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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1471-1476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Taxanes are an essential class of antineoplastic agents used to treat various cancers and are a fundamental cause of hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, other adverse events, such as bone marrow toxicity and peripheral neuropathy, can lead to chemotherapy discontinuation. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of taxanes in the real world.@*METHODS@#Taxane-associated adverse events were identified by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms and analyzed and compared by mining the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System pharmacovigilance database from January 2004 to December 2019. Reported adverse events, such as hypersensitivity reaction, bone marrow toxicity, and peripheral neuropathy, were analyzed with the following signal detection algorithms: reporting odds ratio (ROR), proportional reporting ratio (PRR), multi-item gamma Poisson shrinker (MGPS), Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN), and logistic regression methods. Adverse outcome events and death outcome rates were compared between different taxane groups using Pearson's χ2 test, whereas significance was determined at P < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI).@*RESULTS@#A total of 966 reports of hypersensitivity reactions, 1109 reports of bone marrow toxicity, and 1374 reports of peripheral neuropathy were analyzed. Compared with paclitaxel and docetaxel, bone marrow toxicity following the use of nab-paclitaxel had the highest ROR of 6.45 (95% two-sided CI, 6.05-6.88), PRR of 5.66, (χ2 = 4342.98), information component of 2.50 (95% one-sided CI = 2.34), and empirical Bayes geometric mean of 5.64 (95% one-sided CI = 5.34). Peripheral neuropathy following the use of nab-paclitaxel showed a higher ROR of 12.78 (95% two-sided CI, 11.55-14.14), PRR of 12.16 (χ2 = 4060.88), information component of 3.59 (95% one-sided CI = 3.25), and empirical Bayes geometric mean of 12.07 (95% one-sided CI = 11.09).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results showed that bone marrow toxicity and peripheral neuropathy were the major adverse events induced by taxanes. Nab-paclitaxel exhibited the highest potential for taxane-associated adverse events. Further research in the future is warranted to explain taxane-associated adverse effects in real-world circumstances.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Bayes Theorem , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Taxoids/adverse effects , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1324-1328, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There have been few real-life dose-comparing studies on the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in Chinese patients with plaque psoriasis. We conducted a real-life cohort study to investigate the efficacy and safety of secukinumab 150 and 300 mg in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 106 patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were included in this study. Patients received either secukinumab 150 mg or secukinumab 300 mg according to patients' weights and severity of psoriasis. The treatment continued for at least 24 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated by improvement in the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores. The safety was also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-nine patients (55.7%) were treated with secukinumab 300 mg and 47 patients (44.3%) were treated with secukinumab 150 mg. After 12-week treatment, PASI75/90/100 responses were achieved in 100%, 97.8%, and 95.7% of patients, respectively, in secukinumab 150 mg group, and the efficacy was maintained to week 24. In secukinumab 300 mg group, PASI75/90/100 responses were achieved in 93.2%, 81.4%, and 76.3% of patients, respectively, at week 12. In this group, PASI75/90/100 responses reached 91.5%, 86.4%, and 79.9%, respectively, at week 24. Biologic-experienced patients had lower responses than biologic-naïve patients. Secukinumab 150 and 300 mg were well tolerated. Five patients discontinued treatment due to poor response, adverse event, or economic reasons.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This real-life study demonstrated that high PASI 90 and PASI 100 responses were achieved in Chinese psoriasis patients receiving secukinumab 150 or 300 mg. Biologic-naïve was associated with better clinical efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , China , Cohort Studies , Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2905-2909, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Benvitimod cream, a novel synthetic small molecule, was effective in treating mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. We conducted a phase III clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of benvitimod cream in patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis.@*METHODS@#We randomly assigned 686 patients (2:1:1) to receive 1% benvitimod cream, 0.005% calcipotriol ointment or placebo twice a day for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end points were the percentage of patients with a 75% or greater reduction from baseline in the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI 75) score and with a score of 0 or 1 in static physician's global assessment (sPGA) at week 12.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that 50.4% of patients in the benvitimod group achieved PASI 75, which was significantly higher than that in the calcipotriol (38.5%, P < 0.05) and placebo (13.9%, P < 0.05) groups. The proportion of patients achieving an sPGA score 0 or 1 was 66.3% in the benvitimod group and 63.9% in the calcipotriol group, which were both significantly higher than that in the placebo group (34%, P < 0.05). In the long-term follow-up study, 50.8% of patients experienced recurrence. After retreatment with 1% benvitimod, 73.3% of patients achieved an sPGA score of 0 or 1 again at week 52. Adverse events included application site irritation, follicular papules, and contact dermatitis. No systemic adverse reactions were reported.@*CONCLUSION@#During this 12-week study, benvitimod cream was demonstrated with high effectiveness and safety in patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), ChiCTR-TRC-13003259; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=6300.


Subject(s)
Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ointments , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Resorcinols , Severity of Illness Index , Stilbenes , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2665-2673, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting about 0.6% of the Chinese population. Many patients are not well controlled by conventional treatments, thus there is need for new treatment regimens. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in Chinese patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.@*METHODS@#This study was a 52-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase 3 trial. A sub-population of study participants (≥18 years) of Chinese ethnicity were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections of 300 or 150 mg secukinumab, or placebo. The co-primary endpoints were psoriasis area severity index (PASI) 75 and Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) 0/1 at Week 12.@*RESULTS@#A total of 441 Chinese patients were enrolled in this study. Co-primary outcomes were achieved; 300 and 150 mg secukinumab were superior to placebo as shown in the proportion of patients that achieved PASI 75 (97.7% and 87.2% vs. 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.001), and IGA 0/1 (82.3% and 69.7% vs. 2.7%; P < 0.001) at Week 12. Treatment efficacy was maintained until Week 52. There was no increase in overall adverse events with secukinumab relative to placebo throughout the 52-week period.@*CONCLUSION@#Secukinumab is highly effective and well tolerated in Chinese patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03066609; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT03066609.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , China , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 148-153, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which is critically involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of skin diseases. The aim of this study was to detect AhR and its downstream regulators including cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), AhR nuclear translocation (ARNT), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and skin lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD).@*METHODS@#Twenty-nine AD patients defined according to the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka and Chinese criteria of AD were included. Subjects without allergic and chronic diseases were recruited as controls. Patients and controls were selected from the dermatology outpatient clinic of Peking University People's Hospital from August 1 to December 31 in 2018. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect serum AhR level. The mRNA of AhR, AhRR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 in PBMCs were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AhR expression in skin lesions was measured by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#AhR was significantly higher expressed in serum (41.26 ± 4.52 vs. 33.73 ± 2.49 pmol/L, t = 6.507, P < 0.001) and skin lesions (0.191 ± 0.041 vs. 0.087 ± 0.017, t = 10.036, P < 0.001) of AD patients compared with those of controls. The mRNA levels of AhR (1.572 ± 0.392 vs. 1.000 ± 0.173, t = 6.819, P < 0.001), AhRR (2.402 ± 1.716 vs. 1.000 ± 0.788, t = 3.722, P < 0.001), CYP1A1 (2.258 ± 1.598 vs. 1.000 ± 0.796, t = 3.400, P = 0.002) in PBMCs of AD patients were higher compared with those of controls. The difference in mRNA levels of ARNT was not statistically significant between the patients and controls (1.383 ± 0.842 vs. 1.000 ± 0.586, t = 1.653, P = 0.105). AhR mRNA levels in PBMCs positively correlated with eczema area and severity index score and serum interleukin-6 levels.@*CONCLUSION@#AhR and its downstream regulators were highly expressed in serum, PBMCs, and skin of AD patients, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941920

ABSTRACT

Among the various drug induced dermatological entities toxic epidermalnecrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) occupy a primary place in terms of mortality. Toxic epidermal necrolysis also known as Lyell's syndrome was first described by Lyell in 1956. Drugs are by far the most common cause of toxic epidermal necrolysis, in which large sheets of skin are lost from the body surface making redundant the barrier function of the skin, with its resultant complications. Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions to various precipitating agents that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is rare but considered medical emergencies as they are potentially fatal. Drugs are the most common cause accounting for about 65%-80% of the cases. The most common offending agents are sulfonamides, NSAIDs, butazones and hydrantoins. An immune mechanism is implicated in the pathogenesis, but its nature is still unclear. There is a prodormal phase in which there is burning sensation all over the skin and conjunctivae, along with skin tenderness, fever, malaise and arthralgias. Early sites of cutaneous involvement are the presternal region of the trunk and the face, but also the palms and soles, rapidly spread to their maximum extent, the oral mucosa and conjunctiva being affected. Initial lesions are macular, followed by desquamateion, or may be from atypical targets with purpuriccenters that coalesce, from bullae, then slough. The earlier a causative agent is withdrawn the better is the prognosis. Several treatment modalities given in addition to supportive care are reported in the literature, such as systemicsteroids, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins, ciclosporin, TNF antagonists. Recovery is slow over a period of 14-28 days and relapses are frequent. Mortality is 25%-50% and half the deaths occur due to secondary infection. Here we report a 50-year-old female of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. She was admitted to the dermatology ward with extensive peeling of skin over the trunk and limbs. She had taken alamotrigine for epilepsy. A week after taking the tablets, the patient developed a severe burning sensation all over the body and followed by a polymorphic erythematous dermatitis and widespread peeling of skin. We treated this patient with high dose corticosteroids, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins and etanercept, but eventually she died of secondary aspergillus fumigatus infection.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillus fumigatus , Cyclosporine , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Skin , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/microbiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311321

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a domestic database of Enterobacteria cloacae (E. cloacae), and improve the identification efficiency using peptide mass fingerprinting.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Peptide mass fingerprinting was used for the identification and subtyping of E. cloacae. Eighty-seven strains, identified based on hsp60 genotyping, were used to construct and evaluate a new reference database.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the original reference database, the identification efficiency and accuracy of the new reference database was greatly improved at the species level. The first super reference database for E. cloacae identification was also constructed and evaluated. Based on the super reference database and the main spectra projection dendrogram, E. cloacae strains were divided into two clades.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Peptide mass fingerprinting is a powerful method to identify and subtype E. cloacae, and the use of this method will allow us to obtain more information to understand the heterogeneous organism E. cloacae.</p>

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941665

ABSTRACT

Pigmented extramammary Paget's disease (PEMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinoma and a rare variant of Paget's disease, characterized as a superficial pigmented scaly macule clinically and an increased number of melanocytes scattered between the Paget's cells histologically. So it may be confused clinically and histologically with melanocytic tumors, dermatitis and other dermatoses. Different therapeutic attitudes are required in this case of adenocarcinoma in situ as opposed to melanoma and dermatitis. Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papilloma virus infection, which is also called as genital warts. In this article, we first reported a case of a 65-year-old Chinese man who had pigmented extramammary Paget's disease complicated with CA. This patient presented with verrucous papules on the scrotum for 3.5 years, infiltrative erythema with itch on the mons pubis for 3 years, and scrotum and penis involved gradually for 4 months. Physical examination showed a 8 cm×10 cm dark red patch on the upper part of the scrotum, penis and mons pubis, as well as few maculopapules and nodules. Histopathologic examination of the lesion on the scrotum revealed a focus of Paget's disease, characterized by the presence of large round cells with abundant pale or granular/dusty cytoplasm, pleomorphic vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli (Paget's cells), while the histology of the verrucous lesion was consistent with CA. Immunohistochemistry was performed, which showed diffuse positive staining with CK, CEA, PAS, CK20, EMA, CK7, and Ki-67 (40%), HER2 in Paget's cells and negative with P53, P16, CK5/6, S100, MelanA, HMB45, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and gross cystic disease flid protein 15 (GCDFP15). Human papillomavirus-11 (HPV-11) was positive by genotyping using gene amplification in the lesion of scrotum. According to clinical features and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of PEMPD complicated with CA was made. Local excision of the lesion was performed and sent for histological examination, with all margins clear of tumor. Both aforementioned diseases often occur in the vulva. Even so, it has been rarely reported coexisting of the above two diseases, of which the clinical significance and association are also unclear. In this article, we also reviewed the literature relating to PEMPD, and on this basis, the profile of this disease is discussed including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and advances. Due to PEMPD occasionally accompanied with an underlying carcinoma, it's essential to make an accurate diagnosis. Besides, review of the literature reveals that pigmented variant of Paget's disease could be initially misdiagnosed as melanocytic tumors and other dermatoses unless the entity is considered in the differential diagnosis and additional confirmatory studies are performed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Condylomata Acuminata/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Melanoma , Paget Disease, Extramammary/pathology , Penis , Scrotum/pathology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702262

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the spiral CT and pathological findings of sub-centimetre pulmonary ground glass nodules(GGNs), and to improve the aaccuracy in early diagnosis.Methods The CT findings and pathologic features of 30 patients with sub-centimetre pulmo-nary GGNs in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2016 were reviewed retrospectively.The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their pathological classification,namely the benign group,the preinvasive group and the invasive group.The shape,size,margin,vacuole sign, pleural indentation,the relations with bronchi and blood vessels of the pulmonary GGNs were analyzed.Results There was no significant difference in shape,maximum diameter and margin between the benign group and the other two groups(P>0.05).Adjacent vessels changes of the lesion showed significant differences between benign group and preinvasive or invasive groups(P<0.05).And there were significant differences in size,pleural indentation,vacuole sign and adjacent vessels changes between the preinvasive group and the invasive group(P<0.05).Conclusion The comprehensive analysis of lesions size,vacuole sign,pleural indentation and adjacent vessels changes can be helpful to improve the aaccuracy of differential diagnosis on sub-centimetre pulmonary ground glass nodules.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-698498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the wide application of the proximal closing wedge osteotomy in treatment of hallux valgus deformity, the metatarsal shortening and metatarsal elevation are constantly being mentioned. Scholars even think that the operation is complicated, the technical requirements are high, and the incidence of complications is high, and other osteotomy should be used instead. However, through literature research and clinical experience, it is found that the facts are not completely the case. OBJECTIVE: To perform geometric study of the plane and the physical model of the proximal closing wedge osteotomy so as to reasonably evaluate the effect of this technique on metatarsal shortening and metatarsal elevation. METHODS: The research was divided into four stages, in which the first three stages were plane geometric researches, with weight-bearing frontal image of the patient with hallux valgus as the research materials; the fourth one was solid geometric research, with plaster model of the first metatarsal bone as the research material. In research I (Stage I), the changes in 1/2 inter-metatarsal angle, length of the first metatarsal and distal metatarsal articular angle were learnt through angle adjustment after clipping when the distance from the wedge osteotomy vertex to medial border of the first tarsometatarsal joint was different (B, A, C, D respectively from the near to the distant, with a distance of 10 mm). In research II (Stage II), the changes in 1/2 inter-metatarsal angle, length of the first metatarsal and distal metatarsal articular angle were learnt through angle adjustment after clipping when the distance from the wedge osteotomy vertex to medial and lateral connection of the first tarsometatarsal joint was same, and the distance from the wedge osteotomy vertex to axis of the first metatarsal bone was different. In research III (Stage III), the changes in the above-mentioned research indexes were studied through angle adjustment after clipping when the wedge osteotomy vertex and wedge angle were fixed, but the proximal osteotomy line slope was different. Research IV (Stage IV) was the simulated osteotomy comparison, osteotomy perpendicular to metatarsal backbone or perpendicular to the horizontal plane was conducted on the model through plaster casting, and then osteotomy section was closed; the changes in elevation of the metatarsal head, 1/2 inter-metatarsal angle and length of the first metatarsal bone were measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Results of plane geometry: The closer the wedge osteotomy vertex was to the proximal end, the larger the correction gained was and the smaller the changes in the distal metatarsal articular angle were, but the shortening was more obvious. Moreover, the closer the wedge osteotomy vertex was to the axis of the metatarsal bone, the smaller the shortening was; if only the proximal osteotomy line was different, the indices were the same. (2) Results of stereoscopic geometry: In the case of the same osteotomy angle, the cuneiform bone of the same angle was intercepted, and the degree of correction was obviously greater than that of the plane geometry. This should be related to the thickness of the osteotomy saw and the loss of bone mass caused by the osteotomy. The metatarsal bone was significantly higher after correction when perpendicular to the metatarsal stem compared with that perpendicular to the horizontal surface. In 1/2 inter-metatarsal angle, the difference between the two was only 1°. In metatarsal shortening, it was smaller when perpendicular to the metatarsal stem compared with that perpendicular to the horizontal surface. (3) In conclusion, a. the optimal wedge osteotomy vertex is not at the medial border of the joint but is 1 cm from the medial border of the joint; then, it will approach the axis of the metatarsal. In this way, good correction, steady fixation and further reduction of metatarsal shortening can be achieved. b. The optimal direction of the oscillating saw blade is perpendicular to horizontal plane; however, an approximately perpendicular position to the horizontal plane is acceptable. It does not affect the effect of orthopedics, and further reduces the metatarsal shortening. When the bony closure is closed, the distal end of the metatarsal bone is taken to avoid the elevation of the metatarsal bone with a 2 mm step with the proximal end. c. The angle selection of proximal osteotomy surface can be placed on the metatarsal stem according to the internal fixation condition, and it can also form an acute angle with the metatarsal stem, so that the effect of osteotomy will not be changed.

11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 439-444, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303133

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has become an effective method for treating lower urinary tract voiding dysfunction during the past 20 years. Because of the expensive cost, the number of implantable pulse generator (IPG) implantations per year in China is far lower than that in Western developed countries since 2012. This study was to summarize the effects of the appropriate prolonged SNM testing time in improving the implantation rate of a permanent IPG in patients with refractory lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in mainland China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From January 2013 to June 2016, 51 patients with refractory LUTS received SNM therapy. In this study, we compared the conversion rate 2 weeks after the Stage I test and final actual conversion rate. We also observed the complications (such as pain, infection, and electrode displacement) and effectiveness. We tried to improve an appropriate prolonged test time which was favorable for improving the SNM conversion rate while ensuring safety and effectiveness.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 51 patients receiving SNM therapy, 19 patients (mean age 45.0 ± 16.9 years) had poor Stage I test results, and on an average, the electrode was removed 27.4 ± 9.6 days after the surgery. In one patient, the electrode was removed within 2 weeks; when the remaining 18 patients were questioned 2 weeks after testing, none of the patients wanted to terminate the test, and all the 18 patients desired to prolong the testing time to further observe the treatment effect. The remaining 32 patients (mean age 46.7 ± 15.3 years) received Stage II permanent implantation at 19.6 ± 10.4 days after the surgery. The overall Stage I-II conversion was 62.7% (32/51) in this study. Within 2 weeks after the surgery, only eight patients received Stage II permanent implantation, and the conversion rate was only 15.7% (8/51), which was much lower than the overall conversion rate of 62.7%. Nearly 84.4% (27/32) of the patients received Stage II implantation within 4 weeks. None of the patients had incision infections. In one patient, the entire system was removed 1 month after Stage II implantation due to pain in the implantation site.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Appropriate extension of the Stage I testing time of an SNM-barbed electrode could significantly improve the Stage II permanent implantation rate in Chinese refractory LUTS patients; there were no wound infections, and the postoperative complication rate was low. This study recommended that Stage I period of SNM therapy should be 4 weeks according to safety and successful conversion rate.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Methods , Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Therapeutics , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sacrum , Urinary Incontinence, Urge , Therapeutics
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1459-1466, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330598

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Skin barrier disruption could induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and the expression of TSLP was increased in lesions of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like GVHD and lichen planus (LP)-like GVHD. This study attempted to investigate the skin barrier function of AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD and possible mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen AD-like GVHD patients, 12 LP-like GVHD patients, and 14 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Skin biopsy was done in five AD-like GVHD patients, eight LP-like GVHD patients, and eight healthy volunteers. The intensity of pruritus was assessed by visual analog scale itch score and detailed pruritus score. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured using Tewameter® TM 300. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of loricrin, involucrin, LL37, and human β-defensins 2 (hBD2) in skin lesions. Western blot analysis was used for analyzing the protein levels of loricrin and involucrin in skin lesions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess the mRNA levels of LL37 and hBD2 in skin lesions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pruritus score was higher in patients with AD-like GVHD (11.33 ± 5.35) than that of patients with LP-like GVHD (2.58 ± 3.09, P< 0.001). Compared with healthy controls (HCs, 4.52 ± 1.24 g·m-2·h-1), TEWL was increased in AD-like GVHD (26.72 ± 9.02 g·m-2·h-1, P < 0.001) and LP-like GVHD patients (18.78 ± 4.57 g·m-2·h-1, P< 0.001), and expressions of loricrin and involucrin were also increased in skin lesions of AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD patients (all P< 0.05). LL37 mRNA expression was decreased in lesions of AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD patients (P = 0.005 and P = 0.008, vs. HCs, respectively). hBD2 mRNA expression was increased in skin lesions of AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD patients (P = 0.002 and P< 0.001, vs. HCs, respectively).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Skin barrier dysfunction is present in AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD. The immunoreactions, but not the congenital defect, are considered to be the primary cause of skin barrier impairment in AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD.</p>

13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 586-593, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266947

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a group of rare, heterogeneous autoinflammatory disease characterized by interleukin (IL)-1β-mediated systemic inflammation and clinical symptoms involving skin, joints, central nervous system, and eyes. It encompasses a spectrum of three clinically overlapping autoinflammatory syndromes including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. CAPS is associated with gain-of-function missense mutations in NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), the gene encoding NLRP3. Moreover, most mutations leading to MWS occurred in exon 3 of NLRP3 gene. Here, we reported a novel mutation occurred in exon 1 of NLRP3 gene in an MWS patient and attempted to explore the pathogenic mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Genetic sequence analysis of NLRP3 was performed in an MWS patient who presented with periodic fever, arthralgia, and multiform skin lesions. NLRP3 was also analyzed in this patient's parents and 50 healthy individuals. Clinical examinations including X-ray examination, skin biopsy, bone marrow aspiration smear, and blood test of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum levels of IL-1β, immunoglobulin E (IgE), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, and extractable nuclear antigen were also analyzed. The protein structure of mutant NLRP3 inflammasome was calculated by SWISS-MODEL software. Proteins of wild type and mutant components of NLRP3 inflammasome were expressed and purified, and the interaction abilities between these proteins were tested by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>X-ray examination showed no abnormality in the patient's knees. Laboratory tests indicated an elevation of CRP (233.24 mg/L) and ESR (67 mm/h) when the patient had fever. Serum IL-1β increased to 24.37 pg/ml, and serum IgE was higher than 2500.00 IU/ml. Other blood tests were normal. Bone marrow aspiration smear was normal. A novel point mutation c.92A>T in exon 1 of NLRP3 gene was identified, which caused a p.D31V mutation in pyrin domain (PYD) of NLRP3. SPR assay showed that this point mutation may strengthen the interaction between the PYD of NLRP3 and the PYD of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein. The mutation c.92A>T in exon 1 of the NLRP3 gene was not found in the patient's parents and 50 healthy individuals.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The mutation c.92A>T in exon 1 of the NLRP3 gene is a novel mutation associated with MWS. The p.D31V mutation might promote the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and induce MWS in this patient.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes , Genetics , Metabolism , Exons , Genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Blood , Interleukin-1beta , Blood , Male , Mutation , Genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Genetics , Surface Plasmon Resonance
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2170-2175, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249017

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background:</b>Preoperative anatomical scoring system is conducive to comparison between treatment options and evaluation of postoperative outcomes in patients with small renal tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical application efficacy of the R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RNS) in predicting perioperative outcomes in patients with renal tumor who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN).</p><p><b>Methods:</b>The clinical data of 139 patients with renal tumors who underwent LPN between 2009 and 2015 were collected and analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their RNS (low, moderate, and high). Clinical characteristics including perioperative variables, complications, and RNS were compared to evaluate the differences between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of postoperative complications.</p><p><b>Results:</b>According to the RNS, there were 74, 50, and 15 patients in the low, moderate, and high RNS groups, respectively. There were significant differences in estimated blood loss (EBL; χ= 7.285, P = 0.026), warm ischemia time (WIT; χ= 13.718, P = 0.001), operation time (OT; χ= 6.882, P = 0.032), perioperative creatinine clearance change (PCCC; χ= 6.206, P = 0.045), and number of patients with complications (NPC; P = 0.002) among the three groups. The values for EBL, WIT, OT, PCCC, and NPC for patients in the high RNS group were higher than those for patients in the low RNS group. After adjustment for OT, WIT, and EBL, RNS was statistically significantly associated with the risk of postoperative complications in a multivariable logistic regression model (odds ratio = 1.541, 95% confidence interval: 1.059-2.242, P = 0.024).</p><p><b>Conclusions:</b>The RNS is a valuable tool for evaluating the complexity of renal tumor anatomy. It can aid surgeons in preoperative decision-making concerning management therapy. Future multicenter, large sample size studies are warranted for evaluating its predicting performance of perioperative outcomes.</p>

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694059

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the changes of microglia in diabetic cerebral ischemia and reperfusion,and further explore the role of microglia in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemic injury.Methods Eighty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:normal blood glucose sham operation group (NG sham group,n=5),diabetic hyperglycemia sham operation group (HG sham group,n=5),normal blood glucose with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion group (NG MCAO group,n=35) and diabetic hyperglycemia with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion group [HG middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group,n=35].The diabetic rats models were established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ).The cerebral ischemia reperfusion models were made with MCAO,the specific marker protein Iba-1 was used to immunohistochemically label the microglia.The changes of microglia in the periventricular zone and caudate putamen region of the rats in HG MCAO group and NG MCAO group were observed at ischemia 30min and reperfusion 30min,3h,6h,Id,3d,7d and 14d (each time point contains 5 rats).Iba-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence double labeling method were performed to detect the proliferation of microglia.Results After ischemia-reperfusion,the brain tissue appeared as obvious edema,mesh-like,HE staining faded,neurons swelled,cytoplasm vacuolization,nuclear pyknosis,and inflammatory cell infiltration.All these symptoms of brain injury were more obvious in HG group than in NG group.On the 3rd day after ischemia reperfusion,microglial cells were markedly activated in the infarct peripheral zone,piriform cortex and somatic sensory cortex,the activation reached the peak value at the 7th day,and the activated state continued to the 14th day of reperfusion.It was found with Iba-1 and PCNA immunofluorescence double labeling that,after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion,the increase of microglia number was related to its proliferation.The microglia proliferation also increased at the 3rd day after ischemia-reperfusion,and reached the peak value at the 7th day.The degree of microglia activation and proliferation was weaker in NG group than in HG group (P<0.05),but higher obviously when compared with their each sham group (P<0.05).Conclusion Hyperglycemia induced ischemia brain tissue microglia activation and proliferation inhibition may be involved in the hyperglycemia induced ischemic brain damage.

16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1483-1490, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290049

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Tetracycline (TET) has been found to have both antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-inflammatory effect of topical TET on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of topical TET and its anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of AD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The 2% TET was applied topically to ears of MC903-induced AD-like BALB/c mice once a day. AD-like symptoms and severity were evaluated by assessing skin scoring of dermatitis, ear thickness, and frequency of scratching. Serum IgE and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot was used for analyzing the expressions of TSLP, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in skin lesions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess the mRNA levels of TSLP and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β in skin lesions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Scoring of dermatitis (9.00 ± 0.63 vs. 6.67 ± 1.03, P = 0.001), ear thickness (0.44 ± 0.02 mm vs. 0.40 ± 0.03 mm, P = 0.018), and serum IgE level (421.06 ± 212.13 pg/ml vs. 244.15 ± 121.39 pg/ml, P = 0.047) were all improved in the 2% TET treatment group compared with AD group. Topical TET significantly reduced the serum level of TSLP (119.04 ± 38.92 pg/ml vs. 65.95 ± 54.61 pg/ml, P = 0.011) and both mRNA and protein expressions of TSLP in skin lesions compared with AD group (P = 0.003 and 0.011, respectively), and NF-κB and PAR2 expression in skin lesions were also suppressed (P = 0.016 and 0.040, respectively). Furthermore, expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α in skin lesions were down-regulated in 2% TET group compared with AD group (P = 0.035, 0.008, and 0.044, respectively).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Topical TET exerted anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of TSLP and inflammatory cytokines in AD mouse model, suggesting TET as a potential agent for the topical treatment of AD in the future.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Topical , Animals , Calcitriol , Toxicity , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drug Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Interleukin-13 , Metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tetracyclines , Therapeutic Uses , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 696-701, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328172

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidin LL-37, human beta defensin (HBD)-2, and HBD-3, are important elements of the innate immune response and involved in modulation of the adaptive immunity, and they also play an important role in cutaneous defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The fresh skin tissues and paraffin-embedded biopsy samples from three cutaneous tuberculosis, two tuberculids, and ten healthy individuals were collected. The expressions of LL-37, HBD-2, and HBD-3 mRNA in the lesions of three cutaneous tuberculosis and two tuberculids were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; the protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expressions of LL-37 mRNA and protein in the lesions of cutaneous tuberculosis and tuberculids were similar to that of normal skin. The expression of HBD-2 mRNA had an increasing trend in the lesions of cutaneous tuberculosis and tuberculids compared with that of normal skin; however, the expression of HBD-2 protein in the lesions of cutaneous tuberculosis had a decreasing trend compared with that of normal skin, and the expression of HBD-2 protein in the lesions of tuberculids was similar to that of normal skin. The expressions of HBD-3 mRNA and protein in lesions of cutaneous tuberculosis and tuberculids were similar to that of normal skin.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our study indicated that the expression of HBD-2 and HBD-3 mRNA and protein in lesions of cutaneous tuberculosis may be not consistent with that of tuberculids. However, an inherent limitation of the present study was that the sample size was small, and the roles and regulation mechanisms of LL-37, HBD-2, and HBD-3 in cutaneous tuberculosis and tuberculids need to be further investigated.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous , Metabolism , beta-Defensins , Genetics
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 757-762, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328159

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by chronic recurrent dermatitis with profound itching. Most patients have personal and/or family history of atopic diseases. Several criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of AD. Although the clinical features of childhood AD have been widely studied, there has been less large-scale study on adult/adolescent AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of adult/adolescent patients with chronic symmetrical eczema/AD and to propose Chinese diagnostic criteria for adult/adolescent AD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A hospital-based study was performed. Forty-two dermatological centers participated in this study. Adult and adolescent patients (12 years and over) with chronic symmetrical eczema or AD were included in this study. Questionnaires were completed by both patients and investigators. The valid questionnaires were analyzed using EpiData 3.1 and SPSS 17.0 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 2662 valid questionnaires were collected (1369 male and 1293 female). Of all 2662 patients, 2062 (77.5%) patients had the disease after 12 years old, while only 600 (22.5%) patients had the disease before 12 years old, suggesting late-onset eczema/AD is common. Two thousand one hundred and thirty-nine (80.4%) patients had the disease for more than 6 months. One thousand one hundred and forty-four (43.0%) patients had a personal and/or family history of atopic diseases. One thousand five hundred and forty-eight (58.2%) patients had an elevated total serum IgE and/or eosinophilia and/or positive allergen-specific IgE. Based on these clinical and laboratory features, we proposed Chinese criteria for adult/adolescent AD. Of all 2662 patients, 60.3% were satisfied with our criteria, while only 48.2% satisfied with Hanifin Rajka criteria and 32.7% satisfied with Williams criteria, suggesting a good sensitivity of our criteria in adult/adolescent AD patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Late-onset of eczema or AD is common. The clinical manifestations of AD are heterogeneous. We have proposed Chinese diagnostic criteria for adolescent and adult AD, which are simple and sensitive for diagnosis of adult/adolescent AD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Eczema , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2834-2839, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230871

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Acne inversa (AI), also called hidradenitis suppurativa, is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent skin disease of the hair follicle. Familial AI shows autosomal-dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the γ-secretase genes. This study was aimed to identify the specific mutations in the γ-secretase genes in two Chinese families with AI.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In this study, two Chinese families with AI were investigated. All the affected individuals in the two families mainly manifested with multiple comedones, pitted scars, and a few inflammatory nodules on their face, neck, trunk, axilla, buttocks, upper arms, and thighs. Reticulate pigmentation in the flexures areas resembled Dowling-Degos disease clinically and pathologically. In addition, one of the affected individuals developed anal canal squamous cell carcinoma. Molecular mutation analysis of γ-secretase genes including PSENEN, PSEN1, and NCSTN was performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Two novel mutations of PSENEN gene were identified, including a heterozygous missense mutation c.194T>G (p.L65R) and a splice site mutation c.167-2A>G.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The identification of the two mutations could expand the spectrum of mutations in the γ-secretase genes underlying AI and provide valuable information for further study of genotype-phenotype correlations.</p>


Subject(s)
Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Hidradenitis Suppurativa , Diagnosis , Genetics , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Diagnosis , Male , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Pedigree , Skin Abnormalities , Diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Genetic , Diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous , Diagnosis
20.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 1125-1128, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304762

ABSTRACT

Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone which mainly acts on the reproductive system and plays an important role in penile erection and ejaculation. Prolactin receptors have a variety of short forms apart from the classic long form, which are widely expressed in male reproductive glands. High levels of prolactin can induce erectile dysfunction and results in secondary male infertility, which are mainly associated with the inhibition of dopaminergic activity, reduction of the testosterone level, and contraction of the cavernous smooth muscle. Moreover, low levels of prolactin can result in ejaculatory dysfunction. This article updates the views on the expressions of prolactin receptors in the male reproductive system, the effects of prolactin on penile erection and ejaculation, and its action mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Ejaculation , Physiology , Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Penile Erection , Physiology , Prolactin , Physiology , Receptors, Prolactin , Physiology , Reproduction
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