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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1019-1040, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929367

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. The accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates including amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT/tau) in neuronal cells are hallmarks of AD. So far, the exact underlying mechanisms for the aetiologies of AD have not been fully understood and the effective treatment for AD is limited. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular catabolic process by which damaged cellular organelles and protein aggregates are degraded via lysosomes. Recently, there is accumulating evidence linking the impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway with AD pathogenesis. Interestingly, the enhancement of autophagy to remove protein aggregates has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. Here, we first summarize the recent genetic, pathological and experimental studies regarding the impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in AD. We then describe the interplay between the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and two pathological proteins, Aβ and MAPT/tau, in AD. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic strategies and small molecules that target the autophagy-lysosomal pathway for AD treatment both in animal models and in clinical trials. Overall, this article highlights the pivotal functions of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in AD pathogenesis and potential druggable targets in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway for AD treatment.

2.
Herald of Medicine ; (12): 159-162, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-744206

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the safety of morphine hydrochloride injection. Methods Ear verin injection was used to evaluate the vascular irritation using the comparison of left side with right side in rabbits. Quadriceps femoris injection was used to evaluate the muscle irritation using the comparison of left side with right side in rabbits. Guinea pigs were intravenously injected with morphine hydrochloride injection at a dose of 2.8 mg·kg-1 once daily 3 times, stimulation was performed on 14 d after the last sensitization and the booster dose was 2 times the sensitization dose. The allergic reactions were observed. The different concentrations of morphine hydrochloride injection were placed in 2% rabbit erythrocyte suspension, and then the hemolyzation and agglutination were observed. Results There were no significant vascular or muscular irritation and injury effects of morphine hydrochloride injection in rabbits. There were no evidenceof hemolyzation and agglutination in rabbit erythrocytes in vitro. No allergic reactions on guinea pigs in vivo were observed. Conclusion After treatment of morphine hydrochloride injection, neither obvious vascular /muscle stimulation or sensitization, nor hemolyzation or agglutination appeared in rabbits. The research results provide basic reference for the clinical rational and safe application of morphine hydrochloride injection.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-487078

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the research status of TCM therapy for ADHD in China in recent ten years; To provide references for clinical workers. Methods Clinical research papers about TCM therapy for ADHD in CNKI, VIP, and CBM from 1st January 2005 to 1st April 2015 were retrieved. Metrology analysis was conducted from the aspects of publication time, diagnostic criteria, contrasted medicine, and types and features of TCM therapy. Results By eliminating duplication literature, 670 papers were screened out. After the screening of exclusion criteria, 148 papers were included. DSM-Ⅳ and CCMD-3 were the most commonly used diagnostic criteria in the 148 papers; internal therapy was the main therapy in TCM therapy; decoction was the main dosage form; liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome and heart-liver fire syndrome were the main patterns of syndrome; Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata and other 19 Chinese medicinal herbs were the main Chinese mateia medica; Xiaoer Zhili Syrup was the most commonly used Chinese patent medicine; acupuncture and moxibustion and auricular point therapy were the main external therapy, and external combined with internal therapy had the best efficacy. Conclusion TCM therapy for ADHD is with high effectiveness. External combined with internal therapy has the best efficacy.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-484140

ABSTRACT

Objective To introduce an improved extraction method of prefrontal cortical and striatal synaptosomes from SHR rat. Methods Synaptosomes were prepared from SHR rat brain tissue by Percoll density gradient centrifugation.Transmission electron microscopy was used to assess the morphology and structural integrity of the synaptosomes.Results The obtained synaptosomes showed oval structures surrounded by an intact membrane.Presynaptic components contained one or more mitochondria and a large number of synaptic vesicles.The synaptic clefts were clearly visible, and prominent part of the characteristic compact structure was clear, complete and with higher electron-density. The synaptosome presynaptic membrane, synaptic cleft, and postsynaptic membrane were well preserved, and the synaptosomes were densely distributed, showing typical morphological characteristics of synaptosomes.Conclusions The results of our study improved the traditional preparation method and provide a less time-consuming, highly productive protocol for preparation of structurally typical and intact synaptosomes, suitable for further research on neuroscience and neurological diseases.

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