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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 364-374, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922921

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of small molecule compound piceatannol (PIC) on host inflammation in adenine induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) mice, and then to explore its mechanism based on the regulation of gut microbiota. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); UPLC-TQ/MS technology was used to monitor the level of proinflammatory uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS); the expression of occludin was tested by Western blot; in vitro anaerobic culture of gut bacteria was used to produce indole; the abundance of gut microbiota was evaluated by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that PIC had no effect on inflammatory infiltration in kidney tissue of CKD mice, but could decrease IL-6 level in blood and IL-6/TNF-α level in colon tissue. PIC did not improve intestinal occludin protein expression in CKD mice; while it could significantly reduce the levels of IS and PCS in blood and liver of CKD mice. Further mechanism studies showed that PIC could inhibit the synthesis of IS precursor indole in gut bacteria. Moreover, PIC could decrease the abundance of gut bacteria which producing uremic toxin, such as reducing the abundance of indole and p-cresol producing gut bacteria. In conclusion, PIC could regulate gut microbiota and inhibit the synthesis of uremic toxin precursor, thereafter reducing the accumulation of IS and PCS in vivo, ultimately relieving the inflammation of CKD mice.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 37-49, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872614

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious chronic disease with high incidence, poor prognosis, and a variety of complications. Indoxyl-sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS) are two typical gut-derived uremic toxins, which are produced by the co-metabolism of intestinal microbes and the host. With the progression of CKD, gut-derived uremic toxins such as IS and PCS accumulate in patients with CKD and thereafter accelerate the progression of CKD. Gut microbiota is closely related with CKD, and targeting gut microbiota to regulate gut-derived uremic toxins synthesis and metabolic pathways may be a promising strategy to delay the progression of CKD. In this paper, the relationship between gut microbiota, gut-derived uremic toxins, and CKD was analyzed, and the strategy to delay the progression of CKD by targeting gut microbiota and uremic toxins metabolism pathway was proposed.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1049-1056, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886970

ABSTRACT

Insulin resistance refers to the impaired ability of insulin to regulate glucose metabolism in peripheral organs, which is considered to be the etiology of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to explore the mechanism of improving insulin resistance by compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Carthami Flos (DH). Insulin resistance was conducted on C56BL/6J mice by treatment of high fat diet. The energy intake and body weight, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, insulin and glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), as well as gene transcription and protein expression levels of insulin signaling pathway in liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle of insulin resistance mice were evaluated. Animal experiments and welfare were performed in compliance with the guidelines of Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The results showed that DH treatment significantly alleviated the excessive food intake and weight gain, and significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol, and constantly mitigated the hyperinsulinemia in insulin resistance mice. The results of OGTT and ITT suggested that DH treatment dramatically improved the response of insulin resistance mice to insulin stimulated glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the imbalance of metabolic arm and mitogenic arm of insulin signaling pathway in insulin resistance mice was normalized after DH treatment. DH treatment regulated insulin signaling pathway and improved the ability of glucose metabolism of insulin resistance mice.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1035-1048, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886969

ABSTRACT

To study the regulating effect of total phenolic acids from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. on the intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acids in spontaneous type 2 diabetic nephropathy mice, db/db mice were taken as the research object, and were treated with the total phenolic acid of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Animal welfare and experimental procedures followed the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine Drug Safety Evaluation Research Center. Fresh feces and cecal contents of mice were collected for analysis of intestinal flora composition and differential flora. Gas chromatography was used to detect short-chain fatty acids in fresh feces and cecal content. Then the correlation analysis of the two results was made. Compared with the normal group, the most significant decreased differential flora in the model group were g_Rikenellaceae_ RC9_gut_group and g_Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, while the most significant increased were g_unclassified_f__ Coriobacteriaceae and g_unclassified_p__Firmicutes. Compared with the blank group, the contents of isovaleric acid and valeric acid in fresh feces and the contents of 6 short-chain fatty acids in the cecal contents of the model group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01). After drug intervention, the intestinal flora disorder and the reduction of short-chain fatty acids were improved to varying degrees, and the effect of the total phenolic acids from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. was slightly better than that from the roots in regulating some flora and short-chain fatty acids. The results of correlation analysis showed that g_Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group was moderately positively correlated with acetic acid and isobutyric acid in the cecal contents (r > 0.4). It is suggested that the total phenolic acid from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. can improve the intestinal flora disorder of mice with type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and can regulate the content of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine via adjusting the content of some short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, thereby helping to restore normal.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 895-905, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886968

ABSTRACT

Hepatic encephalopathy is a common metabolic neuropsychiatric syndrome in the development of end-stage liver disease. Since the concept of intestinal-liver-brain axis was proposed, the relationship between the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and the gut microbiota has been a hot research topic. In recent years, studies have confirmed that gut microbiota is involved in and affects various pathological processes of hepatic encephalopathy. This article combines the latest research progress at home and abroad to elaborate on the research status of regulating gut microbiota and thus interfering with the pathological process of hepatic encephalopathy, hoping to provide new ideas and methods for the intervention of hepatic encephalopathy based on the regulation of gut microbiota.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves on the diversity of intestinal microflora in rats with diabetic kidney injury. Diabetic rats model was established by feeding high glucose and high fat diet and 5% glucose solution with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg·kg~(-1) streptozocin(STZ). The rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, irbesartan control group, Huangkui Capsules control group, as well as low, middle and high dose groups of Sal-viae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves. After administration for 2 weeks, 16 S rRNA technique was used to analyze the diversity of intestinal microflora in the feces of each group. The results showed rats in the model group developed renal tubular epithelial vacuole degeneration and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration in the renal interstitium. A small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in each administration group. The kidney structure of rats in irbesartan group, Huangkui Capsules group, high-dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem water extract, as well as high dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem ethnol extract group was close to the normal group. The diversity and structure of intestinal flora in the model group were significantly different from those in the normal group. Each administration group improved the fecal flora diversity in rats with diabetic kidney injury to a certain extent, especially the high dose of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stems water extract. Different flora were found in feces of diabetic nephropathy model rats on class, order, family and genus levels. On families and genera levels, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Turicibacter, Peptostreptococcaceae, Desulfovibrio, and SMB53 showed an upward trend in model group, but that of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Rikenella, Rumen fungi showed a downward trend. The administration groups can improve the relative abundance of the above intestinal flora in the model rats to a normal-like level. The results of this study provide a reference for resource utilization and further development of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Rats , Salvia miltiorrhiza
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2008-2018, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825741

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota dysbiosis is closely related to a variety of host diseases. Recently, targeting the metabolic pathways of gut microbiota for the prevention and treatment of host diseases has become a frontier strategy and research hotspot. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic progressive intestinal inflammatory diseases of unknown etiology. The relationship between IBD and gut microbiota disorders and bacterial respiratory/energy metabolism has been confirmed in recent research. This article will introduce the relationship among them, and propose a new treatment strategy to alleviate host gut inflammation by regulating gut microbiota respiration and energy metabolism based on the latest research progress. In the progression of IBD, the gut microbiota homeostasis is disturbed. The main reasons include two aspects: on the one hand, when the intestinal inflammation of the host occurs, with increasing of oxygen concentration in the intestinal cavity, facultative anaerobic bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae bacteria would proliferate abnormally; while the growth of absolute anaerobic bacteria such as Firmicutes is inhibited. On the other hand, intestinal inflammation by-products also support the expansion of facultative anaerobic bacteria, which ultimately exacerbates the imbalance of gut microbiota. Dysregulated intestinal flora will further disturb intestinal immune homeostasis and exacerbate intestinal inflammation. The latest research proposed the possibility that IBD can be alleviated by interfering with the respiration of bacteria, inhibiting the abnormal proliferation of bacteria, or increasing the level of "beneficial" metabolites of gut microbiota. The above studies suggest that alleviating host intestinal inflammation can be explored by focusing on the metabolic pathways of gut microbiota and regulating the intestinal bacterial respiration and energy metabolism, which is of great significance for the clinical treatment of IBD and the research of innovative drugs.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2267-2276, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780331

ABSTRACT

Uremic toxins are harmful substances that accumulate in the body when the renal function declines in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is an important factor contributing to accelerated progression of CKD. There is no effective treatment for reducing uremic toxins. As an extensively used medicine for treatment of CKD in the clinic, Huangkui capsule is effective but the mechanism of its action remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of Huangkui on the accumulation of uremic toxins in CKD rats, with the discussion about its mechanism of action. UPLC-TQ/MS was used to detect the accumulation of uremic toxins in CKD rats after oral gavage with Huangkui. 16S rDNA sequencing technology was used to analyze the gut bacteria composition in rats. HPLC-FLD was used to detect the uremic toxins and their molecular precursors in feces. The effect and mechanism of Huangkui on the uremic toxin precursor in gut bacteria were studied by anaerobic culture system in vitro. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The results showed that Huangkui (0.675 g·kg-1) could effectively inhibit the accumulation of uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) in CKD rats, with IS concentration in rat's plasma, liver and kidney decreased by 49.5%, 68.9% and 40.6%, respectively. Huangkui didn't affect the metabolic pathway of IS in host liver, didn't intervene the process of the IS precursor molecule indole conversion to IS. Instead, Huangkui significantly decreased the indole content in gut, with the indole in CKD rat's feces decreased by 46.4%, suggesting that the gut bacteria may be a target for intervene IS biosynthesis by Huangkui. Huangkui didn't affect the abundance of enterobacteriaceae bacteria (the main gut flora of indole synthesis) in CKD rats, suggesting that Huangkui didn't interfere with indole biosynthesis by directly affecting the abundance of indole synthesis related bacteria. Huangkui at 4 000, 400, 40, and 4 μg·mL-1 showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the indole production by gut bacteria in vitro. The bacteria tryptophan transport concentration decreased from 83.4 μmol·L-1 to 43.6 μmol·L-1 after co-incubated with Huangkui for 12 h, suggesting that Huangkui inhibited indole production of gut bacteria by interfering with tryptophan transportation. These results indicate that gut bacteria may be a potential target for alleviation of uremic toxin accumulation and for delaying CKD progression.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1356-1363, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780231

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most serious microvascular complications in diabetic patients, and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. The interaction between metabolic and hemodynamic factors leads to activation of the common pathways of diabetic kidney injury. Studies have shown that salvianolic acid can alleviate renal fibrosis and renal injury caused by diabetes by regulating renal tubular interstitial activator A, transforming growth factor-β1 and monocyte chemokine protein-1. It can also participate in the reconstruction of the glomerular extracellular matrix by affecting the expression of protein kinase ERK1/2 protein, which serves a protective effect on diabetic kidneys. Tanshinone can inhibit oxidative stress mediated glucose-induced kidney injury, inhibit the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, and improve the secretion function of beta cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy can be alleviated by blocking TGF-β/ Smad, NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. It has been suggested that salvianolic acid and salvianone are excellent candidates for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. We provide here the scientific basis for in-depth research and development of salvianolic acid and salvianone into drugs.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 701-709, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780150

ABSTRACT

Danhong injection (DHI) and ceftriaxone sodium were used in combination based on their experimental uses in clinic. This study was designed to investigate the impact of ceftriaxone on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the phenolic acids from DHI. After administration of DHI for 7 d, ceftriaxone (CFTX) was combined with DHI for the next 7 d in adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. All the drugs were administered through caudal vein. UHPLC-TQ-MS was applied in determining the plasma concentration of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), salvianolic acid D (SaD), rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (SaB). The pharmacokinetic parameters of the combination group or the Danhong injection alone group were calculated by statistical moment method, Cmax and the average of the area under the curve AUC0-t using 90% confidence interval of the bioequivalence and bioavailability degree module in DAS 3.2.8 statistic software. The results showed that Cmax of p-CA, SaD, RA and SaB were unqualified within 90% confidence intervals for bioequivalence statistics. And the results showed that AUC0-t of SaD, RA and SaB within 90% confidence intervals for bioequivalence statistics were unqualified. There were no significant difference in the tmax (P>0.05). The results of anticoagulation in vivo showed that the international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly increased when combined with CFTX (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results in antithrombotic effects revealed that the thromboxane B2 (TXB2) level in serum was significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the combination group compared with Danhong injection alone. However, there was no significant difference in antiplatelet effects. These results suggest that CFTX may enhance the anticoagulation and antithrombotic effects of DHI through altering pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in SD rats.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743445

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of robot-assisted laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (RALPL) as the surgical management for nonstaghorn renal calculi larger than 2 cm. Methods Among the patients admitted to our hospital for nonstaghorn renal calculi larger than 2 cm between Jun. ,2013 and Jun. ,2017, a retrospective analysis was performed on the treatment outcome of patients undergoing RALPL (48 cases) and open pyelolithotomy (OPL) (44 cases). The initial stone-free rate, mean operating time, hemoglobin drop, off-bed activity time and hospital stay were compared between two groups. Results Compared with OPL group, RALPL group had a higher initial stone-free rate (91. 66% vs. 70.45%, P < 0.05), and had significant lesser hemoglobin drop, shorter operating time, off-bed activity time and hospital stay. There was no ClavienⅡ or above complications in RALPL group, but there were 2 cases of ClavienⅡcomplications in OPL group. Conclusions Transperitoneal approach RALPL has a better visual angle to observe renal pelvis and calyces, and can ensure a higher initial stone-free rate under the conditions of low intrarenal pelvic pressure and leaving renal parenchyma and vessels intact. RALPL is a minimally invasive, effective and safe treatment, and is an alternative indication for renal calculi larger than 2 cm (including renal pelvis stones with accompanying renal calyceal stones).

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771728

ABSTRACT

The study was based on the toxic characteristics of the compatibility between "Zaojisuiyuan" and Gancao, with intestinal tract and intestinal bacteria as subject. From the angle of intestinal barrier function, motor function, steady state of intestinal flora and metabolism genes, the toxic and side effects of the compatibility between Qianjinzi and Gancao with similar properties, bases and chemical composition and types were further explored. The results showed that the combined application of Qianjinzi and Gancao enhanced intestinal mucosa damage, and led to abnormal changes in intestinal bacteria structure and metabolic function. It improved the degradation functions of mucus and aromatic amino acids on intestinal bacteria, which may increase the risk of disease and derived from intestinal urotoxin and other toxic substances. This study considered intestinal bacteria as an important target to study the interactions of traditional Chinese medicine. The "drug-intestinal bacteria-metabolism-toxicity" was applied in the experiment. Meanwhile, it provides ideas for exploring incompatible mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Intestinal Mucosa , Pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694130

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluated the safety and feasibility of excimer laser atherectomy (ELA) combined with drug-eluting balloon angioplasty in treating chronic ischemia of lower limbs.Methods ELA combined with paclitaxel-eluting balloon angioplasty was adopted to treat chronic ischemia of lower limbs caused by arteriosclerosis occlusive disease of lower extremity in three patients.All three patients had arteriosclerosis occlusive disease of superficial femoral artery;in two of them the disease was primary occlusive lesion and in another patient the disease was in-stent re-occlusion lesion after sten implantation.Results After the treatment,the blood flow in the diseased arteries was unobstructed,the blood supply of the lower limbs was obviously improved.No procedure-related complications occurred.Two weeks after the treatment,no recurrence of ischemic symptoms was observed,the blood flow in superficial femoral artery kept unobstructed.The patients recovered smoothly.Conclusion For the treatment of chronic ischemia of lower limbs,which are caused by the primary arteriosclerosis occlusive disease of lower extremity or by the in-stent re-occlusion lesion after sten implantation,ELA combined with paclitaxel-eluting balloon angioplasty is clinically safe and feasible,although its long-term effect needs to be clarified with more studies.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 222-228, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779582

ABSTRACT

Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic., a folk herbal medicine in China, is a flowering plant belonging to Abelmoschus L. genus and Malvaceae family, which has been reported with an antidepressant activity. The study was designed to isolate flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot corolla and explore the action mechanism of antidepressant activities. The flavonoids were isolated and purified by D101 macroporous resin column, polyamide column and Sephadex LH-20 sequentially and identified as myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (1), gossypetin-8-O-β-D-glucuronide (2, G-8-G), gossypetin-3'-O-β-D-glucoside (3), quercetin-3'-glucoside (4, Q-3-G), isoquercitrin (5, IQT), hyperoside (6, HY), myricetin (7), quercetin (8, QT). Compounds 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 (15, 30 and 60 mg·kg-1) were orally administered to mice and the reaction was observed in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). Western blot analysis was used in determination of the protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) and phosphorylation eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (p-eEF2). The results revealed that only Q-3-G and G-8-G (15, 30, 60 mg·kg-1) significantly reduced the immobility time in FST and TST. Furthermore, Q-3-G and G-8-G remarkably increased the expression of BDNF and TrkB, and decreased the expression of p-eEF2. These results suggest that Q-3-G and G-8-G had an obvious antidepressant activity via up-regulation of BDNF expression. The new observation will provide a new direction in the development of antidepressant in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335900

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of Danshen-Honghua(DH) herb pair with different preparations (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) on blood rheology and coagulation functions in acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the best preparation method of DH based on principal component analysis(PCA), hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. Then the blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with DH (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) extracts. The whole blood viscosity(WBV), plasma viscosity(PV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and haematocrit(HCT) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations and doses on hemorheology of blood stasis rats; the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and plasma fibrinogen(FIB) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations on blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation of blood stasis rats. Then PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were all used to comprehensively evaluate the total promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of DH herb pair with different preparations. The hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group had significant differences with normal blank group. As compared with the model group, the DH herb pair with different preparations at low, middle and high doses could improve the blood hemorheology indexes and coagulation parameters in acute blood stasis rats with dose-effect relation. Based on the PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods, the high dose group of 50% alcohol extract had the best effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Under the same dose but different preparations, 50% alcohol DH could obviously improve the hemorheology and blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats. These results suggested that DH herb pair with different preparations could obviously ameliorate the abnormality of hemorheology and blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats, and the optimized preparation of DH herb pair on promoting blood effects was 50% alcohol extract, providing scientific basis for more effective application of the DH herb pair in modern clinic medicine.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335718

ABSTRACT

To study the pharmacokinetic effect of Mori Folium flavones and alkaloids in normal and diabetic rats. An UPLC-TQ-MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of rutin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, kaempferol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, DNJ and fagomine in plasma of rats. The diabetic rat model was induced through intravenous injection with alloxan and high-fat diet. Samples of plasma of rats were obtained at different time points, after the rats were administrated with Mori Folium flavones and alkaloids. After the deproteinization with acetonitrile, the concentrations of Mori Foliam constituents in rats at different time points were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that quercetin and kaempferol reached peak at 0.333 h, indicating that Mori Folium flavonoid constituents were absorbed and distributed quickly. At about 4 h after administration, both of them reached the peak concentrations for the second time, suggesting that they stayed in intestine for a long time. DNJ and fagomine in gastrointestinal tract can be quickly absorbed into blood, and the concentration in plasma reached peak after 0.667 h, suggesting that both of them could be rapidly distributed in the systemic circulation of rats. Cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and rutin were found to have a higher Cmax and AUC0-t in normal rats than those in diabetic rats. The t1/2values of cryptochlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid were shorter in diabetic rats, while quercetin, kaempferol and rutin had a longer t1/2value in diabetic rats. Chlorogenic acid, astragalin, isoquercitrin, fagomine had a higher Cmax in diabetic rats, and the t1/2values of astragalin and fagomine were longer, which suggested differences in absorption of active ingredients under normal and diabetic conditions.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230084

ABSTRACT

It is necessary to investigate the influence of the rationality of clinical drug use on the benefit and risk factors of traditional Chinese medicine injections. The retrospective survey was based on the medical records and information of 4 950 patients who used Danhong injection in the HIS database of the first affiliated hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine from 2013 to 2014. The basic statistical methods and associated rules analysis were utilized to analyze the HIS information of these patients, including the basic information, the diagnosis, the department, the dosage, the usage of medication, the drug combination and the adverse reactions. And the rationality analysis of the clinical application of Danhong injection was carried out to investigate relevant factors of the adverse reactions. The results showed that most cases came from the department of cardiology (51.95%) and encephalopathy center (20.67%). In the statistical period, the patients aged above 40 years old accounted for 96.65%. And the two western medicine diagnosis items with the highest confidence level were coronary heart disease and angina pectoris (97.15%), while the three items were coronary heart disease, angina pectoris and hypertension (97.02%). The irrational indications were mainly hypertension (12.93%) and diabetes (4.55%). All of them were diagnosed as blood stasis syndrome by the traditional Chinese medicine. About 98.93% of the single dosage was within the range stipulated on package insert, the duration mainly ranged between 1 and 21 days, and 97.64% of the menstrua contained 0.9% NS and 5% GS. According to the medication records,99.26% were the use of combined drugs, with 8.41 drugs on average. Antiplatelet drugs (72.04%) were the most frequently combined with western medicine, followed by the cholesterol-regulating drugs (64.86%) and the cerebrovascular drugs (60.26%). When used in the combination with antibiotics for the infection, cephalosporin antibiotics were the most frequently applied (8.81%). When used with traditional Chinese medicines, traditional Chinese medicines for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis or monomer traditional Chinese medicine injections (28.93%) were the dominance, in which Gastrodin injection was the most frequently applied (16.23%). And 12 cases of adverse reactions were reported, with the ADR rate of 0.24%. The indications, solvent compatibility and irrational drug combination may be the potential risk factors for ADRs induced by Danhong injection. Further experiments are required to evaluate the benefits and risks in these three aspects.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-671935

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the key points of endovascular therapy for complex subclavian artery occlusive diseases. Methods During the period from January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 92 patients with complex subclavian artery occlusive disease were admitted to Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The features of the lesions, the success rate of endovascular therapy, the use of combined approaches, the relief of symptoms after treatment, etc. were evaluated. Results The complex subclavian artery occlusive diseases could be divided into three types. Type Ⅰ: long segment of the left subclavian artery was occluded; type Ⅱ: ostial stenosis or occlusion of the right subclavian artery; and type Ⅲ: subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion was associated with the ostial disorder of the vertebral artery, or the opening of vertebral artery was affected by the subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion. The technical success rate was 82.6%. Combination use of femoral artery and brachial artery approach was employed in 27.2% of patients, which had improved the technical success rate. After the treatment the symptom improvement rate was 81.6%. Conclusion Upper limb artery approach can improve the re-canalization rate of left subclavian artery with long segment occlusion, and can ensure the accurate positioning of stent at the site of right subclavian artery opening. During the procedure of endovascular intervention for subclavian artery occlusion disease, attention should be paid to the protection of the vertebral artery.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351294

ABSTRACT

The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.


Subject(s)
Drug Incompatibility , Drug Therapy , History , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , History , Pharmacology , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812157

ABSTRACT

Thais luteostoma has been utilized as a crude drug whose shell and soft tissue have been widely used for the treatment of heat syndrome in China for thousands of years. The present study was designed to investigate the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of T. luteostoma. T. luteostoma was divided into shell (TLSH) and soft tissue (TLST) samples in the present study. The rat model of yeast-induced fever was used to investigate their antipyretic effects; and the rat model of hind paw edema induced by carrageenan was utilized to study their anti-inflammatory activities, and at the same time, the concentration variations of the central neurotransmitter [prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)], inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and ion (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) were also tested. The results showed that TLSH and TLST extracts significantly inhibited yeast-induced pyrexia in rats (P < 0.05), and exhibited more lasting effects as compared to aspirin, and TLSH had the better antipyretic activity than TLST, and that TLSH and TLST could significantly prevent against carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (P < 0.05); and markedly reduced levels of PGE2, cAMP, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and Na(+)/Ca(2+). In fever model, TLST could significantly reduce the levels of PGE2 (P < 0.01) in rats' homogenate and TNFα (P < 0.05), IL-1β (P < 0.01) in the plasma than TLSH, whereas TLSH could reduce the content of IL-2 (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.01) in plasma and increase the content of Ca(2+) (P < 0.01) in plasma and homogenate more significantly than TLST. In conclusion, T. luteostoma extract has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities, which may be mediated through the suppression of production of PGE2, cAMP, Na(+)/Ca(2+), TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6.


Subject(s)
Animal Shells , Chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Antipyretics , Pharmacology , Carrageenan , Complex Mixtures , Pharmacology , Edema , Drug Therapy , Fever , Drug Therapy , Hindlimb , Inflammation Mediators , Blood , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Snails , Chemistry
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