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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1900-1918, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887771

ABSTRACT

Quercetin 3-O-glycosides (Q3Gs) are important members of quercetin glycosides with excellent pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and anti-virus. Two representatives of Q3Gs, rutin and troxerutin, have been developed into clinical drugs, demonstrating Q3Gs have become one of the important sources of innovative drugs. However, the applications of Q3Gs in food and pharmaceutical industries are hampered by its poor bioavailability. Of the known means, selective acylation modification of Q3Gs through enzymatic catalysis to obtain Q3G esters is one of the effective ways to improve its bioavailability. Herein, the enzyme-mediated acylation of Q3Gs were reviewed in details, focusing on the four tool enzymes (acyltransferases, lipases, proteases and esterases) and the whole-cell mediated biotransformation, as well as the effect of acylations on the biological activities of Q3Gs. Furthermore, the highly efficient synthesis and diversification of acylated site for Q3G esters were also discussed. Taken together, this review provides a new perspective for further structural modifications of Q3Gs towards drug development.


Subject(s)
Acylation , Biological Availability , Glycosides , Quercetin , Rutin
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1821-1826, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887765

ABSTRACT

Natural products, important sources of innovative drugs, food, spices and daily chemicals, are closely related to people's healthy life. With the development and integration of modern biological and chemical technologies of natural products, the researches on biosynthesis of natural products have made great progresses in recent years. The biosynthetic pathways of a number of natural products have been analyzed. Many pathway enzymes and modifying enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products have been mined and functionally characterized. Furthermore, genes encoding pathway enzymes have been introduced into chassis to construct cell factories producing natural products through synthetic biology technologies. Also, other biotechnologies including genome editing and genome mining, have been used in the biosynthesis of natural products. In order to further promote the development of researches on biosynthesis of natural products, we edited a Special Issue on the topic of "biosynthesis of natural products", focusing on the researches progress in three aspects: the analysis of biosynthetic pathways of natural products, genome-wide mining and functional characterization of genes encoding tool enzymes, and the scale preparation of natural products by biosynthetic technology. Also included in this Special Issue was the prospect of the biosynthesis of natural products. This Special Issue can provide reference and guidance for the further development of natural product biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Biotechnology , Genome , Synthetic Biology
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 627-32, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483372

ABSTRACT

Peptide cyclization, a pivotal approach to modifying linear precursors of proteins and pepticles, has been used to enhance their biological activities and serum stabilities. Recently, sortase A (SrtA) from Staphyloccus aureus becomes a promising new technology for efficiently incorporating site specific modifications into proteins, conjugating the cell surface and cyclizing the linear peptides. In this study, we constructed two recombinant expression systems, one with chitin binding domain and the other with six-histidine tag and chitin binding domain on the N-terminal of SrtA, separately. The results of enzymatic kinetics indicate that the two recombinant tags do not impair the transpeptidase activity of SrtA compared with the standard reaction reported under the same reaction condition. The two synthesized peptides with N-ternimal three glycines and C-terminal penta-amino acid motif, LPETG, were cyclized using immobilized and recycled SrtA. The SrtA-based cyclization promises to represent a simple method for easy and efficient enzymatic synthesis of large cyclic peptides.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 487-492, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310002

ABSTRACT

The accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9b and ORF14), predicted unknown proteins (PUPs) encoded by the genes, are considered to be unique to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome. These proteins play important roles in various biological processes mediated by interactions with their partners. However, very little is known about the interactions among these accessory proteins. Here, a EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay was used to detect the interactions among accessory proteins. 33 out of 81 interactions were identified by BiFC, much more than that identified by the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. This is the first report describing direct visualization of interactions among accessory proteins of SARS-CoV. These findings attest to the general applicability of the BiFC system for the verification of protein-protein interactions.

5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 451-460, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240629

ABSTRACT

Pinocembrin, belonging to flavanons, was isolated from various plants. Pinocembrin has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as neuroprotective effect, antimicrobial activity, and antioxidant efficacy. Pinocembrin was approved as class I drugs to its phase II clinical trial by CFDA in 2009, mainly used for the treatment of ischemic stroke. As a promising compound, the manufacturing technologies of pinocembrin, including chemical synthesis, extraction from plant and synthetic biology, have attracted many attentions. Compared with the first two technologies, synthetic biology has many advantages, such as environment-friendly and low-cost. Construction of biosynthetic pathway in microorganism offers promising results for large scale pinocembrin production by fermentation after taking lots of effective strategies. This article reviews some of recent strategies in microorganisms to improve the yield, with focus on the selection of appropriate the key enzyme sources, the supply of precursors and cofactors by microorganisms, the choice of substance and the level of the key enzyme expression.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Fermentation , Flavanones , Industrial Microbiology , Plants , Synthetic Biology
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 905-12, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-448670

ABSTRACT

Three cyclotides were isolated from the whole plant of Viola yedoensis in this study. The two, vary peptide E and cycloviolacin Y5, were previously reported, and a novel cycloviolacin VY1 was characterized according to the interpretation of MS/MS fragmentation of peptides which were produced from the reduced and alkylated parent peptide with the digestion of Endo Lys-C, trypsin and chymotrypsin, separately. The stability of remarkable resistance to proteolytic degradation by trypsin and chymotrypsin, and that of thermal denaturation was confirmed again. Besides, the IC50 value of cycloviolacin VYI against influenza A H1N1 virus was (2.27 +/- 0.20) microg x mL(-1). It is the first cyclotide reported with anti-influenza A H1N1 virus activity in vitro assay.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 193-205, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-445521

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The first-line drug artemisinin is widely used against malaria. Commercially available artemisinin is extracted from plants. However, the lack of sufficient raw material, artemisinin and the cost associated with the drug's manufacture have limited the supply of ACT to most malaria sufferers in the Developing World. As such, it is important to develop a low cost, fine to environment and high-quality method to supply sufficient and reliable quantities of artemisinin in the future. The field of synthetic biology, which utilizes cell factories to manipulate microbial metabolism to enhance the production of artemisinin and its intermediates, has a particularly strong impact by providing new platforms for chemical production. After a brief introduction of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, the present review focuses on the introduction of artemisinin biosynthetic genes, such as the genes encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene monooxygenase, NADPH: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, artemisinic aldehyde delta 11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The review also addresses general considerations for potential contributions of synthetic biology to artemisinin production, with an emphasis on factors influencing interest compounds production in chassis cells.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 187-92, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-445520

ABSTRACT

The synthetic biology matures to promote the heterologous biosynthesis of the well-known drug paclitaxel that is one of the most important and active chemotherapeutic agents for the first-line clinical treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the construction and regulation of the biosynthetic pathway of paclitaxel intermediates in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, the review also features the early efforts to design and overproduce taxadiene and the bottleneck of scale fermentation for producing the intermediates.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 753-61, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415012

ABSTRACT

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents for the hand, foot, and month disease (HFMD) and is causing frequent, widespread occurrence in the mainland of China. The single positive-stranded RNA genome of EV71 is translated into a single polyprotein which is autocleavaged into structural and nonstructural proteins. The functions of many nonstructural proteins characterized in the life cycle of virus are potential targets for blocking viral replication. This article reviews the studies of the structures and functions of nonstructural proteins of EV71 and the anti-enterovirus 71 drugs targeting on these nonstructural proteins.

10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 196-202, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324563

ABSTRACT

To construct an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing high titres of amorpha-4,11-diene, we investigated the possible synergistic effect of different vectors containing amorpha-4,11-diene synthase(ADS) gene within one yeast cell. We constructed the ADS recombinant plasmid pGADADS. This plasmid and another ADS recombinant plasmid pYeDP60/G/ADS were alone, or co-transformed into yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1B and WK1, respectively, resulting in the following engineered yeasts, W303B[pGADADS], W303B[pYGADS], W303B[pYGADS+pGADADS], WK1[pGADADS], WK1[pYGADS] and WK1[pYGADS+pGADADS]. All of the six strains were cultured for GC-MS analysis of amorpha-4,11-diene. The results showed that all of the engineered yeasts could produce amorpha-4,11-diene. The yield of the product was improved with increasing ADS gene copies while no deleterious effect on the strain growth was found. Moreover, the product yield of the engineered yeast co-transformed with multiple plasmids was much higher than the total yield of the different engineered yeasts with only one plasmid, respectively. In conclusion, there was a distinct synergistic effect between different recombinant ADS plasmids within one cell. Our results facilitate the construction of the engineered yeast with high yield of amorpha-4,11-diene, the precursor of artemisinin.


Subject(s)
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases , Genetics , Artemisinins , Chemistry , Metabolism , Genetic Engineering , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1402-9, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-382359

ABSTRACT

The cyclotides are a family of cyclic "mini" proteins that occur in Violaceae, Rubiaceae and Cucurbitaceae plant families and contain a head-to-tail cyclic backbone and a cystine knot arranged by three disulfide bonds. To study the natural cyclotides of V tianshanica, dried herb was extracted with 50% ethanol, and the concentrated aqueous extract was subjected to a solvent-solvent partitioning between water and hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, separately. The n-butanol extract containing cyclotides was subjected to column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20, eluted with 30% methanol. The subfractions were directly reduced by DTT and analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The peaks with different retention times were shown on the profile of RP-HPLC and collected. The cyclotides were speculated based on masses range from 3 000 to 3 500 Da. The purified cyclotides were reduced with DTT, alkylated with iodoacetamide, and then were cleaved with endoproteinase Glu-C, endoproteinase Lys-C and Trypsin, separately. The digested peptides were purified on RP-HPLC and analyzed on MALDI TOF/TOF analyzer. A new cyclotide, cycloviolacin T1 and a reported cyclotide varv E were systemically determined using MALDI TOF/TOF system. So the method for the isolation and characterization of cyclotides was quickly built up in succession.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 388-94, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-382282

ABSTRACT

Influenza A/H1N1 virus-encoded nonstructural, or NS1, protein inhibits the 3'-end processing of cellular pre-mRNAs by binding the cellular protein: the 30-kDa subunit of CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor, CPSF30). CPSF30 binding site of the NS1 protein is a potential target for the development of drugs against influenza A/H1N1 virus. A yeast two-hybrid screening system was constructed and used for screening Chinese medicines that inhibit the interaction of the A/H1N1 flu NS1 protein and human CPSF30 protein. The NS1 gene of A/H1N1 virus was amplified by consecutive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the human CPSF30 gene of HeLa cell cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Then the two gene fragments confirmed by sequencing were subcloned into the yeast expression vectors pGBKT7 and pGADT7, respectively. The two constructs, bait vector pGBKNS1 and prey vector pGADCPSF, were co-transformed into yeast AH109. The eight individual yeast colonies were picked and subjected to verification by PCR/gel electrophoresis. The inhibition of the NS1-CPSF30 interaction was allowed the identification of selective inhibitors. The four of more than thirty identified Chinese medicines, including 'Shuanghuanglian oral liquid', showed the strong inhibition of the NS1-CPSF30 interaction.

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