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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605994

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the population,density,seasonal fluctuation and nocturnal pattern of malaria vectors in Jiangsu Province,thus to provide evidences for malaria elimination in this province. Methods Seven counties(cities,dis?tricts)were selected as the monitoring sites for malaria vectors in Jiangsu Province from 2013 to 2015. The mosquitoes were cap?tured by human bait trapping in bed nets and mosquito?lured lamp overnight,and the seasonal fluctuation and nocturnal pattern of malaria vectors were observed. Results A total of 11 041 Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes were captured by the mosquito?lured lamps in 7 counties of Jiangsu Province from 2013 to 2015,and no An. anthropophagous was found. Among all the 7 monitoring sites,the number of An. sinensis captured in Sihong County was the most(6 742 mosquitoes),while that in Xuyu County was the least(34 mosquitoes). During this period,the density peaks of An. sinensis were the first half of July,the first half of August and the second half of July. A total of 2 421 An. sinensis were collected in 7 monitoring sites from 2013 to 2015 by human bait trapping in bed nets overnight. Among all the 7 monitoring sites,the captured number of An. sinensis in Sihong County was the most(1 085 mosquitoes),while that in Ganyu County was the least(13 mosquitoes). The nocturnal peak of An. sinensis was from 19:00 to 20:00 and 525 An. sinensis mosquitoes were captured during this period of time,which accounted for 21.68%of the total. Hereafter,the captured number of An. sinensis reduced over time. Conclusion The density of An. sinensis mosquitoes is still high in individual areas in Jiangsu Province,so the epidemic and vector monitoring still should be strengthened to prevent the local transmission of imported malaria.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-460869

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of different temperatures on the different development stages of Aedes albopic?tus. Methods The changes at different development stages of mosquitoes(egg,larva,pupae)and gonotrophic cycle were ob?served at different temperature conditions of 10,15,20,25,30,35℃and 40℃. The full developmental cycles were com?pared during different temperatures. Results All the stages of the mosquitoes could not develop at 10℃. Under the different temperatures of 15,20,25,30,35℃and 40℃,the hatchabilities of the mosquitoes were 0,32%,82%,83%,82%and 59%respectively;the pupation rates of the mosquitoes were 38%,53%,84%,88%,72%and 42%respectively;and the emer?gence rates of the mosquitoes were 92% 95% 97% 97% 83%and 17%respectively. The mosquitoes could well develop at 20 25 30℃and 35℃ the development time was 37.73 18.50 16.92 and 13.66 days respectively. Conclusion The devel?opment time of Aedes albopictus is shorter at the higher temperature. The optimum temperature for the mosquitoes to develop is between 25-30℃ and higher or lower the temperatures will suppress the development of the mosquitoes.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-439528

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis(Bti)wettable powder against Ae-des,Culex and Anopheles larvae. Methods The biological assay was applied to test the lethal concentration of 50%(LC50)of Bti wettable powder against Aedes,Culex and Anopheles larvae. Results The LC50(s) of Bti wettable powder against Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens pallens and Anopheles sinensis larvae were 0.104,0.160μg/ml and 0.324μg/ml,respectively;its biological poten-cies against them were 0.125,0.192 IU/ml and 0.389 IU/ml,respectively. The LC50(s) of continuous contact of Bti wettable powder with An. sinensis stageⅢlarvae for 1,2 d and 3 d were 0.324,0.092μg/ml and 0.032μg/ml,respectively,and its biological po-tencies were 0.389,0.110 IU/ml and 0.038 IU/ml,respectively. The LC50(s) of the bacteria against An. sinensis stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳwere 0.024,0.137,0.324 μg/ml and 0.450 μg/ml,respectively,and the biological potencies were 0.029,0.164,0.389 IU/ml and 0.540 IU/ml,respectively. Conclusion Bti wettable powder has a good toxicity to Aedes,Culex and Anopheles larvae,espe-cially for the latter two. It is better to apply the bacteria at the early stage of mosquito larvae.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-570570

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2012,so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting effective malaria elimination strategies and measures. Methods The reported malaria cases from the Internet Reporting System and the epidemiological data of malaria in Jiangsu Province were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 198 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2012 with the incidence of 0.026/10 000, which decreased by 47.06%compared with that in 2011(374 cases). A total of 198 malaria cases were reported from 13 prefec-tures of Jiangsu and the cases were mainly distributed in Yangzhou(34 cases),Nantong(31 cases),Nanjing(22 cases),Tai-zhou(21 cases),Xuzhou(17 cases)and Huaian(17 cases),which accounted for 71.72%(142/198)among the total cases of the province. There were no local malaria cases reported from Jiangsu in 2012,and the imported malaria cases from other countries de-creased by 45.15%compared with that in 2011. Conclusions For the first time,there are no local malaria cases reported from Ji-angsu in 2012. However,the imported case distribution is further expanded and the infected plasmodium parasites are more di-verse. Imported malaria from other countries remains the key for malaria control in Jiangsu Province.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-600239

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2013,so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting effective malaria elimination strategies and measures. Methods The re-ported malaria cases from the Internet Reporting System and the epidemiological data of malaria in Jiangsu Province were collect-ed and analyzed. Results A total of 341 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2013 with the incidence of 0.050/10 000,which increased by 72.22% compared with that in 2012(198 cases). All the cases were imported from other countries including one infected by blood transfusion resulted from imported infection. The cases were mainly distributed in Li-anyungang City(15.84%,54 cases),Nantong City(14.08%,48 cases),Yangzhou City(14.08%,48 cases),Huaian City (11.44%,39 cases)and Yancheng City(8.50%,29 cases). All the cases were confirmed in Jiangsu Provincial Reference Labo-ratory and there were 286 cases of Plasmodium falciparum,8 cases of P. vivax,9 cases of P. malariae,30 cases of P. ovale and 8 cases of mixed infections. Conclusions There were no local malaria cases reported from Jiangsu Province in the last two years which reflected effective achievements of malaria elimination. However,the situation of imported malaria is more serious and the species of infected plasmodium are more diverse. Imported malaria from other countries remains the key of malaria con-trol in Jiangsu Province.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effects of a bleaching gel and a whitening strip on the microleakage of three different glass-ionomer cements.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-five freshly extracted human premolars were used and class V cavity was prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces. The teeth were randomly assigned to A, B and C groups and restored as follows: Conventional strengthen glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Molar Easymix), compomer (F2000) and compomer (Dyract AP). Teeth were kept in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 7 days. Then the specimens were thermocycled for 500 times. Each group was randomly divided into 3 subgroups which were treated for 21 days with one of the following: Whitening strip (14% hydrogen peroxide), bleaching gel (10% carbamide peroxide), or distilled water (control). After bleaching, the teeth were placed in a solution of basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours, then the teeth were sectioned longitudinally to evaluate the dye penetration. The depth of staining along the tooth restoration interface was recorded with a stereomicroscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were no signicant differences between the two bleaching agents in microleakage of restorations (P>0.05). The two bleaching agents did not significantly affect the microleakage of compomer (P>0.05), whereas the microleakage of glass-ionomer cement in the experimental groups was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>There are no significant differences in microleakage of restorations between bleaching gel (10% carbamide peroxide) and whitening strip (14% hydrogen peroxide). The two bleaching agents do not significantly affect the microleakage of compomer but adversely affect the microleakage of strengthen glass-ionomer cement.</p>


Subject(s)
Bicuspid , Bleaching Agents , Compomers , Composite Resins , Dental Leakage , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Glass Ionomer Cements , Humans , Peroxides , Urea
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-597726

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical application and diagnostic value of three.dimensional and muhiplanar reconstruction of spiral CT in fracture of shoulder blade.Methods The image of three-dimensional and muhiplanar reconstruction of spiral CT in fracture of shoulder blade cases were analyzed retrospectively.Results The 54 bone fractures were found in 31 fracture of shoulder blade cases;the multiplanar reconstruction discovered 54 bone fractures,and could show the fracture line and small bone chips clearly,especially for the bone chips in articular cavity,but it could not display the three-dimension of bone fracture;three-dimensional reconstruction discovered 51 bone fractures,and could display the change about three-dimension of bone fracture,but it could not show the fracture line of the bone fracture with small and non-dislocated clearly.Conclusion Three-dimensional and multiplanar reconstruction of spiral CT were applied conjunctively can increase the accurate rate,and strengthen the sense of three-dimensional in fracture of shoulder blade;in addition,it also could show the articular corresponding relationship and surrounding soft tissue injury,and offer the considerable value for the establishment of therapeutic regimen.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-683956

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a simplified amplification method for obtaining a large number of purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from infected C57BL/6N mice. Methods All mice in the experimental groups were immunosuppressed by given different concentrations of dexamethasone phosphate added in drinking water throughout the experiment. The recovery and purity of the oocysts obtained using different purification methods was compared. The infectivity of the oocysts obtained from the same origin but different animals and different purification methods in a bovine fallopian tube epithelial cell culture system was studied. Results 4.16?10 9 oocysts were obtained in 30 mice in the 3rd group with dexamethasone of 20 ?g/ml in drinking water. No significant difference in the oocyst recovery, purity and infectivity was found between methods using saturated saline floatation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The infectivity of the oocysts obtained from the same origin but different animals was similar. Conclusion A simplified amplification method for obtaining a large number of purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from the infected mice was established.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-562626

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the toxicity of suspension concentrate of niclosamide(SCN)for molluscicide in the field.Methods According to the state standard of the People's Republic of China "The methods of toxicity test for agriculture register",GB15670-1995,the experiments of acute toxicity on rats and fish were carried out.Results LD50(s)of SCN via mouth and skin with rats were more than 5 000 mg/kg respectively,and LC50(s)of SCN via inbreathe with rats were more than 5 000 mg/m3.Based on the classification of appraising criterion on acute toxicity test,it belonged to a feebleness toxicity degree.The eye and the skin stimulating tests with rabbits showed that it did not irritate the eyes and the skin.For fish,its acute toxicity was slightly lower than that of pure niclosamide,and markedly lower than that of pure niclosamide ethanolamine salt and WPN.Conclusions SCN belongs to a feebleness toxicity degree and has a lower toxicity to fish.It should be a useful molluscicide in endemic areas of schistosomiasis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-563638

ABSTRACT

Objective To enhance the protective immunity effects of nucleic acid vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infection by electroporation(EP)in vivo in infected BALB/c mice.Methods Plasmids and proteins for immunization were prepared and diluted in no bacterial saline solution to final concentration of 1.5 mg/ml.pcDNA3.1-SjC23,pcDNA3.1-SjCTPI,pcDNA3.1-(CDR3)6 plasmid DNAs were mixed by equal volume to form the cocktail DNA vaccine,and also mixed with recombinant proteins SjC23-HD,SjCTPI,and NP30 by equal volume to form the cocktail protein vaccine.Seventy female BALB/c mice of 4-5 weeks old were randomly divided into 5 groups(A,B,C,D,E).In Group A(control group),each mouse was immunized with 100 ?l saline solution by intramuscular(i.m.);in Group B(pcDNA3.1/EP control group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l pcDNA3.1 followed by EP in vivo for three times at week 0,3,6;in Group C(pcDNA3.1/EP plus cocktail protein vaccine group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l pcDNA3.1 followed by EP for three times at week 0,3,6 and boosted with 100 ?l cocktail protein vaccine plus 100 ?l FCA by subcutaneous at week 9;in Group D(cocktail DNA vaccine/EP group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l cocktail DNA vaccine followed by EP for three times at week 0,3,6;in Group E(cocktail DNA vaccine/EP plus cocktail protein vaccine group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l cocktail DNA vaccine followed by EP for three times at week 0,3,6 and boosted with 100 ?l cocktail protein vaccine plus 100 ?l FCA by subcutaneous at week 9.Four weeks after the last DNA immunization or two weeks after protein boosting,all the mice were challenged with(40?1)cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum by abdominal skin penetration.Forty-two days post-challenge,the mice were sacrificed and perfused,and the numbers of recovered worms and eggs in liver were counted.The blood was collected from the tail veins of all the mice two days before the first immunization and challenge,respectively,the serum was prepared for detection of IgG,IgG1 and IgG2a.Two days before the challenge,the spleen cells of two mice from each group were cultured and stimulated with ConA and soluble egg antigen(SEA),and the supernatant was collected for detection of IL-2,IL-4 and IFN-? by flow cytometre.Results The worm reduction rates in Group C,D and E were 18.09%,45.00% and 57.09%,respectively,compared with the control group.The worm reduction rates in Group D and E were significantly higher than that in Group C(P

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-562990

ABSTRACT

Objective To enhance the protective immunity effects against Schistosoma japonicum infection by priming with cocktail DNA vaccines and boosting with cocktail protein vaccines in infected BALB/c mice.Methods Plasmids and proteins for immunization were prepared and diluted in no bacterial saline solution to final concentration of 1.5 mg/ml,and mixed with pcDNA3.1-SjC23,pcDNA3.1-SjCTPI,pcDNA3.1-(CDR3)6 plasmid DNAs by equal volume to form the cocktail DNA vaccine,and also mixed with recombinant proteins SjC23-HD,SjCTPI,and NP30 by equal volume to form the cocktail protein vaccine.Seventy female BALB/c mice of 4-5 weeks old were randomly divided into 5 groups(A,B,C,D,E).In Group A(control group),each mouse was immunized with 100 ?l saline solution by intramuscular(i.m.);in Group B(pcDNA3.1 control group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l pcDNA3.1 for three times at week 0,3,6;in Group C(pcDNA3.1 and cocktail protein group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l pcDNA3.1 for three times at week 0,3,6 and immunized with 100 ?l mixed protein vaccines plus 100 ?l FCA by subcutaneous at week 9;in Group D(cocktail DNA vaccines group),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l mixed DNA vaccines for three times at week 0,3,6;in Group E(cocktail DNA vaccines plus cocktail proteins),each mouse was immunized(i.m.)with 100 ?l mixed DNA vaccines for three times at week 0,3,6 and immunized with 100 ?l mixed protein vaccines plus 100 ?l FCA by subcutaneous at week 9.Four weeks after the last DNA immunization or two weeks after protein boosting,all the mice were challenged with(40?1)cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum by abdominal skin penetration at the same time.Forty-two days post-challenge,the mice were sacrificed and perfused,and the numbers of recovered worms and eggs in liver were counted.The blood was collected from the tail veins of all the mice two days before the first immunization and challenge,respectively,the serum was prepared for detection of IgG,IgG1 and IgG2a.Two days before the challenge,the spleen cells of two mice from each group were cultured and stimulated with ConA and soluble egg antigen(SEA),and the supernatant was collected for detection of IL-2,IL-4 and IFN-?.Results The worm reduction rates in Group C,D and E were 17.70%,32.88% and 45.35%,respectively,compared with the control group.The worm reduction rates in Group D and E were significantly higher than that in Group C(P

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-561610

ABSTRACT

0.05).In 0.063 mg/L active content of the three formulations,the death rates of SCN and ECN were higher than that of WPN,there was a significant difference between SCN and WPN or between ECN and WPN(P

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-595191

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the protective effect of codon optimized TPI DNA vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum infection.Methods Sixty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups.The mice were injected through musculus quadriceps fexoris with 100 ?g pcDNA 3.1 control(Group A), pcDNA3.1-TPI(Group B), pcDNA 3.1-TPI-mHSP70(Group C), pcDNA3.1-TPI.opt(Group D), and pcDNA3.1-TPI.opt-mHSP70(Group E) respectively.All mice were immunized for three times with an interval of two weeks.The mice were challenged with(40?1) cercariae of S.japonicum per mouse by abdominal skin penetration 4 weeks after the last immunization, and sacrificed at 42 days post-challenge, the number of worms or hepatic eggs was counted.Blood was taken for the detection of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a 2 days before immunization and before challenge, respectively.Spleen cells of 2 mice from each group were cultured and stimulated with ConA and rSjCTPI peptide, and the supernatant was collected for detection of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-?, and TNF by flow cytometry.Results ELISA showed that the mice in groups B, C, D, and E produced specific IgG and IgG1, IgG2a antibody isotypes, and the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 was 1.73, 2.06, 2.44, and 3.09, respectively.The levels of IL-2, IFN-? and TNF in groups D and E were higher than that of groups B and C.The worm reduction rate and hepatic egg reduction rate in groups D(36.03%, 41.7%) and E(39.03%, 46.85%) were higher than those of groups B(26.28%, 28.35%) and C(28.38%, 31.39%)(P

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