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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921707

ABSTRACT

The indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ic-ELISA) and direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(dc-ELISA) were performed for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) in Astragali Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus, and Nelumbinis Semen with self-made antigens and antibodies. Different extraction methods were investigated to reduce the matrix effects of different medicinal parts in Chinese herbal medicines. The sensitivity of dc-ELISA method was improved by optimizing the molar ratio of AFB_1 to horseradish peroxidase(HRP). In this study, the sensitivity(IC_(50)) of ic-ELISA and dc-ELISA was 0.046 and 0.023 ng·mL~(-1), with the limit of detection(LOD) of 0.007 and 0.004 ng·mL~(-1), respectively. The detection time was 3 h and 50 min for ic-ELISA and dc-ELISA, respectively. The recovery rates were within the range of 62.96%-104.4%, with RSDs of less than 10%. Confirmed by LC-MS/MS, three positive samples of Nelumbinis Semen were detected from 53 samples. Two ELISA methods established in this study were accurate, rapid and sensitive, and can be used for rapid screening of AFB_1 in Chinese herbal medicines such as Astragali Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus, and Nelumbinis Semen. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the two methods were compared and discussed, which can provide a reference for the testing institutions to choose the proper method.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1/analysis , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888009

ABSTRACT

Eucommiae Cortex is an authentic medicinal material with broad growing areas( such as Hunan and Sichuan provinces in China. It is well-known for its efficacy in tonifying liver and kidney,strengthening muscles and bones,and stabilizing fetus. It has also been proven in pharmacology to possess the functions such as lowering blood pressure and lipids. Hence,Eucommiae Cortex has attracted increasing attention. The current quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex vary in different countries or regions. The quality of Eucommiae Cortex products on the market is affected by mix-ups of non-medicinal parts and insufficient growth years. In view of these problems,this paper summarizes the current quality standards and research progress of Eucommiae Cortex in China and overseas,aiming to provide a reference for the establishment of the quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Humans , Reference Standards
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828396

ABSTRACT

Forsythiae Fructus is divided into Qingqiao and Laoqiao due to different harvesting periods. So far, the accumulation of heavy metals in the two types of Forsythiae Fructus has not been reported. In this study, the residual levels of copper(Cu), lead(Pb), chromium(Cr), arsenic(As), cadmium(Cd) and mercury(Hg) in 29 batches of Laoqiao and 60 batches of Qingqiao were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The samples were collected from Shanxi, Shaanxi, Henan, and Hebei Provinces. In addition, the diversity and correlation of harmful elements in Qingqiao and Laoqiao were analyzed by multivariate statistical method. Furthermore, principal component analysis(PCA) was used to analyze the harmful elements concentrations of Qingqiao and Laoqiao. The results showed that there was a significant difference on the residual levels of heavy metals and harmful elements between Qingqiao and Laoqiao. Among them, the content of Pb in Laoqiao is significantly higher than that in Qingqiao(P<0.01), while the content of Cu is significantly lower than that in Qingqiao. However, the difference in harmful elements among different producing areas of Forsythiae Fructus is not significant. PCA analysis showed that Qingqiao and Laoqiao were successfully grouped into two categories. This study suggests significant difference in the residual levels of heavy metals and harmful elements between Qingqiao and Laoqiao. Besides, Forsythiae Fructus has a certain enrichment of Pb in the fruit ripening stage(Laoqiao). This study provides a reference for the quality classification and safety of Forsythiae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Copper , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metals, Heavy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828369

ABSTRACT

A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) was prepared and an indirect competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ic-ELISA) was established based on the antibody which was used for high-throughput and rapid screening of AFB_1 contamination in Chinese herbal medicines to ensure the safety of medication. In this study, the structure of AFB_1 was modified by improved oxime method, and the carrier protein was coupled by EDC-NHS method to obtain the complete antigen of AFB_1, which was more convenient and environmental friendly. The Balb/c female mice were immunized using increasing the immunization dose and various ways of injection, and finally the AFB_1 monoclonal antibody was prepared. The AFB_1 monoclonal antibody belongs to IgG_(2 b) immunoglobulin by identifying its immunological characteristics, and its sensitivity(IC_(50)) can reach 0.15 μg·L~(-1), and the affi-nity is 2.81×10~8 L·mol~(-1). The cross-reaction rates of AFB_2, AFG_1, and AFG_2 were 35.07%, 8.75%, and 1.15%, respectively, and there was almost no cross-reactivity with other mycotoxins. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the antibody, an ic-ELISA method was established and applied to the determination of AFB_1 contamination in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. According to the matrix matching standard curve, the linear concentration range for AFB_1 was 0.05-0.58 μg·L~(-1)(R~2=0.992), the recoveries were 88.00%-119.0%, and the detection limit was 1.69 μg·kg~(-1). The AFB_1 in 33 batches of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen samples was determined by ic-ELISA, and the contamination level was 3.62-206.58 μg·kg~(-1). The linear correlation coefficient between the detection results of ic-ELISA and UHPLC-MS/MS was 0.996, and there were no false positive and false negative cases. It indicates that the established ic-ELISA is accurate and reliable, and could provide a simple and effective technique for fast screening of AFB_1 contamination in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, and also could be considered as the reference for the detection and monitoring of AFB_1 contamination in other Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Drug Contamination , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Mice , Semen , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773253

ABSTRACT

In this paper,the effects of active fractions of Ferula ferulaeoides on the growth and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell MGC-803 transplantation tumor were systematically studied. The subcutaneous ectopic transplantation tumor model was established in human gastric cancer MGC-803 nude mice by cell suspension implantation method. The anti-tumor rate and organ index were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of the active fractions of F. ferulaeoides on the tumor-bearing nude mice. HE staining,TUNEL staining,RT-PCR,Western-blot and ELISA were used for pathological examination,apoptosis observation,and detection of apoptosis-related genes,proteins and cytokines expression. The results showed that as compared with the model group,the low,medium and high doses of the active fraction of F. ferulaeoides had inhibitory effects on xenografts in nude mice,respectively,in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptotic ratio was increased with the increase of drug concentration. As compared with the model group,F. ferulaeoides could down-regulate the expression of survivin mRNA in nude mice,and the protein expression levels of Bax,Bcl-2,caspase-3 and caspase-9 in tumor tissues of nude mice could be increased to different degrees in F. ferulaeoides groups. The contents of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in plasma of nude mice were decreased in high dose group of F. ferulaeoides active fractions. The results indicated that F. ferulaeoides can significantly inhibit the growth of human gastric cancer MGC-803 subcutaneously transplanted tumor,and its mechanism may be related with down-regulating the expression of survivin mRNA,and up-regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax,caspase-3 and caspase-9.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines , Metabolism , Ferula , Chemistry , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773187

ABSTRACT

The element speciation analysis for heavy metals in herbal medicines is still in the beginning stage. In this study,the total amount of arsenic( As) in 103 batches of 17 commonly used Chinese medicines( including 16 plant medicines and 1 medicinal fungus) was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Furthermore,based on HPLC-ICP-MS,the simultaneous detection methods of six As speciation kinds in traditional Chinese medicines were established. An AS7 anion exchange column was selected and the As forms in 17 traditional Chinese medicines was systematically analyzed. The results showed that the method of pretreatment of medicinal materials by microwave digestion and the detection of total amount of As by ICP-MS was stable and reliable. As for the speciation analysis of As,the high-speed ultrasonic extraction method was adopted,and it showed that the linear relationship of the six As speciation was satisfied with the correlation coefficient R2>0. 999 9. The LOQ of six kinds of As speciation were 0. 20,0. 10,0. 15,0. 10,0. 25,0. 10 μg·L~(-1) for arsenic betaine( As B),arsenious acid [As( Ⅲ) ],dimethyl arsenic( DMA),arsenic choline( As C),monomethyl arsenic( MMA),arsenic acid[As( Ⅴ) ],respectively. The recoveries were between 84. 24% and 121. 5%,and the relative standard deviations were 2. 7% to 11%. Among the 103 batches of medicinal materials,only one batch of sample As exceeded the Chinese Pharmacopoeia limit standard; As( Ⅲ) and As( Ⅴ) had high detection rate in 103 batches of Chinese herbal medicines,within which As( Ⅴ) was the main detected form,and inorganic As accounted for the ratio reached 80. 90%-98. 73%; some samples detected DMA,MMA and As B,As C was not detected in any batch. This study established an analytical method suitable for the speciation of As in Chinese herbal medicines,and provided basic data for As residual residue in Chinese herbal medicines,which can provide important reference for the risk assessment and quality standards.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Mass Spectrometry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773185

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the safety of heavy metals contaminated Astragalus membranaceus,an appropriate protocol was established to study the heavy metals pollution level by health risk assessment. This study provided a detailed procedure to assess the medicinal herbs in quality control and safety evaluation,and expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming of A. membranaceus or any other kinds of medicinal herbs. The heavy metals content of Cu,As,Cd,Pb and Hg in a total of 45 batches of A. membranaceus were carefully analyzed with a developed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Besides,the heavy metal contamination level was further evaluated through 4 main assessment parameters,including maximum residue limit( MRL) set by International Standard Organization,estimated daily intake( EDI) set by IUPAC,target hazard quotients( THQ) and Total THQ set by USEPA and total THQs in raw herbs of A. membranaceus. In addition,the recommended MRLs of 5 main heavy metals aimed to A. membranaceus were calculated based on the regulated consumption quantity. The result showed that,under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 8. 89% for A. membranaceus,which including 4 batches of A. membranaceus exceeded the MRL of As. Here,the standard THQ value of A. membranaceus was firstly proposed as 0. 02 and 0. 011 25 for adults and children,respectively,which were calculated with the recommended consumption quantity of 30 g and 9 g for adults and children. Furthermore,the values of THQ for As and total THQs in adults and children were exceeded the standard THQ in A. membranaceus,and the recommended MRLs of Pb,Cd,Hg and Cu in above medicinal materials that calculated based on health risk assessment model were higher than the regulated MRLs that set by ISO and Chinese Pharmacopeia. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in A. membranaceus were not in the safe range and the certain non-carcinogenic risks to human body cannot be neglected. Based on above investigation result,it is easily known that the common evaluation method for raw herbs based on the comparison of MRL of heavy metals was not precise enough,and the international model of health risk assessment should be built for each medicinal herb. Above all,this study provided a more realistic research approach for safety evaluation of any other kinds of heavy metals contaminated medicinal herbs,including the establishment of heavy metals standard limit in a specified medicinal herb under recommended consumption quantity,and it is expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming any other medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Risk Assessment
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771567

ABSTRACT

Endogenous toxic components have become an important topic in the field of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Since the endogenous toxic components in TCMs are often used as clinical effective components, the safety and effectiveness of endogenous toxic substances has become an important part of the research of TCMs. In this paper, the classification and evaluation criteria of toxic Chinese medicinal materials are described, and the analytical methods of endogenous components in TCMs are summarized and expounded base on with the techniques of chromatography, spectroscopy, immunoassay, and so on. On this basis, the problems in terms of endogenous toxic components are analyzed and discussed. This paper could provide ideas and methods for the evaluation of the validity and safety of TCMs containing endogenous toxic components.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771541

ABSTRACT

Chromium has been discovered for more than two hundred years, and it has advantages of wear-resisting, high temperature, corrosion resistance and so on. Chromium has been widely used in industrial production and received extensive attention in China and abroad. Detailed limit standards have been set for chromium in food and fishery product, and chromium can also be enriched in many traditional Chinese medicines. Besides, the toxicities of different chromium speciation are quite different, and thus morphological analysis is necessary. However, the transformation or migration is easily happened among different speciation which brings difficulties to research and analysis. This article summarizes the research status of chromium and its aims to provide reference for scientific research and pollution prevention of chromium.


Subject(s)
China , Chromium , Corrosion , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775317

ABSTRACT

This project was launched to study on the overall residual status of heavy metals of comprehensive understanding in decoction pieces of Bupleuri Radix (DPBR) from different habitats and risk assessment. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the heavy metals of 30 batches of Bupleuri Radix in different producing areas. Simulated gastrointestinal fluid method was used to determine the dissolution rate of heavy metals in the simulated gastrointestinal fluid and the average daily intake Average Daily Dose (ADD) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) index were used to assess the risk of heavy metals in DPBR. The results showed that the contents of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in the 30 batches of DPBR didn't exceed the limit of Chinese Pharmacopeia, however, the chromium (Cr) in DPBR exeeded the limit set by NSF in USA and the limit for herbal ingredients in Canada. The mean bioaccessible heavy metal concentrations decreased from Cu (5.27 mg·kg⁻¹)>Cr (4.67 mg·kg⁻¹)>As (0.18 mg·kg⁻¹)>Pb (0.12 mg·kg⁻¹)>Cd (0.06 mg·kg⁻¹), and Hg was not detected in this test. In addition, cumulative non-carcinogenic health risks (HI) for adults and children were 0.799 and 0.714, respectively. Both HI values in adults and children for combined trace element and heavy metal element exposures were below the value of 1 (HI<1), indicating very low carcinogenic health risk. Heavy metals toxicity in herbal medicines and its health risk to humans would be overestimated when assessed only by the total concentrations without considering the bioaccessibility. Therefore, bioaccessibility has great significance for evaluating the human health risks induced by heavy metals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1879-1886, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780069

ABSTRACT

The toxicity of heavy metals and harmful elements is close related to their speciation. In the present study, the methods for mercury and arsenic speciation analysis based on high-performance liquid chromatography conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) were established and applied to the determination of 31 kinds of animal drugs, 29 of which were included in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2015 edition). The results showed that the LODs for all the speciation were within 0.1-0.65 μg·kg-1, and the recoveries were within 86.9%-116.6% with the RSD of 1.49%-4.23%. Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) was detected in all the 87 batches of samples that came from 31 kinds of animal drugs, and the contents were 2.39-6567 μg·kg-1. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in 33 batches of samples that came from 12 kinds of animal drugs, and the contents were 2.83-319.7 μg·kg-1. Ethylmercury (EtHg) were detected in none of the samples. The detection rates of As(Ⅲ), As(V), monomethylarsononous acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in the 31 batches of animal drugs was 96.77%, 100%, 45.16%, 90.32%, 93.55% and 22.58%, respectively. According to the toxic level of different speciation, the animal drugs with high risks of mercury were Agkistrodon, Bungarus Parvus, Zaocys, and Scolopendra; the animal drugs with high risks were Pheretima, Agkistrodon, Zaocys, and Aspongopus. This study can provide important evidence for the risk assessment, setting and revision of the limit standards of heavy metals and harmful elements.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690682

ABSTRACT

Cadmium contamination of environment is a subject of serious international concern. Bioaccumulation of cadmium occurs primarily through ingestion of contaminated water and food. Cadmium poisoning came into prominence with the "itai-itai" disease event in Japan in the 1950s. It could also cause damages to liver, kidney, lung and other organs. Thus, the treatment of cadmium poisoning has become a research hotspot. Researchers are trying their best to explore prophylactic and therapeutic medicines for prevention and treatment of cadmium-induced poisoning. So far, chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Natural medicines have a variety of advantages such as extensive sources, high safety, less adverse reactions, and thus have great potentials in treating cadmium poisoning. In this review, the progress in the antagonistic effects of natural drugs in cadmium poisoning and their therapeutic mechanisms were summarized in order to provide certain references for the future development and in-depth study of antagonistic substances.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690409

ABSTRACT

With the extensive clinical application of Tripterygium wilfordii, there are many counterfeit products on the market. Traditional technology can not effectively identify the authenticity of the traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, a strategy of accurate identification and quality evaluation of Tripterygium based on DNA barcode and chemical fingerprint spectrum was established. Based on DNA barcode technology, HMMer annotation method of hidden Markov model and K2P model were used to analyze genetic distance.BLAST1, nearest distance and phylogenetic tree (NJ-tree) methods were used to assess the identification efficiency of the ITS2 barcode. The fingerprint of 27 T. wilfordii was established by UPLC-PDA method, and the similarity of the fingerprint of different sources was evaluated. The main components of T. wilfordii were determined by LC-MS/MS. The results revealed that the intraspecific genetic distances of T. wilfordii were lower than the interspecific genetic distances between T. wilfordii and its adulterants. The results of similarity search showed that ITS2 sequence was used to identify T. wilfordii and its adulterants. The clustering of T. wilfordii and its adulterants was clear in the tree of NJ cluster, and 12 of 27 samples were identified as true T. wilfordii.The chemical fingerprint spectrum research indicates that the feature one region can distinguish the false product of tripterygium glycosides more intuitively. The cluster analysis of HCA-thermal map showed that the contents of six active components of T. wilfordii from different habitats were significantly different, which could be used to evaluate the quality of T. wilfordii. This paper is of guiding significance for the accurate identification and quality evaluation of Tripterygium medicinal plants.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687343

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese herbs are readily contaminated by mold that produced mycotoxins which are closly related to the herbs' external factors and external environments during the storage process. In this study, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was used as example, and the characteristics of traits, water content, active components (naringin, hesperidin, sinensetin, naringin, tangeretin) and the accumulation of aflatoxins (AFs) were selected as the evaluation indexes. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was stored under different environments and packaging materials for 12 months, and then the quality changes and mildew of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were examined. The results showed that the color of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was deepened after storage, but without mildew phenomenon. Besides, the sample storage in kraft paper and woven bags had varying degrees of moth phenomenon after 12 months storage, and the water content exceeded the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In addition, the contents of the five active constituents obviously decreased, especially for hesperidin, which did not meet the pharmacopoeia standard after storage. AFs were not detected in any of the tested samples. According to the results, we conclude that low temperature and humidity environment is more suitable for the storage of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, and that packaging materials should be further investigated. This study is of great significance for preventing the mold to contaminate the traditional Chinese medicine and ensuring the quality, effectiveness and safety of TCMs.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335894

ABSTRACT

The residue of the pesticides affects seriously the quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Pesticide residue has caused ever-growing attention of people at home and abroad. Rapid detection techniques used for rapid screening of pesticide residues have expanded in a fast progress. As one of the fast development methods of rapid detection, visualization test strip based on nanoparticle has received much concern in recent years. This article focused on the classification of detection test strips and key factors on the fabrication of nanoparticle-based visualization test strips used in small molecule pesticides. Moreover, a wide application of nanoparticles-tagged test strips on pesticide residue was reviewed including single residue detection, multi residue detection, as well as quantitative analysis. Finally, the future application of visual test strip for detecting of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine was forecasted, intending to provide the reference for rapid detection techniques on pesticide residues screening in herbal medicine industry.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258499

ABSTRACT

Natural plant pigment is rich in resources, with the features of natural color and environment friendly, which has a broad space for development and market prospects. In order to further develop and utilize of natural plant pigment, this paper mainly introduces the natural plant dyes in the domains of food, cosmetics and health care products on the historical development process and their application. In addition,this paper summarizes the application of representative natural plant pigment, dyes, and prospects the market of natural plant pigment, so as to provide reference for the development of natural plant pigment in the enlarged health industry of China.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307173

ABSTRACT

With the development of living condition, more and more people tend to show unique personality, thus hair dyes as hair cosmetics are highly favored. By the year 2012, the global sales of hair dye had exceeded $15 billion, with a sustained growth at a rate of 8%-10% annually. However, the harm caused by long-term use of hair dyes has aroused widespread public concern, so people begin to seek non-toxic or low toxic natural plant hair dyes. The types of commonly used hair dyes and the corresponding dyeing mechanisms were summarized in this manuscript, and the representative natural botanic dyes were listed. Thereafter, their effective fractions, constituents and application status were described. In addition, the values of botanic hair dyes and their broad market prospect were discussed. Finally, the problems that exist in the research and development of plant hair dyes were issued. This review may help to provide thought for developing novel, green and ecological natural plant hair dyes.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231024

ABSTRACT

Cinnabars are widely used in the clinic and shows unique efficacy, and it has been used in treating diseases for thousands of years either single-use or combination with other traditional Chinese medicines. Cinnabar mainly contains mercury, which displays obvious hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The safety of cinnabar and its rational use caused extensive attention. However, there are some misunderstanding that cinnabar shows equivalent toxicity to the toxicity of mercury compounds such as mercuric chloride and methylmercury in safety evaluation of cinnabar, which in our view exaggerates the toxicity. For traditional Chinese medicine containing cinnabar, some researchers questioned the medicinal value of cinnabar, and even proposed to remove cinnabar in order to avoid possible poisoning. This review reported adverse events, summarized its toxicity characteristics, mechanism and the medicinal value in preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. The significance of this paper is to further understand the toxicity of cinnabar and reduce its side effect in clinical application, and to provide a scientific basis for reasonable clinical application and a scientific understanding of cinnabar.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284749

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250453

ABSTRACT

As an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), mineral medicine plays an irreplaceable role. However, little has been reported on its species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements, and also the relevance to pharmacological effect and toxicology. The present paper, in a new perspective, summarized the determination of the species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements in recent years, discussed the progress of the pharmacological effect and toxicology, and prospected for future study which might provide reference for mineral medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Contamination , Drug Therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metals, Heavy , Toxicity , Minerals , Pharmacology
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