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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755349

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to analyze the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in urban and rural adult hypertension patients in Zhengzhou. Methods The study was conducted on permanent residents aged 18 years and over (with at least 6 months of residence) in urban and rural areas of Zhengzhou. The survey subjects were chosen by the multi‐stage sampling method. Basic information regarding the height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure of 6 798 people who met the standards of admission and discharge were obtained through an on‐site questionnaire survey and physical examination. Blood samples were collected and blood glucose and lipid levels were detected. Results There were 1 985 patients with hypertension, with a prevalence rate of 29.20% and the standardized prevalence rate was 26.53%. Blood samples were collected from 1 936 hypertensive patients (55.8±13.6 years), of whom 903 were male (46.64%) and 1 033 female (53.36%). Among 1 050 patients (54.24%) with abnormal glucose metabolism, the impaired fasting glucose rate was 4.44%, the decreased glucose tolerance rate was 22.21%, and the diabetes rate was 27.56%. Blood samples were collected from 4 748 non‐hypertensive patients and 1 123 patients (23.65%) with abnormal glucose metabolism. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients was significantly higher than that in non‐hypertensive patients, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=586.264, P<0.001). The prevalence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients was higher in females, 58.57%, than in males, 49.28% (χ2=16.743, P<0.001). Urban patients showed a higher abnormal glucose metabolism, 57.68%, than rural patients did, 51.67% (χ2=6.984, P<0.001), and the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients showed a significant upward trend with an increase in age. Patients with central obesity, abnormal blood lipids, family diabetes history, non‐smokers, and non‐drinkers showed a higher prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism increased with age and body mass index, and decreased with increase in education level, with differences being statistically significant (P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, obesity, centripetal obesity, dyslipidemia, and family history of diabetes were the main risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with hypertension. Conclusions There is a relatively high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertension patients among the urban and rural residents of Zhengzhou. In the management of hypertension, the detection and intervention for reducing abnormal glucose metabolism should be strengthened and related risk factors must be prevented. The age for health management objectives among hypertension and diabetes patients should be further reduced.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 886-889, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop an method for determining the contents of dehydrocorydine and salvianolic acid B in Shuangshen tongguan capsules simultaneously. METHODS: The HPLC-dual wavelength switching method was used. The determination was performed on Waters symmetry C18 column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution (gradient elution) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 286 nm (salvianolic acid B) and 336 nm (dehydrocorydine). The column temperature was maintained at 25 ℃, and sample size was 10 μL. RESULTS: Under this condition, dehydrocorydaline and salvianolic acid B could be separated in baseline. The linear range of them were 0.157-1.259 μg and 0.391-3.131 μg (r=0.999 9). RSDs of precision, reproducibility and stability tests (within 24 h) were all lower than 2.00% (n=6-10). The average recovery rates were 101.61% and 102.85% (RSD=3.59% and 2.85%, n=6). CONCLUSIONS: Established HPLC-dual wavelength switching method can be used for simultaneous determination of dehydrocorydine and salvianolic acid B in Shuangshen tongguan capsules. The method is simple and rapid, and can be used for the quality control of Shuangshen tongguan capsule.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752023

ABSTRACT

The function of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents the overall effect of the formula. The effect is the expression of numerous biological effects of chemical components of TCM in certain pathological conditions of the body function adjustment, and these chemicals are the material basis of the TCM function. Limited by many conditions, few studies have been done on the material base of TCM function, and most of them have been supplemented by the substance basis of TCM efficacy. This leads to the disconnection between the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and modern research, and it is difficult to scientifically explain the functional indications of Chinese medicine. This paper discusses and summarizes the ideas and methods of modern research and evaluation of the material base of TCM function.Under the guidance of TCM theory and clinical practice, we set up an index system for evaluating the TCM function, and further explained the material basis and action mechanism of TCM formula. Through the organic combination of multidisciplinary and multi-technology, it provides a reference for the establishment of a comprehensive research model of the functional material basis of TCM formula.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-510696

ABSTRACT

AIM:To observe the effects of hawthorn leaf polymeric procyanidins ( PPC) on calcium mobiliza-tion of vascular endothelial cells , and to study the underlying mechanism .METHODS: Free calcium in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was labeled with Fura-2.HUVECs were treated with ATP, a positive control drug, and PPC at concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/L..The intracellular calcium concentrations were measured with a living cell microscope for 30 min.RESULTS:PPC concentration-dependently increased the intracellular calcium concen-tration of HUVECs .The intracellular calcium concentrations in 25 and 50 mg/L PPC groups were significantly higher than that in normal group (P<0.01).The dynamic manner of calcium concentration elevations elicited by PPC was a slow in -crease which happened after a latency time of several minutes , lasted for several minutes , and reached a plateau finally . This manner was quite different from that elicited by ATP , a typical SOC operator , hinting different mechanisms between them .Inhibiting the intracellular calcium release did not influence the effects of PPC;however , deleting extracellular calci-um, inhibiting the reverse mode of Na +-Ca2+exchange, or deleting extracellular sodium , restrained or even abolished the effects of PPC.CONCLUSION:PPC elicits calcium mobilization in vascular endothelial cells , which may be one of the mechanisms of the vascular modulatory activity of hawthorn procyanidins .This effect may be achieved through inducing the influx of sodium and then activating the reverse mode of Na +-Ca2+exchange.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-509153

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effects of betulinic acid (BA) on proliferation of human hepatoma stem cell;To discuss its anti-cancer mechanism from the aspects of cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Methods HepG2 stem cells were cultivated in vitro and testified the self-renewal capacity. The effects of BA in concentration of 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25μmol/L on the cell vitality of cultured human liver cancer stem cells for 24 and 48 hours were measured with CCK-8 method. The human hepatoma stem cell line HepG2 was administrated by BA at concentrations of 40, 20, 10, 5μmol/L for 48 hours, and cell cycle and apoptosis rate were measured by flow cytometry. Results BA could inhibit HepG2 stem cell proliferation obviously with dose-effect relationship. BA influenced cell cycle, and induced tumor stem cell apoptosis. 40μmol/L BA blocked cell cycle in S phase, and cell apoptosis rate reached 10.86%. Conclusion BA has obvious inhibitory effects on proliferation of HepG2 liver cancer stem cell, which probably plays a part in anti-cancer by influencing cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-613709

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effects of hawthorn leaf procyanidins (HLP) on over expressions of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by TNF-α,and clarify the mechanism of HLP's anti-inflammation effect. Methods HUVEC were cultured in vitro. MTT assay was used to detect cell viabilities. The expressions of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in HUVEC were detected by flowcytometry. Results Up to 200 mg/L, HLP showed no significant decrease in cell viabilities; the expression levels of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in the model group significantly increased, compared with that in the normal group; 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/L HLP inhibited the expression elevations of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in concentration-dependent manner; and there were statistical significances in 40, 50 mg/L HLP groups, compared with the model group. Conclusion HLP can inhibit the over expressions of ICAM-1 and E-selectin of vascular endothelial cells induced by TNF-α, which possibly underlies HLP's anti-inflammation effect.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2678-2680,2681, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To optimize the ethanol mixed-extraction technology of Red ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza in Xin-likang granules. METHODS:L9(34)orthogonal test was adopted to optimize ethanol mixed-extraction technology with ethanol vol-ume fraction,amount of ethanol and extraction times as factors using weighting coefficient comprehensive score of the contents of ginsenoside Rg1,Re and Rb1 in R. ginseng and the contents of tanshinone ⅡA and salvianolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza as index;and the verification test was detected. RESULTS:Optimal mixed-ethanol extraction technology was as follows as 6-fold 70% etha-nol,reflux extracting for 3 times,2 h each time. In verification test,average contents of ginsenosides Rg1,Re,Rb1 in R. ginseng and those of tanshinone ⅡA and salvianolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza were 3.963 8,0.757 3,4.986 2,0.964 7,27.662 5 mg/g,re-spectively,and comprehensive score was 0.96 (RSD=1.26%,n=3). CONCLUSIONS:Ethanol extraction technology of R. gin-seng and S. miltiorrhiza in Xinlikang granules optimized by multiple indexes comprehensive score combined with orthogonal test is stable,reasonable and feasible.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-482751

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to observe behavioral changes of post-stroke depression (PSD) rats, and to assess effect ofJie-Du Tong-Luo(JDTL) capsule onqi-supplementing and depression-relieving. Microspheres were injected from external carotid artery of rats under anesthesia to prepare the multiple cerebral infarction. Aftermid long term feeding, PSD rat model was established. Then, open-field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and glucose preference test were employed to study behavioral changes of rats. The results showed that rats suffered multiple cerebral infarction after mid long term feeding formed PSD, which were indicated by reduced food consume, slow body weight increasing, reduction of spontaneous movement and inquiry activity, prolonged accumulative immobility time in TST, FST and lowered glucose preference, compared with rats in the normal group. Compared with the model group, rats in the JDTL capsule group andBu-Chang Xin-Nao-Tonggroup showed larger body weight increase, higher scores in OFT, reduced immobility time in TST, FST, and elevated glucose preference. It was concluded that JDTL capsule had significant efficacy on rats’ body weight, behavior and glucose preference, which might be its pharmacological basis onqi-supplementing and depression-relieving.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-482750

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to observe the effect ofRong-Shuan (RS) capsule on rodent tolerance against cerebral ischemia, hypoxia and cerebral reserve capacity, which was related to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis. Acute cerebral ischemia and anoxia models were established by permanent left carotid artery ligation on C57 BL/6 mice and hypoxia inhalation (O2?N2 = 8?92) for 15 min. Duodenal administration of RS capsule at different doses (100, 200 or 400 mg·kg-1) or saline were given 10 min after ischemia onset. The local brain blood circulation changes and neurobehavioral function were evaluated 24 h after ischemia onset. SD rats were given RS capsule at different doses (75, 150, 300 mg·kg-1) or saline. The effect of RS capsule on improvement of microcirculation disturbance induced by high molecular dextran was observed. The results showed that compared with the sham operation group, the brain blood circulation in the model group was significantly decreased; the cerebral infarction area increased; and the behavioral score after cerebral hypoxia was significantly increased (P < 0.05, orP < 0.01). Meanwhile, after the injection of high molecular dextran among rats in the model group, the cerebral leptomeninx microcirculation was obviously slowed down at 3 timepoints, which were 10, 20 and 30 min. Compared with the model group, RS capsule (400 mg·kg-1) can significantly increase the local blood circulation in the brain of mice, improve behavioral disturbance, reduce cerebral ischemia area (P< 0.05, orP < 0.01). RS capsule can also improve blood flow velocity and flow pattern in cerebral leptomeninx microcirculation disturbance induced by high molecular dextran at different timepoints (P < 0.05, orP < 0.01). It was concluded that RS capsule can increase the tolerance against cerebral ischemia, hypoxia and cerebral reserve capacity in order to protect the neural tissues to promote neuronal recovery.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478646

ABSTRACT

Chinese herbal prescription (CHP) is the main method and mean of clinical medication in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The CHP efficacy is the summary of multi-herb function under the guidance of TCM theories. With the development of modern science and technology, the scientific and organic interpretation of scientific connotation of CHP efficacy is a difficult problem in TCM. In this paper, the modern research ideas and methods of CHP efficacy, which greatly enriched the modern research content of CHP efficacy as well as promoted its research and development, were discussed and summarized.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478645

ABSTRACT

ThisstudywasaimedtoobservetheinhibitoryeffectsofQi-Zhu (QZ)granulesonearlyproteinuria in diabetic nephropathy rats with syndrome of qi-yin deficiency and phlegm blocking collaterals. A total of 44 rats were randomly divided into the blank group, model group, Huang-Kui capsule group, QZ granules group. The rat model of diabetic nephropathy with syndrome of qi-yin deficiency and phlegm blocking collaterals was induced by the combination of unilateral renal artery ligation, diet of high-calorie and high cholesterol, and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin. The medication was given for 8 weeks. The concentrations of protein and creatinine in urine were observed on the 4th week. The blood glucose, blood lipids, liver function and renal pathological changes were observed at the end of the experiment. The results showed that compared with the model group, QZ granules can obvious suppress early proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy, promote creatinine excretion, regulate blood lipid metabolism, protect liver function and improve renal pathological changes. It was concluded that QZ granules had independent inhibition effect on early proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy rats with syndrome of qi-yin deficiency and phlegm blocking collaterals. The effect was independent of lowing blood glucose. It represented the corresponding relation between the syndrome and efficacy in Chinese herb compounds.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478644

ABSTRACT

Tong-Mai(TM) granules were composed ofRadix Salviae Miltiorrhizae(Danshen),Rhizoma Chuanxiong(Chuanxiong) andRadix Puerariae(Gegen). It had the effect of activating blood circulation. It had been used to treat ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in the clinical practice. This research combined serum pharmacochemistry and serum pharmaocology to study the material basis of active components in TM granules. After single or multiple intragastric administrations of TM granules, serum blood samples of rats were collected at different time points. LC-MS/MS method was developed to analyze chemical components of TM in blood serum samples. The cardiomyocyte hypoxia / reoxygenation (H/R) model was used in the evaluation of cardiomyocyte protection by TM. The correlation analysis was also conducted between serum concentration of TM and cardiomyocyte activity. The results showed that 8 components of pueraria flavonoid, 5 components of salvianolic acids and 2 components fromGegen were promptly absorbed and reached their highest concentrations at 5 or 30 min after administration. After 3 times of medication, the serum concentration was obviously higher compared to single medication. The drug-serum of TM showed significant protective effect on the cardiomyocyte H/R injury with dose-effect relationship. Daidzein, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid A, salvianic acid A and rosmarinic acid presented as the most correlated components linked to the effect of activating blood circulation by TM. The serum pharmacochemistry / serum pharmacology related studies provided references for the verification of material basis of active components in compound Chinese medicine.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478519

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to observe the body weight and behavioral changes of heart-spleen deficiency mouseandtoassesstheefficacyofLing-Qi-Jia (LQJ)oralsolutiononqi-supplementingandmind-tranquilizing. The heart-spleen deficiency syndrome mouse model was established by using loading swimming anddrugdaily.Thebodyweight,foodconsumption,intestinepropulsion,tailsuspensiontest (TST),forced swimmingtest (FST),sleepingtimeandtheamountofbrainneurotransmitterweredetected.Theresultsshowed that mouse suffered loading swimming and drug formed heart-spleen deficiency syndrome model, which were indicated by lowering body weight and food consumption, shortened time in FST, prolonged accumulative immobility time in TST, intestine propulsion hyperfunction, shortened sleeping time and lowering brain neurotransmitter amount. LQJ oral solution can obviously improve experiment indexes mentioned above. It was concluded that LQJ oral solution, which can improve insomnia due to heart-spleen deficiency, might had close relation to the efficacy of qi-supplementing and mind-tranquilizing. Meanwhile, changes of brain neurotransmitters might also be the material basis on its efficacy.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457532

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effects ofTanyu Tongzhi Formula on proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs);To explore its activity of pro-angiogenesis.Methods HUVECs were cultured in vitro. Rats were treated with gavage containing different doses ofTanyu Tongzhi Formula (78.0, 39.0, 19.5 g/kg) to prepare serum with different doses of medicine. The activity of HUVECs was measured by MTT method. The effects on migration of HUVECs were inspected by using scratch wound assay.Results Compared with the normal control group, serum containing high-dose and medium-doseTanyu Tongzhi Formula could significantly promote the proliferation of the HUVECs (P<0.01). The rates were 49.78% and 33.92% respectively. And the cell migration rate was higher in the two groups than in the normal control group (P<0.01). The rates were 11.36% and 11.62% respectively.ConclusionTanyu Tongzhi Formula can promote proliferation and migration in HUVEC, which may be active to pro-angiogenesis.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2530-2531,2532, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To establish a method for the content determination of berberine hydrochloride in the Jiangtang xiao-zhi tablets. METHODS:HPLC was conducted with the Symmetry C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.05 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate(pH adjusted to 3.0 using phosphoric acid)(24∶76,V/V)at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection wave-length was 345 nm,the column temperature was room temperature and injection volume was 10 μl. RESULTS:The linear range of berberine hydrochloride was 0.522-4.698 μg(r=0.999 9);RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were no more than 0.72%;the average recovery was 97.79%(RSD=2.09%,n=6). CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple,accurate,sensitive and reproducible,and can be used for the content determination of berberine hydrochloride.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457300

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the impactsof different time-course electroacupuncture pretreatments on brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability and assess their protecting effects on blood-brain barrier functionin cerebral ischemia rats. MethodClean-grade healthy male SD rats were randomly allocated to five groups (n=48): model control group, and one-day, three-day, seven-day and fifteen-day electroacupuncture pretreatment groups. A rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was made after electroacupuncture pretreatment was finished in various electroacupuncture groups. The water content of the brain and the amount of EB through blood brain barrier were measured at 12, 24 and 48 hrs after cerebral ischemia. ResultBoth brain water content and EB permeation amount were lower at 12 and 48 hrs than at 24 hrs after cerebral ischemia (P<0.05). There was a significant reducing effect on brain water content and EB permeation amount in the fifteen-day electroacupuncture pretreatment group at various time points after cerebral ischemia (P<0.05,P<0.01,P<0.001).Conclusion The blood-brain barrier is impaired most severely at 24 hrs of the three time points 12, 24 and 48 hrs after cerebral ischemia. Electroacupuncture pretreatment can produce a protecting effect on blood-brain barrier function in cerebral ischemia rats by markedly reducing cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier permeability.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-454827

ABSTRACT

Sai-Luo-Tong (SLT) is a compound preparation composed of ginseng, ginkgo and saffron for the treatment of vascular dementia. In order to identify its material foundation and provide evidence for therapeutic regimen, the plasma concentration, pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of ginkgolides were investigated after intragastric ad-ministration of SLT. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of 4 ginkgolides in rat plasma and brain simultaneously. Statistical analysis of obtained data demonstrated that the method had achieved the desired lin-earity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity. The results showed that after administration of SLT at the dose of 60 mg·kg-1, 4 ginkgolides were all absorbed into systemic circulation with AUC value in the order of bilobalide B (BB) >ginkgolide A (GA) > ginkgolide B (GB) > ginkgolide C (GC). All ginkgolides exhibited short half lives less than 2.8 h among which BB showed the shortest t1/2 of 1.61 h. The determination of brain distribution at different time after dos-ing revealed ginkgolides entered into brain promptly dominated by GA and BB. The concentrations of 4 ginkgolides in brain were much lower than these in plasma and declined along with time rapidly. It was concluded that ginkgolides can be absorbed in blood and penetrated into brain rapidly. GA, BB and GB might be main components which effect both periphery and brain collectively by means of their specific mechanism to achieve the therapeutic efficacy on vascular dementia of SLT.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-459625

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effects of dehydrocorydaline (DHC) on proliferation and collagen secretion of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) cultured by high glucose;To provide experimental evidence for clinical application of Rhizoma Corydalis. Methods CFs cultured in vitro with high glucose were made into models. Collagenase and trypsin were used for the combine digestion of CFs from ratsbornin 24 h. 2-4 generation CFs were cultured by high glucose (25 mmol/L), and then 100, 50, 25 mg/L dethydrocorydaline was added for intervention. Cellular morphology of CFs was observed after 24, 48 h. CFs proliferation was detected by MTT method. Cell cycle was assessed via flow cytometry. The levels of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅲ were determined by ELISA. Results CFs began to grow adherence 3 hours after planting, and CFs cultured by high glucose significantly proliferated 24, 48 h later (P<0.05, P<0.01). The percentage of S+G2+M phase CFs increased significantly after 48 h (P<0.01). The secretion of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅲ also increased significantly (P<0.01). After the intervention of DHC, CFs proliferation was significantly inhibited (P<0.01);the percentage of S+G2+M phase CFs decreased (P<0.01);the secretion of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅲ was reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion DHC can reduce CFs proliferation, decrease collagen secretion of CFs cultured by high glucose, and has potential effects of anti-myocardial fibrosis.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 208-216, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329734

ABSTRACT

Since alkaloids are the major active constituents of Rhizoma corydalis (RC), a convenient and accurate analytical method is needed for their identification and characterization. Here we report a method to profile the alkaloids in RC based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 16 alkaloids belonging to four different classes were identified by comparison with authentic standards. The fragmentation pathway of each class of alkaloid was clarified and their differences were elucidated. Furthermore, based on an analysis of fragmentation pathways and alkaloid profiling, a rapid and accurate method for the identification of unknown alkaloids in RC is proposed. The method could also be useful for the quality control of RC.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 870-7, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-431017

ABSTRACT

The rat model of multi-infarct was adopted in this study to elucidate the protective mechanism of Sailuotong capsule (Sailuotong) in recovery period of multiple cerebral infarction. The effects of Sailuotong on levels of Glu, GABA and the expression of NMDA receptor subtypes including NR1, NR2A and NR2B, were detected. The multi-infarct model rats were established by injecting embolizing microsphere via internal carotid artery, and were given Sailuotong treatment (16.5 and 33.0 mg x kg(-1)) for 60 days. The pathological changes in brain ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscope. The levels of Glu and GABA in brain tissue were measured with high performance liquid chromatography. The expression of NMDA receptors including NR1, NR2A and NR2B in neurons was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Compared with the sham rats, abnormal changes were observed in ultrastructures of neurons, neuroglia cells and synapses of model rat brains. Moreover, significant decrease of Glu and GABA, as well as the elevated expression of NR1, NR2A and NR2B were detected in brain tissues. Sailuotong (16.5 and 33.0 mg x kg(-1)) could improve ultrastructure of cerebral tissue, facilitate synthesis of Glu and GABA, and down-regulate expression of NR1, NR2A and NR2B in neurons. The results demonstrated that Sailuotong could exert neuroprotective effects to some extent in the recovery phase of multiple cerebral infarction by promoting expression of NMDA receptors and synthesis of Glu and GABA.

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