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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916889

ABSTRACT

Contralateral axillary lymph node metastasis is a rare entity in breast cancer and is currently classified as a distant metastasis; however, recent studies have proposed aggressive curative treatment since this entity may manifest as a locoregional disease. Herein, we report a rare case of contralateral axillary lymph node metastasis that presented with imaging findings 22 months after the initial breast cancer diagnosis in a 67-year-old female. The patient underwent lymph node dissection of the axilla with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A follow-up examination 6 months after surgery showed no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915286

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to identify collaborative disaster governance through the demand and supply analysis of resources recognized by nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#We used a descriptive study design with an online survey technique for data collection. The survey questions were developed based on focus group interviews with nurses responding to COVID-19 and expert validity testing. A 42-question online survey focusing on disaster governance was sent to nurses working in COVID-19 designated hospitals, public health offices, and schools. A total of 630 nurses participated in the survey. Demand and supply analysis was used to identify the specific components of disaster governance during a pandemic situation and analyze priority areas in disaster governance, as reported by nurses. @*Results@#Demand and supply analysis showed that supplies procurement, cooperation, education, and environment factors clustered in the high demand and supply quadrant while labor condition, advocacy, emotional support, and workload adjustment factors clustered in the high demand but low supply quadrant, indicating a strong need in those areas of disaster governance among nurses. The nurses practicing at the public health offices and schools showed major components of disaster governance plotted in the second quadrant, indicating weak collaborative disaster governance. @*Conclusion@#These findings show that there is an unbalanced distribution among nurses, resulting in major challenges in collaborative disaster governance during COVID-19. In the future and current pandemic, collaborative disaster governance, through improved distribution, will be useful for helping nurses to access more required resources and achieve effective pandemic response.

3.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 802-807, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914621

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the less common triggers of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in which coagulation disorder is a frequent manifestation. Here, we present a case of HIV-triggered secondary HLH presenting with severe bleeding tendency and fever. Despite high-dose dexamethasone infusion (10 mg/body surface area/day), progressive disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombocytopenia resulted in massive hemathochezia: the bleeding episode ceased after endoscopic hemoclipping. After then, he took a highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Eventually, body temperature and overall laboratory findings normalized in response to HAART.Clinicians should not overlook HIV infection as a possible trigger of secondary HLH. In such cases, HAART is the core treatment.

4.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 272-277, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913634

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Falls are the most common accidents in healthcare facilities, and timely intervention can have a positive effect on the hazards and trauma experienced by patients after a fall. This study determined the factors affecting the time taken to detect a fall. @*Methods@#A total of 3,470 cases of falls reported through the Korea Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System were included in the analysis. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression method was used for this retrospective secondary data analysis study. @*Results@#There were 537 patients whose falls were not detected immediately; the count model was used to predict risk factors that delayed fall detection. Women aged 60–69 years—compared to those below 60 years and an evening nursing shift, compared to a day shift—were identified as significant factors. The fall detection time of about 2,933 patients was zero; therefore, the logit model was applied to predict a patient's possibility of belonging to the group whose fall was detected immediately. Comparisons of tertiary hospitals with general hospitals and hospitals, of the evening shift with the day shift, and of the day shift with the night shift indicated significant influencing factors. @*Conclusions@#These findings can assist nurses in recognizing patient and hospital characteristics related to delayed fall detection. Strategies to improve patient safety in healthcare facilities that focus on patient characteristics such as age can be recommended. Furthermore, nurse staffing requires improvement to detect fall incidents immediately.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903858

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901811

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended after curative surgery in patients with colon cancer of high-risk stage II and stage III. However, a considerable number of patients cannot complete the scheduled adjuvant treatment for various reasons. This study investigates the hindering factors to the adherence to adjuvant chemotherapy and their impact on long-term survival. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted for patients with colon cancer and had curative resection from 2009 to 2014. Among patients with pathologic stage II and III, stage II with low-risk features, double primary cancers, R2 resection cases were excluded. Patients were grouped into three groups: no-adjuvant therapy, adjuvant therapy for less than 3 months, and more than 3 months. Factors for withdrawal and the oncologic outcome were analyzed. @*Results@#Of 571 patients, adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 403. One hundred and sixteen patients (28.8%) did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, 78 (19.4%) withdrew within 3 months, and 209 (51.9%) maintained for more than 3 months. Factors for not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or withdrawing within 3 months were older than 70 and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or higher. Main reasons for discontinuation before 3 months were chemotoxicity and patient’s refusal. The long-term oncologic outcome of the patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy for more than 3 months was significantly better than others. @*Conclusion@#No-adjuvant therapy or receiving them for lesser than 3 months is significantly affected by the patient’s performance status and social support, which coincides with a poor oncologic outcome. Social support and rehabilitation system may help to improve the survival outcome.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901779

ABSTRACT

Background@#In the author’s blood bank, if the Ab screening test results are positive in the pretransfusion test, an Ab identification test and polyspecific direct antiglobulin test (DAT) are performed. IgG and C3 monospecific DATs are also performed if the polyspecific DAT is positive. To perform additional tests, clinical technologists used to communicate with the clinical department by telephone, and then the clinical doctor issued the orders.There could be problems with this process, such as clerical errors and reduced work efficiency. Therefore, this study developed the secondary order program to improve the work efficiency of the blood bank. @*Methods@#The secondary order program that allows the laboratory medicine doctors to issue additional test orders, print out barcodes in blood bank, and immediately report the results to the EMR (Electronic Medical Record) was developed. Before (Jul 2018∼Jun 2019) and after (Jul 2019∼Jun 2020) applying the program to inpatients, the number of telephone calls, Ab screening tests, Ab identification tests, polyspecific DAT, and monospecific DAT were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. @*Results@#After applying the program, 515 calls per year (average 43 calls per month) were reduced. Before the program, the results of 68 Ab screening tests and 16 polyspecific DATs were not reported on EMR, but no case was missed after the program. @*Conclusion@#Through the secondary order program, the work efficiency of the blood bank was improved. It is expected that expanding this program to other blood bank tests will help implement tests faster and make them more systematic.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901385

ABSTRACT

Angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare malignant sarcoma of endovascular origin that presents with various radiological findings. We encountered a case of angiosarcoma of the breast presenting as an irregular indistinct hyperechoic mass on ultrasonography, with a large single angiosarcoma of the spleen in a previously healthy 36-year-old female. Herein, we report the imaging and pathologic findings and review the literature.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896890

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity has increased alarmingly both worldwide and in Korea. This has also dramatically increased the prevalence of chronic obesity-associated diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Extensive studies on the molecular etiology of T2D have revealed several potential mechanisms by which obesity induces the development of insulin resistance and T2D. One of these is low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies hinting at the existence of this phenomenon were first published about 30 years ago. Ten years later, several seminal papers confirmed its existence, which then led to a rapid and massive escalation of research in this field. Today, the notion that obesity-induced inflammation mediates T2D is now well-accepted. This paper will review the key developments in this field, including the discovery that obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance is mainly regulated by adipose tissue-resident immune cells, particularly those in visceral adipose tissue. This review further details the research areas, including (1) the obesity-related factors that induce adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) inflammation, (2) the precise effector functions by which adipose tissue immune cells promote insulin resistance, (3) whether there are early immunological events that have an outsize effect on later events and could be targeted to arrest the development of insulin resistance, (4) the roles played by nonimmunological functions of ATMs and other immune cells, and (5) whether there are noncanonical immune responses to obesity (i.e., immune responses that are unique to obesity and cannot be detected by following the discoveries in the classical immunity field).

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896154

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894107

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended after curative surgery in patients with colon cancer of high-risk stage II and stage III. However, a considerable number of patients cannot complete the scheduled adjuvant treatment for various reasons. This study investigates the hindering factors to the adherence to adjuvant chemotherapy and their impact on long-term survival. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted for patients with colon cancer and had curative resection from 2009 to 2014. Among patients with pathologic stage II and III, stage II with low-risk features, double primary cancers, R2 resection cases were excluded. Patients were grouped into three groups: no-adjuvant therapy, adjuvant therapy for less than 3 months, and more than 3 months. Factors for withdrawal and the oncologic outcome were analyzed. @*Results@#Of 571 patients, adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 403. One hundred and sixteen patients (28.8%) did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, 78 (19.4%) withdrew within 3 months, and 209 (51.9%) maintained for more than 3 months. Factors for not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or withdrawing within 3 months were older than 70 and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or higher. Main reasons for discontinuation before 3 months were chemotoxicity and patient’s refusal. The long-term oncologic outcome of the patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy for more than 3 months was significantly better than others. @*Conclusion@#No-adjuvant therapy or receiving them for lesser than 3 months is significantly affected by the patient’s performance status and social support, which coincides with a poor oncologic outcome. Social support and rehabilitation system may help to improve the survival outcome.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894075

ABSTRACT

Background@#In the author’s blood bank, if the Ab screening test results are positive in the pretransfusion test, an Ab identification test and polyspecific direct antiglobulin test (DAT) are performed. IgG and C3 monospecific DATs are also performed if the polyspecific DAT is positive. To perform additional tests, clinical technologists used to communicate with the clinical department by telephone, and then the clinical doctor issued the orders.There could be problems with this process, such as clerical errors and reduced work efficiency. Therefore, this study developed the secondary order program to improve the work efficiency of the blood bank. @*Methods@#The secondary order program that allows the laboratory medicine doctors to issue additional test orders, print out barcodes in blood bank, and immediately report the results to the EMR (Electronic Medical Record) was developed. Before (Jul 2018∼Jun 2019) and after (Jul 2019∼Jun 2020) applying the program to inpatients, the number of telephone calls, Ab screening tests, Ab identification tests, polyspecific DAT, and monospecific DAT were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. @*Results@#After applying the program, 515 calls per year (average 43 calls per month) were reduced. Before the program, the results of 68 Ab screening tests and 16 polyspecific DATs were not reported on EMR, but no case was missed after the program. @*Conclusion@#Through the secondary order program, the work efficiency of the blood bank was improved. It is expected that expanding this program to other blood bank tests will help implement tests faster and make them more systematic.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893681

ABSTRACT

Angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare malignant sarcoma of endovascular origin that presents with various radiological findings. We encountered a case of angiosarcoma of the breast presenting as an irregular indistinct hyperechoic mass on ultrasonography, with a large single angiosarcoma of the spleen in a previously healthy 36-year-old female. Herein, we report the imaging and pathologic findings and review the literature.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889186

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity has increased alarmingly both worldwide and in Korea. This has also dramatically increased the prevalence of chronic obesity-associated diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Extensive studies on the molecular etiology of T2D have revealed several potential mechanisms by which obesity induces the development of insulin resistance and T2D. One of these is low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies hinting at the existence of this phenomenon were first published about 30 years ago. Ten years later, several seminal papers confirmed its existence, which then led to a rapid and massive escalation of research in this field. Today, the notion that obesity-induced inflammation mediates T2D is now well-accepted. This paper will review the key developments in this field, including the discovery that obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance is mainly regulated by adipose tissue-resident immune cells, particularly those in visceral adipose tissue. This review further details the research areas, including (1) the obesity-related factors that induce adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) inflammation, (2) the precise effector functions by which adipose tissue immune cells promote insulin resistance, (3) whether there are early immunological events that have an outsize effect on later events and could be targeted to arrest the development of insulin resistance, (4) the roles played by nonimmunological functions of ATMs and other immune cells, and (5) whether there are noncanonical immune responses to obesity (i.e., immune responses that are unique to obesity and cannot be detected by following the discoveries in the classical immunity field).

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genetic counseling (GC) provides many benefits, including the identification of patients appropriate for testing, patient education, and medical management. We evaluated the current status of and challenges faced by GC practitioners in Korean hospitals.METHODS: An electronic survey was designed and conducted in 52 certified laboratory physicians belonging to the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine, from August to September 2018. The questionnaires addressed three main categories of information: (1) current status of GC in hospitals; (2) essential qualifications of GC practitioners; and (3) challenges and perspectives for GC. Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze categorical data.RESULTS: Among a total of 52 participants who initially responded, 12 (23.1%) were performing GC either by direct or indirect care. GC clinics were opened regularly for one (33.3%) or more than three sessions (25.0%) per week; most respondents spent more time for pre-visit activities than in-person visits, both for a initial visit patient and for a follow-up visit patient. All laboratory physicians provided genetic information to their patients. Most recommended family genetic testing when indicated (91.7%), discussed disease management (75.0%), and/or ordered additional genetic testing (58.3%), and some referred patients to other specialists (8.3%).CONCLUSIONS: Both patients and laboratory physicians concede the advantage of GC performed by clinical geneticists; however, the practice of GC involves several challenges and raises some concerns. The cost and support required to implement GC need to be addressed in order to provide qualified GC in Korea.


Subject(s)
Disease Management , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Testing , Humans , Korea , Patient Education as Topic , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835115

ABSTRACT

This study describes the epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on reported cases from long-term care facilities. As of April 20th, 2020, 3 long-term care facilities in a metropolitan area of South Korea had reported cases of COVID-19. These facilities’ employees were presumed to be the sources of infection. There were 2 nursing hospitals that did not report any additional cases. One nursing home had a total of 25 cases, with an attack rate of 51.4% (95% CI 35.6–67.0), and a fatality rate of 38.9% (95% CI 20.3–61.4) among residents. The results from this study suggest that early detection and maintenance of infection control minimizes the risk of rapid transmission.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Evidence-based customized nutritional interventions are required for effective treatment of moderate to severe obese children and adolescents. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#Sixty six (64.1% of 103) of the eligible participants who joined the usual care or physical activity group in the clinic were involved in 16-week intervention. Customized nutritional intervention was implemented for each participant based on a nutrition care process (NCP) model. Sociodemographic assessment, anthropometrics data, health- and dietary-related behaviors, and dietary intake of the study subjects were assessed at baseline and follow-up. All participants engaged in 30-minute nutritional sessions on a monthly basis. @*RESULTS@#After 16 weeks, there were significant improvements in body composition [BMI (−0.8 ± 0.9, P < 0.05), BMI z-score (−0.3 ± 0.2, P < 0.001), body fat (kg) (−1.3 ± 2.1, P < 0.05), and body fat (%)(−1.5 ± 1.9, P < 0.05)] as well as macronutrient intake [total energy intake (kcal) (−563.7 ± 656.8, P < 0.05), energy (%) (−26.5 ± 30.0, P < 0.05) and fat (g) (−28.3 ± 40.6, P < 0.05)] in the adherent group than the non-adherent group. The SOC was higher in both groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results highlight the positive effects of an evidence-based approach as a multidisciplinary intervention for people-centered nutritional care and weight management.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904026

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) have the property to return to the bone marrow, which is believed to be critical in situations such as HSPC transplantation. This property plays an important role in the stemness, viability, and proliferation of HSPCs, also. However, most in vitro models so far have not sufficiently simulated the complicate environment. Here, we proposed a three-dimensional experimental platform for the quantitative study of the migration of HSPCs. @*Methods@#After encapsulating osteoblasts (OBs) in alginate beads, we quantified the migration of HSPCs into the beads due to the physical environment using digital image processing. Intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) was used to mimic the mechanical environment of human bone marrow without using any biochemical factors. The expression of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) under IHP was measured. @*Results@#The results showed that the presence of OBs in the hydrogel scaffold initiate the movement of HSPCs. Furthermore, the IHP promotes the migration of HSPCs, even without the addition of any biochemical factors, and the results were confirmed by measuring SDF-1 levels. @*Conclusion@#We believe this suggested three-dimensional experimental platform consisting of a simulated in vivo physical environment and encapsulated OBs should contribute to in vitro migration studies used to investigate the effects of other external factors.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892013

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study is to describe the changes in prescribing practices of antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Korea during 2010–2015. @*Methods@#The claim database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select adult patients (≥ 18 years of age) admitted between 2010 and 2015, with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes relevant to all-cause pneumonia for the first or second priority discharge diagnosis. The episodes with hospital-acquired or healthcare-associated pneumonia were excluded. Consumption of each antibiotic was converted to defined daily dose (DDD) per episode. The amount of antibiotic consumption was compared between patients with CAP aged < 65 years and those aged ≥ 65 years. @*Results@#The average amount of antibiotic consumption per episode was 15.5 DDD, which remained stable throughout the study period (P = 0.635). Patients aged ≥ 65 years received more antibiotics than those aged < 65 years (15.7 vs. 15.3 DDD). Third-generation cephalosporin (4.9 DDD/episode, 31.4%) was the most commonly prescribed, followed by macrolide (2.7 DDD/episode, 17.1%) and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor (BL/BLI) (2.1 DDD/episode, 13.6%). The consumption amount of fourth-generation cephalosporin (4th CEP) (P = 0.001), BL/BLI (P = 0.003) and carbapenem (P = 0.002) increased each year during the study period. The consumption of 4th CEP and carbapenem was doubled during 2010–2015. @*Conclusion@#The prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as 4th CEP and carbapenem to treat CAP increased in Korea during 2010–2015.

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