composition of patients treated for CLL/SLL, disease diagnosis and prognosis evaluation, concomitant diseases, organ function evaluation, treatment selection, and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor was used. Results: ①The interviewed physicians stated that the proportion of male patients treated for CLL/SLL is higher than that of females, and the age is mainly concentrated in 61-70 years old. ②Most of the interviewed physicians conducted tests, such as bone marrow biopsies and immunohistochemistry, for patient diagnosis, in addition to the blood test. ③Only 13.7% of the interviewed physicians fully grasped the initial treatment indications recommended by the existing guidelines. ④In terms of cognition of high-risk prognostic factors, physicians' knowledge of unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable and 11q- is far inferior to that of TP53 mutation and complex karyotype, which are two high-risk prognostic factors, and only 17.1% of the interviewed physicians fully mastered CLL International Prognostic Index scoring system. ⑤Among the first-line treatment strategy, BTK inhibitors are used for different types of patients, and physicians have formed a certain understanding that BTK inhibitors should be preferentially used in patients with high-risk factors and elderly patients, but the actual use of BTK inhibitors in different types of patients is not high (31.6%-46.0%). ⑥BTK inhibitors at a reduced dose in actual clinical treatment were used by 69.0% of the physicians, and 66.8% of the physicians had interrupted the BTK inhibitor for >12 days in actual clinical treatment. The use of BTK inhibitors is reduced or interrupted mainly because of adverse reactions, such as atrial fibrillation, severe bone marrow suppression, hemorrhage, and pulmonary infection, as well as patients' payment capacity and effective disease progression control. ⑦Some differences were found in the perceptions and behaviors of hematologists and oncologists regarding the prognostic assessment of CLL/SLL, the choice of treatment options, the clinical use of BTK inhibitors, etc. Conclusion: At present, a gap remains between the diagnosis and treatment of CLL/SLL among Chinese physicians compared with the recommendations in the guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria, treatment indications, prognosis assessment, accompanying disease assessment, treatment strategy selection, and rational BTK inhibitor use, especially the proportion of dose reduction or BTK inhibitor discontinuation due to high adverse events.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Prognosis , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 48-54, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969707

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) admitted at Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. We compared the clinical characteristics and prognoses among patients with non-extramedullary disease (EMD), bone-related extramedullary (EM-B) disease, and extraosseous extramedullary (EM-E) disease and further explored the effects of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for EMD. Methods: From January 2015 to January 2022, data of 114 patients (22%) with EMD out of 515 patients with NDMM were retrospectively analyzed; 91 (18%) and 23 (4%) patients comprised the EM-B and EM-E groups, respectively. The clinical characteristics of patients in all groups were compared with the Chi-square test. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent prognostic factors were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, ISS stage, light chain, creatinine clearance, cytogenetic risk, 17p deletion, ASCT, and induction regimens among the three groups. Overall, 13% of EM-E patients had IgD-type M protein, which was significantly higher than that in EM-B patients (P=0.021). The median PFS of patients in the non-EMD, EM-B, and EM-E groups was 27.4, 23.1, and 14.0 months; the median OS was not reached, 76.8 months, and 25.6 months, respectively. The PFS (vs non-EMD, P=0.004; vs EM-B, P=0.036) and OS (vs non-EMD, P<0.001; vs EM-B, P=0.002) were significantly worse in patients with EM-E, while those were not significantly different between patients with EM-B and those with non-EMD. In the multivariate analysis, EM-E was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with NDMM (HR=8.779, P<0.001) and negatively impacted PFS (HR=1.874, P=0.050). In those who did not undergo ASCT, patients with EM-B had significantly worse OS than those with non-EMD (median 76.8 months vs. not reached, P=0.029). However, no significant difference was observed in the PFS and OS of patients with EM-B and those with non-EMD who underwent ASCT. Conclusions: Compared to patients with either non-EMD or EM-B, those with EM-E had the worst prognosis. EM-E was an independent risk factor for OS in patients with NDMM. ASCT can overcome the poor prognosis of EM-B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Retrospective Studies , China , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Prognosis , Transplantation, Autologous
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 659-665, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of a water-soluble novel dihydroartemisinin dimer containing nitrogen atoms SM 1044 on the apoptosis of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4-R1 cells and its potential mechanism.@*METHODS@#The effects of SM 1044 on cell apoptosis, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Expressions of apoptosis-related proteins were determined by Western blot. The effects of SM 1044 on MAPK (ERK, JNK) signaling pathway, PML/RARα fusion protein, and expressions of apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#SM 1044 could significantly induce apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in NB4-R1 cells, and activate apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). SM 1044 could also induce NB4-R1 cells to produce ROS. Western blot showed that SM 1044 activated the phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK, JNK) signaling pathway and down-regulated the expression of PML/RARα fusion protein.@*CONCLUSION@#SM 1044 can induce apoptosis of ATRA resistant APL NB4-R1 cells, which may be related to ROS/ERK and ROS/JNK signaling pathway, and can also induce by down-regulating PML/RARα fusion protein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Cell Line , Apoptosis , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Cell Differentiation
4.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 139-149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929189

ABSTRACT

The CD19-targeting bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab has shown remarkable efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, several studies showed that blinatumomab has a short plasma half-life due to its low molecular weight, and thus its clinical use is limited. Furthermore, multiple trials have shown that approximately 30% of blinatumomab-relapsed cases are characterized by CD19 negative leukemic cells. Here, we design and characterize two novel antibodies, A-319 and A-2019. Blinatumomab and A-319 are CD3/CD19 bispecific antibodies with different molecular sizes and structures, and A-2019 is a novel CD3/CD19/CD20 trispecific antibody with an additional anti-CD20 function. Our in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments demonstrated that A-319 and A-2019 are potent antitumor agents and capable of recruiting CD3 positive T cells, enhancing T-cell function, mediating B-cell depletion, and eventually inhibiting tumor growth in Raji xenograft models. The two molecules are complementary in terms of efficacy and specificity profile. The activity of A-319 demonstrated superior to that of A-2019, whereas A-2019 has an additional capability to target CD20 in cells missing CD19, suggesting its potential function against CD19 weak or negative CD20 positive leukemic cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, CD19/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Immunotherapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 442-458, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939877

ABSTRACT

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is one of the most dangerous hematological malignancies, with high tumor heterogeneity and poor prognosis. More than 60% of T-ALL patients carry NOTCH1 gene mutations, leading to abnormal expression of downstream target genes and aberrant activation of various signaling pathways. We found that chidamide, an HDAC inhibitor, exerts an antitumor effect on T-ALL cell lines and primary cells including an anti-NOTCH1 activity. In particular, chidamide inhibits the NOTCH1-MYC signaling axis by down-regulating the level of the intracellular form of NOTCH1 (NICD1) as well as MYC, partly through their ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome pathway. We also report here the preliminary results of our clinical trial supporting that a treatment by chidamide reduces minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients and is well tolerated. Our results highlight the effectiveness and safety of chidamide in the treatment of T-ALL patients, including those with NOTCH1 mutations and open the way to a new therapeutic strategy for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aminopyridines , Benzamides , Cell Line, Tumor , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Receptor, Notch1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 403-415, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939874

ABSTRACT

The morbidity and mortality of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are primarily caused by arterial and venous complications, progression to myelofibrosis, and transformation to acute leukemia. However, identifying molecular-based biomarkers for risk stratification of patients with MPNs remains a challenge. We have previously shown that interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) and IRF4 serve as tumor suppressors in myeloid cells. In this study, we evaluated the expression of IRF4 and IRF8 and the JAK2V617F mutant allele burden in patients with MPNs. Patients with decreased IRF4 expression were correlated with a more developed MPN phenotype in myelofibrosis (MF) and secondary AML (sAML) transformed from MPNs versus essential thrombocythemia (ET). Negative correlations between the JAK2V617F allele burden and the expression of IRF8 (P < 0.05) and IRF4 (P < 0.001) and between white blood cell (WBC) count and IRF4 expression (P < 0.05) were found in ET patients. IRF8 expression was negatively correlated with the JAK2V617F allele burden (P < 0.05) in polycythemia vera patients. Complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and no response (NR) were observed in 67.5%,10%, and 22.5% of ET patients treated with hydroxyurea (HU), respectively, in 12 months. At 3 months, patients in the CR group showed high IRF4 and IRF8 expression compared with patients in the PR and NR groups. In the 12-month therapy period, low IRF4 and IRF8 expression were independently associated with the unfavorable response to HU and high WBC count. Our data indicate that the expression of IRF4 and IRF8 was associated with the MPN phenotype, which may serve as biomarkers for the response to HU in ET.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Janus Kinase 2/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics , Thrombocythemia, Essential/genetics
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 783-804, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922520

ABSTRACT

The current standard of care in hematological malignancies has brought considerable clinical benefits to patients. However, important bottlenecks still limit optimal achievements following a current medical practice. The genetic complexity of the diseases and the heterogeneity of tumor clones cause difficulty in ensuring long-term efficacy of conventional treatments for most hematological disorders. Consequently, new treatment strategies are necessary to improve clinical outcomes. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) immunotherapy opens a new path for targeted therapy of hematological malignancies. In this review, through a representative case study, we summarize the current experience of CAR T-cell therapy, the management of common side effects, the causative mechanisms of therapy resistance, and new strategies to improve the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 498-501, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235417

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relationship between the optical density index of serum aspergillus galactomannan (GM) assay and invasive aspergillosis (IA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From Jan 2008 to Dec 2011, 825 hematological diseases patients with neutrophil count <0.5×10⁹/L⁹ by continuous blood count tests were admitted into our hospital. The optical density index of GM assay was ≥0.5 at least once. Of 825 patients, 247 cases were manifested as fever during hospitalization. The optical density index of GM antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sensitivity and specificity of optical density ranged in 0.5-1.5.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of GM assay with continuous twice samples (73% and 93%, respectively) were higher than single sample (66% and 80%, respectively) when optical density index ≥1.0. 69 cases were diagnosed as proven IA with the incidence rate of 8.36%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The cut-off level for serum GM antigen assay should be decided as optical density index in two continuous samples of ≥1.0.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Fungal , Blood , Aspergillosis , Blood , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hematologic Diseases , Blood , Microbiology , Mannans , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 607-611, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313933

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of artemisinin derivative SM1044 on Kasumi-1 cells and its possible mechanism. Kasumi-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of SM1044, the cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle progression were assessed by using flow cytometry with Annexin-V/PI double staining and flow cytometry with PI staining respectively. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins caspase 3, PARP and the fusion protein AML1-ETO were detected by Western blot. The results indicated that SM1044 inhibited cell growth of Kasumi-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. After exposure of Kasumi-1 cells to 1 µmol/L SM1044 for 24 hours, the cell viability was decreased to 50%. IC(50) of SM1044 to Kasumi-1 cells at 48 hours was 0.17 ± 0.067 µmol/L. SM1044 induced cell apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner, and the apoptotic rate of Kasumi-1 cells increased as SM1044 concentration increased. Flow cytometry with PI staining revealed that SM1044 induced cell cycle arrest, and the proportion of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase increased from 58.33 ± 4.46% to 71.75 ± 2.24% after exposure to 5 µmol/L SM1044 for 24 hours. Western blot showed that SM1044 increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins cPARP and cleaved caspase 3 and also degraded the AML1-ETO fusion protein. It is concluded that SM1044 can inhibit the proliferation of Kasumi-1 cells, induce cell apoptosis which may be related to the increased level of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. SM1044 can also induce cell arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase. As the fusion protein AML1-ETO degrades obviously, it can be the potential target of SM1044 in Kasumi-1 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Artemisinins , Pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Pathology
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 909-913, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237626

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on proliferation and apoptosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines and the underlying mechanisms of the apoptosis. MCL cell lines (jeko-1, mino, JVM-2) were treated with different concentrations of ATO, then growth profile of these cells were detected by MTT. Apoptosis of ATO-treated jeko-1 cells were detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential of ATO-treated jeko-1 cells were detected by FCM with DiOC₆(3) staining. The expressions of cyclin D1 and apoptosis related proteins MCL-1, BCL-2, PUMA, NOXA, cCaspase-3 (cleaved caspase-3), cCaspase-9 (cleaved caspase-9), cPARP (cleaved PARP) were detected by Western blot. The results indicated that ATO inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis of MCL cells and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. ATO could decrease expressions of MCL-1, PUMA and cyclin D1, increase expressions of cPARP, cCaspase-3, cCaspase-9 and the expressions of BLC-2 and NOXA were not changed. It is concluded that ATO can induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis of MCL cells. The mitochondrial pathway plays a very important role in cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Metabolism , Arsenicals , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell , Metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Oxides , Pharmacology
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