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1.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 25-32, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836799

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells play have a crucial role in the early phase of immune responses against various pathogens. We compared characteristics of canine NK cells against two canine mammary carcinoma cell lines, REM134 and CF41.Mg. REM134 showed higher expression of progesterone receptor, proliferative cell nuclear antigen, Ki67, multiple drug resistance, Bmi-1, c-myc, E-cadherin, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 than that of CF41.Mg. For specific expansion and activation of NK cells, we isolated CD5 negative cells from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and co-cultured K562 cells in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, and IL-21 for 21 days. As a result, we found that expression markers of activated NK cells such as NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKG2D, CD244, perforin, granzyme B, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were highly upregulated. In addition, we found there was upregulated production of interferon gamma of activated NK cells against target cells such as REM134 and CF41.Mg.Specifically, we observed that cytotoxicity of NK cells against target cells was more sensitively reacted to CF41.Mg than REM134. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the development of an experimental application of CF41Mg, which has not been reported in canine mammary carcinoma research.

2.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 117-123, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835577

ABSTRACT

The rapid diagnosis of canine distemper virus (CDV) helps to determine the treatment of dogs in veterinary clinics. We evaluated the performance of seven commercial rapid immunochromatographic test (RICT) kits for the detection of CDV. Six core dog viral pathogens (canine adenovirus type 1 and 2, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus), five CDV strains (CD1901, Lederle, Rockborn, Onderstepoort, and Synder Hill), and three bacteria (Bordetella bronchiseptica, Leptospira canicola, and Staphylococus aureus) were used to determine the cross-reactivity and detection limits of the kits. The seven commercial RICT kits did not yield positive results with the six dog viruses or the three bacteria. All the RICT kits for CDV detected the Korean CDV isolate. The detection limits of the RICT kits for the Korean CDV isolate, CD1901, belonging to Asia 1 genotype ranged from 103.0 to 104.0 TCID50/mL. There was an average difference of 1.1 in scores judged by eye between four CDV vaccine strains and CD1901 strain. Therefore, the RICT kits enable the detection of CDV vaccine strains, but need to be improved to detect CDV circulating in dog populations in Korea.

3.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 263-272, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898904

ABSTRACT

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) causes respiratory and ocular disease in cats.Although isolates of FHV-1 circulating in cats have been reported worldwide, Korean FHV-1 isolates and their features have not been reported thus far. We aimed to investigate the biological and molecular characterization of two FHV-1 isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) gene. In total, 48 samples from 12 cats were prepared for virus isolation.For the diagnosis, virus isolation, indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), electron microscopy (EM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the molecular characterization, cloning and sequencing were used. Based on many methods such as virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, IFA, EM, and PCR, two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they showed the highest viral titer (108.3 to 108.5 TCID50 /mL) in the Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney cells at 48 h after inoculation, but did not grow in MDCK and Vero cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the full TK and gB gene of FHV191071 and FHV191072 isolates were determined and compared with those of other herpesvirus strains. Two isolates possessed the same nucleotide sequences belonging to FHV-1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the KANS-02 strain, which was isolated from shelter in USA in 2016. Two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they will be a useful basic resource for evaluating current FHV-1 vaccine and developing diagnostic tools.

4.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 263-272, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891200

ABSTRACT

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) causes respiratory and ocular disease in cats.Although isolates of FHV-1 circulating in cats have been reported worldwide, Korean FHV-1 isolates and their features have not been reported thus far. We aimed to investigate the biological and molecular characterization of two FHV-1 isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) gene. In total, 48 samples from 12 cats were prepared for virus isolation.For the diagnosis, virus isolation, indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), electron microscopy (EM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the molecular characterization, cloning and sequencing were used. Based on many methods such as virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, IFA, EM, and PCR, two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they showed the highest viral titer (108.3 to 108.5 TCID50 /mL) in the Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney cells at 48 h after inoculation, but did not grow in MDCK and Vero cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the full TK and gB gene of FHV191071 and FHV191072 isolates were determined and compared with those of other herpesvirus strains. Two isolates possessed the same nucleotide sequences belonging to FHV-1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the KANS-02 strain, which was isolated from shelter in USA in 2016. Two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they will be a useful basic resource for evaluating current FHV-1 vaccine and developing diagnostic tools.

5.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 151-155, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760360

ABSTRACT

Equine influenza (EI) is the main cause of respiratory illness in equines across the globe and is caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV-A), which has impacted the equine industry internationally because of the marginal mortality and high morbidity. In the present study, the immune responses after equine influenza vaccination were evaluated in 4,144 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza virus (EIV), A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8), was used as the antigen in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 89.2% (97.4% in 2016, 77.6% in 2017, and 92.4% in 2018). This paper highlights the advances in understanding the effects of vaccines and control strategies for mitigating the emerging menace by EIV.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Hemagglutination , Horses , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Vaccination , Vaccines
6.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 201-209, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918271

ABSTRACT

Canine mammary tumors are among the most frequently observed cutaneous tumors in female dogs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), referred to as tumor-initiating cells, are thought to have properties similar to normal stem cells such as the ability to self-renewal and to differentiate into various cell types. Biological understanding of CSCs and the critical pathways involved in their maintenance are important in research and therapy for mammary tumors. We conducted the present study on sphere formation from REM134 cells by using methylcellulose to produce tumorspheres on a large scale and compared the specific markers of the spheres-formed and plating-cultured REM134 cells. The results revealed that the tumorspheres cultured in methylcellulose had higher seeding density and improved morphology compared to those produced in normal sphere formation medium. Expression levels of stemness markers and CSC-related markers were higher in tumorsphere-forming cells than in plating-cultured cells. Subsequently, we transplanted the tumorsphere-forming and plating-cultured cells into female nude mice to examine their tumorigenic potential. Tumor volume increased rapidly in mice transplanted with tumorsphere-derived cells compared to plating-cultured cells. We observed a novel sphere-forming condition for REM134 cells and showed that REM134 cell tumorspheres can exhibit improved CSC properties.

7.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 211-217, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918270

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful candidates for tissue engineering and cell therapy. Physiological cell environment not only connects cells to each other, but also connects cells to the extracellular matrix that provide mechanical support, thus exposing the entire cell surface and activating signaling pathways. Hydrogel is a polymeric material that swells in water and maintains a distinct 3-dimensional (3D) network structure by cross linking. In this study, we investigated the optimized cellular function for canine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (cAD-MSCs) using hydrogel. We observed that the expression levels of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which are involved in cell proliferation and stemness, were increased in transwell-hydrogel (3D-TN) compared to the transwell-normal (TN). Also, transforming growth factor-β1 and SOX9, which are typical bone morphogenesis-inducing factors, were increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Collagen type II alpha 1, which is a chondrocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Osteocalcin, which is a osteocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3DTN compared to the TN. Collectively, preconditioning cAD-MSCs via 3D culture systems can enhance inherent secretory properties that may improve the potency and efficacy of MSCs-based therapies for bone regeneration process.

8.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 201-209, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741519

ABSTRACT

Canine mammary tumors are among the most frequently observed cutaneous tumors in female dogs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), referred to as tumor-initiating cells, are thought to have properties similar to normal stem cells such as the ability to self-renewal and to differentiate into various cell types. Biological understanding of CSCs and the critical pathways involved in their maintenance are important in research and therapy for mammary tumors. We conducted the present study on sphere formation from REM134 cells by using methylcellulose to produce tumorspheres on a large scale and compared the specific markers of the spheres-formed and plating-cultured REM134 cells. The results revealed that the tumorspheres cultured in methylcellulose had higher seeding density and improved morphology compared to those produced in normal sphere formation medium. Expression levels of stemness markers and CSC-related markers were higher in tumorsphere-forming cells than in plating-cultured cells. Subsequently, we transplanted the tumorsphere-forming and plating-cultured cells into female nude mice to examine their tumorigenic potential. Tumor volume increased rapidly in mice transplanted with tumorsphere-derived cells compared to plating-cultured cells. We observed a novel sphere-forming condition for REM134 cells and showed that REM134 cell tumorspheres can exhibit improved CSC properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Mice , Carcinogenesis , Critical Pathways , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal , Methylcellulose , Mice, Nude , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Tumor Burden
9.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 211-217, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741518

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful candidates for tissue engineering and cell therapy. Physiological cell environment not only connects cells to each other, but also connects cells to the extracellular matrix that provide mechanical support, thus exposing the entire cell surface and activating signaling pathways. Hydrogel is a polymeric material that swells in water and maintains a distinct 3-dimensional (3D) network structure by cross linking. In this study, we investigated the optimized cellular function for canine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (cAD-MSCs) using hydrogel. We observed that the expression levels of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which are involved in cell proliferation and stemness, were increased in transwell-hydrogel (3D-TN) compared to the transwell-normal (TN). Also, transforming growth factor-β1 and SOX9, which are typical bone morphogenesis-inducing factors, were increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Collagen type II alpha 1, which is a chondrocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Osteocalcin, which is a osteocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3DTN compared to the TN. Collectively, preconditioning cAD-MSCs via 3D culture systems can enhance inherent secretory properties that may improve the potency and efficacy of MSCs-based therapies for bone regeneration process.


Subject(s)
Bone Regeneration , Cell Proliferation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chondrogenesis , Collagen Type II , Extracellular Matrix , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Polymers , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Tissue Engineering , Water
10.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 299-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57418

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from various tissues have been well characterized for therapeutic application to clinical diseases. However, in contrast to MSCs from other animal species, the characteristics of feline MSCs have not been fully documented. In this study, we conducted extensive characterization of feline adipose tissue-derived MSCs (fAD-MSCs). Study fAD-MSCs were individually isolated from the intra-abdominal adipose tissues of six felines. The expression levels of cell surface markers and pluripotent markers were evaluated. Next, proliferation capacity was analyzed by performing cumulative population doubling level (CPDL) and doubling time (DT) calculation assays. Differentiation potentials of fAD-MSCs into mesodermal cell lineages were analyzed by examining specific staining and molecular markers. All fAD-MSCs positively expressed cell surface markers such as CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD166, and MHC-I, while CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD73 were negatively expressed. The CPDL of the fAD-MSCs was maintained until passage 5 to 6 (P5 to P6), whereas DT increased after P3 to P4. Also, stem cell-specific pluripotent markers (Oct3/4, Nanog, and SSEA-4) were detected. Importantly, all fAD-MSCs demonstrated mesodermal differentiation capacity. These results suggest that fully characterized fAD-MSCs could be beneficial when considering the use of these cells in feline disease research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases , Cell Lineage , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mesoderm
11.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 141-148, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109785

ABSTRACT

Research into adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) has demonstrated the feasibility of their use in clinical applications due to their ease of isolation and abundance in adipose tissue. We isolated AD-MSCs from young and old dogs, and the cells were subjected to sequential sub-passaging from passage 1 (P1) to P7. Canine AD-MSCs (cAD-MSCs) were examined for proliferation kinetics, expression of molecules associated with self-renewal, expression of cell surface markers, and differentiation potentials at P3. Cumulative population doubling level was significantly higher in cAD-MSCs of young donors than in those of old donors. In addition, expressions of CD73, CD80, Oct3/4, Nanog, cell survival genes and differentiation potentials were significantly higher in young donors than in old donors. The present study suggests that donor age should be considered when developing cell-based therapies for clinical application of cAD-MSCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Adipose Tissue , Cell Survival , Kinetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
12.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 284-294, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96562

ABSTRACT

Blockade of signal 1 or 2 for T-cell activation by the use of anti-CD45RB and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (two-signal blockade) has been proven effective in preventing or delaying graft rejection. However, the mechanisms of its immunomodulatory effects are clearly unknown and the present studies were performed to determine how the two-signal blockade modulate allogeneic immune responses, especially T-cell mediated cellular immunity, in a murine skin allograft model. We now report on the profound inhibition of alloreactive T cells by two-signal blockade via CD4-dependent mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice of BALB/c skin allograft were treated with anti-CD45RB, anti-CD154, CTLA4-Ig, or their combinations. For depletion of CD4 or CD8 T cells, the recipients received CD4-depleting or CD8-depleting mAb. We confirmed that survival of skin allograft was markedly prolongated in the two-signal blockade-treated group. In depletion study, anti-CD45RB, anti-CD154 and CD4-depleting mAb-treated group showed acute rejection of skin allograft in contrast to CD8-depleting group treated with the two-signal blockade. In the group treated with the two-signal blockade, the proportions of CD4+CD45RB(low)and CD8+CTLA-4 regulatory T cells were increased while effector CD8+ T cells, including IFN-gamma-secreting and CD8+CD62L(low)T cells, were decreased when compared with non-treated group. In contrast, the CD4-depleted group treated with the two-signal blockade resulted in recovery from immunoregulatory effects of two-signal blockade. In addition, results of IL-4 and IL-10 production were also showed CD4-dependence. Therefore, the two-signal blockade is accompanied by CD4-dependent mechanisms in allogeneic skin transplantation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Transplantation, Homologous , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/cytology , Skin Transplantation/immunology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Lymphocyte Depletion , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Interleukin-4/biosynthesis , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Graft Rejection/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD40 Ligand/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/immunology , CD4 Antigens/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Blocking/administration & dosage
13.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 271-277, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although many studies regarding several neurotransmitters and receptors have been conducted to define the mechanism involved in the development of dependence on opioids, definitive evidence has still not been presented. This study was designed to investigate the effect of morphine on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity of rat C6 glial cells. METHODS: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used for cell viability. Morphology of nuclei was observed by fluorescent microscopy. Reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were measured in acid-soluble cell fractions. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured from the cultured supernatant of C6 glial cells using the scopoletin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) assay. RESULTS: Glutamate induced the death of C6 glial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was protected by morphine and antioxidants, such as GSH and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). However, morphine antagonist, naloxone did not inhibit the protective effect of morphine on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, the specific agonists, [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin acetate salt (DAMGO), [D-Pen2,5]-Enkephalin (DPDPE) and U69593 did not protect C6 glial cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, morphine recovered the depletion of GSH by glutamate and inhibited the generation of H2O2 by glutamate in C6 glial cells. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that morphine protects C6 glial cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity via the inhibition of GSH depletion and the generation of H2O2 by glutamate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetylcysteine , Analgesics, Opioid , Antioxidants , Cell Survival , Glutamic Acid , Glutathione , Hydrogen Peroxide , Microscopy , Morphine , Naloxone , Neuroglia , Neurotransmitter Agents , Peroxidase
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