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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835838

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of e-health literacy in patients with chronic diseases on their healthcare provider-patient communication. @*Methods@#The participants were 184 patients with chronic illnesses admitted to a general hospital. Using a structured-questionnaire, data were collected from December 1 to 31, 2018.Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression with IBM SPSS/WIN 22.0. @*Results@#Healthcare provider-patient communication was positively correlated with e-health literacy (r=.87, p <.001). Factors influencing healthcare provider-patient communication were e-health literacy (β=.87, p <.001), subjective health statues (β=.17, p =.011), health concerns (β=-.15, p <.001), number of questions during the hospital treatment (β=.14, p=.003), and education (β=-.14, p =.048). The input variables explained 70.8% of healthcare provider-patient communication. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study suggest that healthcare providers should provide reliable online health information to patients and encourage health-oriented attitudes in order to communicate about health information that patients obtained from online.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764592

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review and synthesize the existing literature on the experience of nursing students in simulation. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken using meta-ethnography. Eight databases were searched up to January 2014 for peer-reviewed studies, written in Korean and English, that reported primary data, used identifiable and interpretative qualitative methods, and offered a valuable contribution to the synthesis. RESULTS: Nine studies were identified, with quality appraisal undertaken. Three key concepts were generated: ambivalence of simulation practice, learning by reflection, and building up of the competency as a future nurse. Six sub-concepts emerged: double sidedness of simulation setting; feeling ambivalence of simulation; learning from others; learning from self-reflection; improvement of confidence by role experience; and internalization of nursing knowledge. A line of argument has been developed based on the themes generated. CONCLUSION: The findings from this qualitative synthesis and other related literature indicated the importance of capability of educator and extension of the simulation system to facilitate effective simulation-based education.


Subject(s)
Education , Humans , Learning , Nursing , Students, Nursing
4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1001-1010, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run procedures of the KROG 17-06 study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two steps tested hippocampus contouring variability and radiation therapy planning compliance. In the first step, the variation of the hippocampus delineation was investigated for two representative cases using the Dice similarity coefficients. In the second step, the participating institutions were requested to generate a HS-WBRT with SIB treatment plan for another representative case. The compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the first step, the median Dice similarity coefficients of the hippocampus contours for two other dummy run cases changed from 0.669 (range, 0.073 to 0.712) to 0.690 (range, 0.522 to 0.750) and from 0.291 (range, 0.219 to 0.522) to 0.412 (range, 0.264 to 0.598) after providing the hippocampus contouring feedback. In the second step, with providing additional plan priority and extended dose constraints to the target volumes and normal structures, we observed the improved compliance of the treatment plans to the planning protocol. CONCLUSION: The dummy run studies demonstrated the notable inter-institutional variability in delineating the hippocampus and treatment plan generation, which could be decreased through feedback from the trial center.


Subject(s)
Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Compliance , Hippocampus , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess prognostic value of metastatic pelvic lymph node (mPLN) in early-stage cervical cancer treated with radical surgery followed by postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Also, we sought to define a high-risk group using prognosticators for recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted using the data from 13 Korean institutions from 2000 to 2010. A total of 249 IB-IIA patients with high-risk factors were included. We evaluated distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in relation to clinicopathologic factors including pNstage, number of mPLN, lymph node (LN)ratio (number of positive LN/number of harvested LN), and log odds of mPLNs (log(number of positive LN+0.5/number of negative LN+0.5)). RESULTS: In univariate analysis, histology (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC] vs. others), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of mPLNs (≤ 3 vs. > 3), LN ratio (≤ 17% vs. > 17%), and log odds of mPLNs (≤ -0.58 vs. > -0.58) were significant prognosticators for DMFS and DFS. Resection margin involvement only affected DFS. No significant survival difference was observed between pN0 patients and patients with 1-3 mPLNs. Multivariate analysis revealed that mPLN > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC were unfavorable index for both DMFS (p 3 in early-stage cervical cancer affects DMFS and DFS. A scoring system using mPLNs > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC could stratify risk groups of recurrence in surgically resected early-stage cervix cancer with high-risk factors.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718966

ABSTRACT

Three Stener-like lesions of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers and a rupture of the first dorsal interosseous muscle mimicking the lesion in the index finger were observed. Two cases in the little fingers had a true Stener's lesion. In one case in the index finger, the ruptured ligament was retracted and located under the intact sagittal band, which was also observed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rupture of the first dorsal interosseous muscle was misdiagnosed preoperatively as a Stener's lesion in the index finger by ultrasonography. MRI should be an essential differential diagnostic exam for collateral ligament ruptures of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers.


Subject(s)
Collateral Ligaments , Fingers , Ligaments , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metacarpophalangeal Joint , Rupture , Ultrasonography
9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 340-348, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52738

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting pelvic lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2009 to March 2015, 114 patients with FIGO stage IA1-IIB uterine cervical cancer who underwent hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and took CT, MRI, and PET/CT before surgery were enrolled in this study. The criteria for LN metastases were a LN diameter ≥1.0 cm and/or the presence of central necrosis on CT, a LN diameter ≥1.0 cm on MRI, and a focally increased FDG uptake on PET/CT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for pelvic LN metastases were estimated. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for detection of pelvic LN metastases were 51.4%, 85.9%, 41.3%, 90.1%, and 80.3% for CT; 24.3%, 96.3%, 56.3%, 86.8%, and 84.6% for MRI; and 48.6%, 89.5%, 47.4%, 90.0%, and 82.9% for PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity of PET/CT and CT was higher than that of MRI (p=0.004 and p= 0.013, respectively). The specificity of MRI was higher than those of PET/CT and CT (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively). The difference of specificity between PET/CT and CT was not statistically significant (p=0.167). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that preoperative CT, MRI, and PET/CT showed low to moderate sensitivity and PPV, and moderate to high specificity, NPV, and accuracy. More efforts are necessary to improve sensitivity of imaging modalities in order to predict pelvic LN metastases.


Subject(s)
Electrons , Humans , Hysterectomy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 265-272, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33375

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy using vaginal brachytherapy (VB) with a lower dose per fraction and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 43 patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I endometrial cancer who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery between March 2000 and April 2014. Of these, 25 received postoperative VB alone, while 18 received postoperative EBRT to the whole pelvis; 3 of these were treated with EBRT plus VB. The median EBRT dose was 50.0 Gy (45.0–50.4 Gy) and the VB dose was 24 Gy in 6 fractions. Tumor dose was prescribed at a depth of 5 mm from the cylinder surface and delivered twice per week. RESULTS: The median follow-up period for all patients was 57 months (range, 9 to 188 months). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 92.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed according to risk factors and stage IB, grade 3 and lymphovascular invasion were observed more frequently in the EBRT group. Five-year DFS for EBRT and VB alone were 88.1% and 96.0%, respectively (p = 0.42), and 5-year OS for EBRT and VB alone were 94.4% and 96%, respectively (p = 0.38). There was no locoregional recurrence in any patient. Two patients who received EBRT and 1 patient who received VB alone developed distant metastatic disease. Two patients who received EBRT had severe complications, one each of grade 3 gastrointestinal complication and pelvic bone insufficiency fracture. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant radiotherapy achieved high DFS and OS with acceptable toxicity in stage I endometrial cancer. VB (with a lower dose per fraction) may be a viable option for selected patients with early-stage endometrial cancer following surgery.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Stress , Gynecology , Humans , Obstetrics , Pelvic Bones , Pelvis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Recurrence , Risk Factors
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 109-116, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129484

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a single institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathologic data of 135 patients with clinical stage IA2 to IIA2 cervical cancer treated with PORT from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, retrospectively. Postoperative parametrial resection margin (PRM) and vaginal resection margin (VRM) were investigated separately. The median treatment dosage of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis was 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction. High-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy after EBRT was given to patients with positive or close VRMs. Concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 73 patients with positive resection margin, lymph node (LN) metastasis, or direct extension of parametrium. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for analyzing LRR, DM, and OS; Cox regression was applied to analyze prognostic factors. RESULTS: The 5-year disease-free survival was 79% and 5-year OS was 91%. In univariate analysis, positive or close PRM, LN metastasis, direct extension of parametrium, lymphovascular invasion, histology of adenocarcinoma, and chemotherapy were related with more DM and poor OS. In multivariate analysis, PRM and LN metastasis remained independent prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSION: PORT after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer showed excellent OS in this study. Positive or close PRM after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer correlates with poor prognosis even with CCRT. Therefore, additional treatments to improve local control such as radiation boosting need to be considered.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Brachytherapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hysterectomy , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pelvis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 109-116, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129469

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a single institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathologic data of 135 patients with clinical stage IA2 to IIA2 cervical cancer treated with PORT from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, retrospectively. Postoperative parametrial resection margin (PRM) and vaginal resection margin (VRM) were investigated separately. The median treatment dosage of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis was 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction. High-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy after EBRT was given to patients with positive or close VRMs. Concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 73 patients with positive resection margin, lymph node (LN) metastasis, or direct extension of parametrium. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for analyzing LRR, DM, and OS; Cox regression was applied to analyze prognostic factors. RESULTS: The 5-year disease-free survival was 79% and 5-year OS was 91%. In univariate analysis, positive or close PRM, LN metastasis, direct extension of parametrium, lymphovascular invasion, histology of adenocarcinoma, and chemotherapy were related with more DM and poor OS. In multivariate analysis, PRM and LN metastasis remained independent prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSION: PORT after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer showed excellent OS in this study. Positive or close PRM after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer correlates with poor prognosis even with CCRT. Therefore, additional treatments to improve local control such as radiation boosting need to be considered.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Brachytherapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hysterectomy , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pelvis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 191-198, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115568

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To observe long-term clinical outcomes for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including local control and clinical toxicities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 214 patients with stage I-II breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant breast radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. All patients were treated using forward IMRT. The whole breast was irradiated to a dose of 50 to 50.4 Gy followed by an 8 to 12 Gy electron boost to the surgical bed. RESULTS: The median age was 46 years (range, 21 to 82 years) and the medial follow-up time was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11.7 years). Stage T1 was 139 (65%) and T2 was 75 (35%), respectively. Ipsilateral breast recurrence was observed in 3 patients. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 99.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated according to the Harvard scale and 89.4% of patients were scored as excellent or good. CONCLUSION: The whole breast radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment using a forward IMRT technique showed excellent long-term local control as well as favorable outcomes of toxicity and cosmesis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
14.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 112-117, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Radiation therapy has multiple roles in the treatment of meningioma although surgery remains the primary treatment of choice. In this retrospective study, we report the results of radiation therapy for meningioma as definitive, postoperative or salvage therapies. METHODS: Seventeen patients diagnosed with meningioma were treated with radiation therapy in our institute from May 2000 to October 2009. Radiation therapies were performed as definitive therapies in 8 patients, as postoperative therapies in 5 and as salvage therapies in 4. Nine patients received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), 2 patients fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), and 5 patients 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Radiation dose were 12 to 20 Gy for SRS, 36 Gy in 9 fractions for FSRT and 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions for 3DCRT. Follow-up imaging study of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 6 to 12 months intervals and neurologic exam was performed with an interval less than 6 months. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 38 months (range, 12 to 85 months). Tumor progression after radiation therapy developed in one patient. The reduction of tumor volume measured on follow-up images were more than 20% in 4 patients and minimal change of tumor volume less than 20% were observed in 12 patients. Peritumoral edema developed in 4 patients and disappeared without any treatment. One patient had radiation necrosis. CONCLUSION: Our experience is consistent with the current understanding that radiotherapy is as an effective and safe treatment modality for meningiomas when the tumor cannot be resected completely or when recurred after surgery.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tumor Burden
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725505

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to categorize macrocalcifications into several subtypes by the US findings and to determine which type of macrocalcification in a thyroid nodule is associated with thyroid malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the macrocalcification patterns of thyroid nodules in 396 patients that underwent ultrasonography (US)-guided thyroid FNA or surgery in our institution between August 2009 and August 2011. Two radiologists evaluated US findings and categorized macrocalcifications into 5 subtyes : (A) solitary macrocalcification no association with thyroid nodule; (B) nodular macrocalcification(s) within indeterminate thyroid nodule; (C) dense macrocalcification without ability to interpret internal content by its posterior acoustic shadowing; (D) irregular-shaped macrocalcification(s); (E) macrocalcification with other suspicious malignant US finding(s). A chi-squared test and a Fisher exact test were used for comparison of categoric variables. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were obtained. RESULTS: Among total of 417 nodules, 114 (27.3%) were suspicious malignancy or malignancy on histopathological result. Macrocalcification with other malignant US feature had the highest incidence of malignancy (77.5%), followed by irregular-shaped macrocalcification(s) (43.9%), and dense macrocalcification without ability to interpret internal content by its posterior acoustic shadowing (38.5%), solitary macrocalcification no association with thyroid nodule (8.3%) respectively, and nodular macrocalcification(s) with indeterminate thyroid nodule had the lowest incidence (7.5%). A nodule with macrocalcification with other malignant US finding(s) has the highest odds ratio (42.52), followed by a nodule with irregular-shaped macrocalcification(s) (9.65) and dense macrocalcification (7.72). Leaving macrocalcification with compositive malignant findings aside, irregular-shaped macrocalcification is more likely to be associated with increased risk for malignancy compared with other patterns of macrocalcification. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular-shaped macrocalcification is a fine indicator for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules on ultrasonography.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Humans , Incidence , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Shadowing Technique, Histology , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99717

ABSTRACT

The analog image based system consisted of a simulator and medical linear accelerator (LINAC) for radiotherapy was upgraded to digital medical image based system by exchanging the X-ray film with Computed Radiography (CR). With minimum equipments shift and similar treatment process, it was possible that the new digital image system was adapted by the users in short time. The film cassette and the film developer device were substituted with a CR cassette and a CR Reader, where the ViewBox was replaced with a small size PC and a monitor. The viewer software suitable for radiotherapy was developed to maximize the benefit of digital image, and as the result the convenience and the effectiveness was improved. It has two windows to display two different images in the same time and equipped various search capability, contouring, window leveling, image resizing, translation, rotation and registration functions. In order to avoid any discontinuance of the treatment while the transition to digital image, the film and the CR was used together for 1 week, and then the film developer was removed. Since then the CR System has been operated stably for 2 months, and the various requests from users have been reflected to improve the system.


Subject(s)
Organothiophosphorus Compounds , Particle Accelerators , Radiation Oncology , X-Ray Film
17.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 181-190, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thoracic radiotherapy is a major treatment modality of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. The normal lung tissue is sensitive to radiation and radiation pneumonitis is the most important dose-limiting complication of thoracic radiation therapy. This study was performed to identify the clinical and dosimetric parameters related to the risk of radiation pneumonitis after definitive radiotherapy in stage III non-small cell cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records were reviewed for 49 patients who completed definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer from August 2000 to February 2010. Radiation therapy was delivered with the daily dose of 1.8 Gy to 2.0 Gy and the total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 Gy to 70.2 Gy (median, 61.2 Gy). Elective nodal irradiation was delivered at a dose of 45.0 Gy to 50.0 Gy. Seven patients (14.3%) were treated with radiation therapy alone and forty two patients (85.7%) were treated with chemotherapy either sequentially or concurrently. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases (51.0%) out of 49 cases experienced radiation pneumonitis. According to the radiation pneumonitis grade, 10 (20.4%) were grade 1, 9 (18.4%) were grade 2, 4 (8.2%) were grade 3, and 2 (4.1%) were grade 4. In the univariate analyses, no clinical factors including age, sex, performance status, smoking history, underlying lung disease, tumor location, total radiation dose and chemotherapy were associated with grade > or =2 radiation pneumonitis. In the subgroup analysis of the chemotherapy group, concurrent rather than sequential chemotherapy was significantly related to grade > or =2 radiation pneumonitis comparing sequential chemotherapy. In the univariate analysis with dosimetric factors, mean lung dose (MLD), V20, V30, V40, MLDipsi, V20ipsi, V30ipsi, and V40ipsi were associated with grade > or =2 radiation pneumonitis. In addition, multivariate analysis showed that MLD and V30 were independent predicting factors for grade > or =2 radiation pneumonitis. CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy, MLD and V30 were statistically significant predictors of grade > or =2 radiation pneumonitis in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy. The cutoff values for MLD and V30 were 16 Gy and 18%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Humans , Lung , Lung Diseases , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Radiation Pneumonitis , Smoke , Smoking
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this retrospective study was to identify predictive factors for the complete pathologic response and tumor downstaging after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between the years 2000 and 2008, 39 patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer without prior evidence of distant metastasis received preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45~59.4 Gy). Thirty-eight patients received concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin, while one patient received oral capecitabine twice daily during radiotherapy. RESULTS: A complete pathologic response (CR) was demonstrated in 12 of 39 patients (31%), while T-downstaging was observed in 24 of 39 patients (63%). N-downstaging was observed in 18 of 28 patients (64%), with a positive node in the CT scan or ultrasound. Two patients with clinical negative nodes were observed in surgical specimens. The results from a univariate analysis indicated that the tumor circumferential extent was less than 50% (p=0.031). Moreover, the length of the tumor was less than 5 cm (p=0.004), while the post-treatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were less than or equal to 3.0 ng/mL (p=0.015) and were significantly associated with high pathologic CR rates. The univariate analysis also indicated that the adenocarcinoma (p=0.045) and radiation dose greater than or equal to 50 Gy (p=0.021) were significantly associated with high T-downstaging, while a radiotherapy duration of less than or equal to 42 days (p=0.018) was significantly associated with N-downstaging. The results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the lesser circumferential extent of the tumor (hazard ratio [HR], 0.150; p=0.028) and shorter tumor length (HR, 0.084; p=0.005) independently predicted a higher pathologic CR. The multivariate analysis also indicated that a higher radiation dose was significantly associated with higher T-downstaging (HR, 0.115; p=0.025), while the shorter duration of radiotherapy was significantly associated with higher N-downstaging (HR, 0.028; p=0.010). CONCLUSION: The circumferential extent of the tumor and its length was a predictor for the pathologic CR, while radiation dose and duration of radiotherapy were predictors for tumor downstaging. Hence, these factors may be used to predict outcomes for patients and to develop further treatment guidelines for high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Chemoradiotherapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rectal Neoplasms
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were found to reduce the incidence of acute and late rectal toxicity compared with conventional radiation therapy (RT), although acute and late urinary toxicities were not reduced significantly. Acute urinary toxicity, even at a low-grade, not only has an impact on a patient's quality of life, but also can be used as a predictor for chronic urinary toxicity. With bladder filling, part of the bladder moves away from the radiation field, resulting in a small irradiated bladder volume; hence, urinary toxicity can be decreased. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of bladder volume on acute urinary toxicity during RT in patients with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty two patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were treated by 3DCRT and of these, 21 patients made up a control group treated without any instruction to control the bladder volume. The remaining 21 patients in the experimental group were treated with a full bladder after drinking 450 mL of water an hour before treatment. We measured the bladder volume by CT and ultrasound at simulation to validate the accuracy of ultrasound. During the treatment period, we measured bladder volume weekly by ultrasound, for the experimental group, to evaluate the variation of the bladder volume. RESULTS: A significant correlation between the bladder volume measured by CT and ultrasound was observed. The bladder volume in the experimental group varied with each patient despite drinking the same amount of water. Although weekly variations of the bladder volume were very high, larger initial CT volumes were associated with larger mean weekly bladder volumes. The mean bladder volume was 299+/-155 mL in the experimental group, as opposed to 187+/-155 mL in the control group. Patients in experimental group experienced less acute urinary toxicities than in control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. A trend of reduced toxicity was observed with the increase of CT bladder volume. In patients with bladder volumes greater than 150 mL at simulation, toxicity rates of all grades were significantly lower than in patients with bladder volume less than 150 mL. Also, patients with a mean bladder volume larger than 100 mL during treatment showed a slightly reduced Grade 1 urinary toxicity rate compared to patients with a mean bladder volume smaller than 100 mL. CONCLUSION: Despite the large variability in bladder volume during the treatment period, treating patients with a full bladder reduced acute urinary toxicities in patients with prostate cancer. We recommend that patients with prostate cancer undergo treatment with a full bladder.


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