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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831786

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China; it has since caused a pandemic, with more than 10,000 confirmed cases (> 800,000 tests) in Korea as of May 2020. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the most commonly used method for the diagnosis of COVID-19 worldwide. The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine and Korea Centers for Disease Prevention and Control regularly update the guidelines for COVID-19 diagnosis. Emergency use authorization for some laboratory diagnostic kits has been granted, enabling the timely diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, and the isolation of infected patients. Due to the collective efforts of the government, medical professionals, local authorities, and the public, Korea’s response to the COVID-19 outbreak has been accepted widely as a model. Here, we summarize the currently available laboratory tests for COVID-19 diagnosis. Although RT-PCR tests are used widely to confirm COVID-19, antibody tests could provide information about immune responses to the virus.

2.
Blood Research ; : 52-56, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Granulocyte transfusion (GTx) is performed as a supportive therapy in severe neutropenic patients caused by various conditions. The study aimed to analyze the hematologic parameters of donors, patients, and granulocyte concentrates to predict successful GTx. METHODS: This study was performed in 281 donors, with their granulocyte concentrates being collected through apheresis, and in 54 severe neutropenic patients who had various hematologic diseases. Complete blood cell counts of donors pre- and post-apheresis, granulocyte concentrates, and patients pre- and post-GTx were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to survival at discharge (Group S, survival; Group D, dead) to compare various factors including age, infection status, pre- and post-GTx total white blood cell counts (TWBCC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), total number of GTx, infused TWBCC and ANC per weight, and use of G-CSF during therapy. RESULTS: Overall data of patients showed that both TWBCC and ANC were significantly increased after GTx (median values at pre-GTx, TWBCC=0.40×109/L, ANC=0.14×109/L; post-GTx, TWBCC=0.57×109/L, ANC=0.29×109/L, both P<0.0001). After GTx, Group S (N=25) showed significantly higher TWBCC and ANC than Group D (N=29) (P=0.01 and P=0.04, respectively). Using different cutoff levels, post-GTx TWBCC greater than 0.5×109/L showed statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). None of the other factors showed statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: The TWBCC and ANC after GTx were significant factors to predict patients' outcome. Therefore, follow-up of those two parameters may be helpful to select or consider other therapeutic modalities including additional GTx.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , Blood Component Removal , Follow-Up Studies , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Tissue Donors
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762437

ABSTRACT

ELISAs and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing dengue virus (DENV) infection. Using 138 single blood samples, we compared the ability to detect non-structural (NS)-1 antigen and anti-DENV IgM/IgG antibodies among (1) DENV Detect NS1 ELISA, DENV Detect IgM capture ELISA and DENV Detect IgG ELISA (InBios International, Inc.); (2) Anti-Dengue virus IgM Human ELISA and Anti-Dengue virus IgG Human ELISA (Abcam); (3) Dengue virus NS1 ELISA, Anti-Dengue virus ELISA (IgM) and Anti-Dengue virus ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun); (4) Asan Easy Test Dengue NS1 Ag 100 and Asan Easy Test Dengue IgG/IgM (Asan Pharm); (5) SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo (Standard Diagnostics); and (6) Ichroma Dengue NS1 and Ichroma Dengue IgG/IgM (Boditech Med). For NS1 antigen detection, InBios and Euroimmun showed higher sensitivities (100%) than the RDTs (42.9–64.3%). All tests demonstrated variable sensitivities for IgM (38.1–90.5%) and IgG (65.7–100.0%). InBios and Boditech Med demonstrated higher sensitivity (95.6% and 88.2%, respectively) than the other tests for combined NS1 antigen and IgM antibody. Five NS1 antigen tests had good agreement (92.8–98.6%) without showing positivity for chikungunya. However, all IgG tests demonstrated potential false-positivity with variable ranges. Clinical laboratories should note performance variations across tests and potential cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is an essential practice during surgery to accommodate for bleeding. As such, there are efforts being made to allow for a safe and appropriate transfusion due to shortages of blood components and to minimize transfusion-related adverse reactions. However, a conventional transfusion decision with relatively high hemoglobin (Hb) threshold is still performed in clinical setting. In this study, we investigated the threshold of Hblevel and appropriateness of RBC transfusion in patients receiving perioperative RBC transfusion in surgical departments. METHODS: We investigated the pre-transfusion Hb level of 1,379 patients (2,170 episodes) receiving perioperative RBC transfusion in five surgical departments, including cardiothoracic surgery (CS), general surgery (GS), neurosurgery (NS), obstetrics and gynecology (OBGY), and orthopedics (OS), between June 2017 and March 2018. The appropriateness of transfusion was evaluated with two criteria: 1) pretransfusion Hb level ≤10 g/dL and 2) posttransfusion Hb level ≤10 g/dL. RESULTS: The median pretransfusion Hb level was 8.5 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7~9.4); that of each department was as follows: 8.6 g/dL (7.9~9.2) in CS, 7.9 g/dL (7.3~8.6) in GS, 9.1 g/dL (8.5~9.8) in NS, 8.5 g/dL (7.7~9.8) in OBGY, and 8.7 g/dL (7.9~9.7) in OS. With a criteria of pretransfusion of Hb level ≤10 g/dL, 85.4% of total episodes were appropriate. With criteria of post-transfusion of Hb level ≤10 g/dL, 44.7% were appropriate. CONCLUSION: This study presents a fundamental data observing the trend of RBC transfusion in a single institution. A significant proportion of inappropriate RBC transfusion are still being conducted in surgical setting. Continuous and effective education of clinicians and implementation of monitoring systems to assess the appropriateness of RBC transfusion may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Education , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Gynecology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Neurosurgery , Obstetrics , Orthopedics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the tumor markers available for evaluating disease progression status after initial therapy and monitoring subsequent treatment modalities in colorectal, gastrointestinal, lung, and breast carcinoma. We evaluated the correlations and differences between widely used, automated CEA immunoassays at four different medical laboratories. METHODS: In total, 393 serum samples with CEA ranging from 3.0 to 1,000 ng/mL were analyzed on ADVIA Centaur XP (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA), ARCHITECT i2000sr (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA), Elecsys E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA), and Unicel DxI800 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA), and the results were compared. Deming regression, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the data correlation and % differences among these assays. RESULTS: Deming regression analysis of data from Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800 showed good correlation (y=3.1615+0.8970x). According to Bland-Altman plot, no statistically significant bias (−1.78 ng/mL [95% confidence interval: −4.02 to 0.46]) was observed between Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800. However, the relative differences of CEA concentrations between assays exceeded the acceptable limit of 30%. Regarding the agreement of positivity with cut-off value 5.0 ng/mL, ARCHITECT i2000sr and Elecsys E170 showed the highest agreement (95.2%), whereas ADVIA Centaur XP and ARCHITECT i2000sr showed the lowest agreement (70.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Agreements between automated CEA immunoassays are variable, and individual CEA concentrations may differ significantly between assays. Standardization of serum CEA concentrations and further harmonization are needed.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Disease Progression , Immunoassay , Lung , Statistics as Topic
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many companies have developed different methods and products for allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests. Because there is no standardised reference method, external quality assessment (EQA) is important for allergen-specific IgE test to ensure the comparability and reliability of the results from different laboratories. We prepared specimens for EQA of allergen-specific IgE tests and evaluated their stability. METHODS: Four pooled sera with 24 selected allergen-specific IgE levels were prepared and stored at −80℃. The stability of allergen-specific IgE levels was assessed on days 1, 7, and 14 at −20℃, 2℃ to 8℃, and 20℃ to 25℃, and then after 3 months at −80℃. Mock proficiency tests were performed with the four sets of prepared external quality controls for six laboratories, using the commercial multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) methodology. RESULTS: About 150 specimens (650 µL each) for EQA were prepared; randomly selected specimens showed similar IgE levels for the 24 allergens (±1 class). The levels of allergen-specific IgE remained stable throughout the study period (P>0.05). Although mock survey results from six laboratories using four MAST assays revealed some variability with a difference (2–3 class), no consistent differences were observed through the allergens or MAST methods. Qualitative results from the mock survey showed 85.4% (cut-off of class 1) and 81.3% (cut-off of class 2) concordance with the results from ImmunoCAP (Phadia, Sweden). CONCLUSIONS: The pooled sera prepared for allergen-specific IgE tests might be adequate and useful for EQA.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Methods , Quality Control
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interaction between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and HLA class I regulates natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and function. The impact of NK cell alloreactivity through KIR in liver transplantation remains unelucidated. Since the frequency of HLA-C and KIR genotypes show ethnic differences, we assessed the impact of HLA-C, KIR genotype, or KIR-ligand mismatch on the allograft outcome of Korean liver allografts. METHODS: One hundred eighty-two living donor liver transplant patients were studied. Thirty-five patients (19.2%) had biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (AR), and eighteen (9.9%) had graft failure. The HLA-C compatibility, KIR genotypes, ligand-ligand, and KIR-ligand matching was retrospectively investigated for association with allograft outcomes. RESULTS: Homozygous C1 ligands were predominant in both patients and donors, and frequency of the HLA-C2 allele in Koreans was lower than that in other ethnic groups. Despite the significantly lower frequency of the HLA-C2 genotype in Koreans, donors with at least one HLA-C2 allele showed higher rates of AR than donors with no HLA-C2 alleles (29.2% vs 15.7%, P=0.0423). Although KIR genotypes also showed ethnic differences, KIR genotypes and the number of activating KIR/inhibitory KIR were not associated with the allograft outcome. KIR-ligand mismatch was expected in 31.6% of Korean liver transplants and had no impact on AR or graft survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study could not confirm the clinical impact of KIR genotypes and KIR-ligand mismatch. However, we demonstrated that the presence of HLA-C2 allele in the donor influenced AR of Korean liver allografts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alleles , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Female , Genotype , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , Homozygote , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Ligands , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, KIR/chemistry , Republic of Korea , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of p16 methylation and determine the prognostic implications of the clinical data, hematologic data, and p16 methylation changes in plasma cell myeloma (PCM). METHODS: We reviewed clinical characteristics and results of laboratory tests and investigated the response to combination chemotherapy and survival time. DNA methylation of the p16 gene was tested by methylation-specific PCR. Clinical significance was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were enrolled in this study. The median patient age was 59.0 yr at diagnosis and the male to female ratio was 1.15:1. According to the International Staging System (ISS), patients were diagnosed as stage: I (N=17, 16.5%), II (N=41, 39.8%), III (N=39, 37.9%), or not classified (N=6). Forty-five (43.7%) patients and 36 (35.0%) patients showed abnormal karyotype and complex karyotype, respectively, on the chromosome study. The p16 methylation was observed in 39 (37.9%) of 103 patients, but there was no significant association between p16 methylation status and other clinical or laboratory factors and survival outcome. Male gender, albumin, and complex karyotype were independent prognostic factors for overall survival according to multivariate analysis (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The male gender, low serum albumin level, and complex karyotype were independent poor prognostic factors for PCM. p16 methylation was relatively common in PCM, but did not influence the survival outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/genetics , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Karyotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Serum Albumin/analysis , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We reviewed patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in order to assess the incidence of genetic abnormalities and their associations with clinical parameters, risk groups, and prognosis. METHODS: A total of 130 patients with MM were enrolled. The incidences of genetic abnormalities were determined in all patients. The relationships of the genetic abnormalities and clinical parameters were investigated. In addition, a survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 42.3% (N=55) of the patients, and this was increased to 63.1% (N=82) after including the results determined with interphase FISH. Hypodiploidy was observed in 7.7% (N=10) of the patients, and all were included in the group with complex karyotypes (30.8%, N=40). The 14q32 rearrangements were detected in 29.2% (N=38) of the patients, and these most commonly included t(11;14), which was followed by t(4;14) and t(14;16) (16.2%, 11.5%, and 0.8%, respectively). Abnormal karyotypes and complex karyotypes were associated with disease progression markers, including low hemoglobin levels, low platelet counts, high plasma cell burden, high beta2-microglobulin, and high international staging system stages. A high free light chain (FLC) ratio and FLC difference were associated with abnormal karyotypes, complex karyotypes, and higher plasma cell burden. Hypodiploidy and low platelet counts were significant independent prognostic factors and were more important in patient outcome than any single abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic abnormalities were associated with disease progression markers and prognosis of MM patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Karyotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , Platelet Count , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Survival Analysis , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22363

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In children with acute leukemia, bone marrow genetic abnormalities (GA) have prognostic significance, and may be the basis for minimal residual disease monitoring. Since April 2007, we have used a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tool (HemaVision) to detect of GA. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the results of HemaVision screening in 270 children with acute leukemia, newly diagnosed at The Catholic University of Korea from April 2007 to December 2011, and compared the results with those of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and G-band karyotyping. RESULTS: Among the 270 children (153 males, 117 females), 187 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 74 acute myeloid leukemia patients were identified. Overall, GA was detected in 230 patients (85.2%). HemaVision, FISH, and G-band karyotyping identified GA in 125 (46.3%), 126 (46.7%), and 215 patients (79.6%), respectively. TEL-AML1 (20.9%, 39/187) and AML1-ETO (27%, 20/74) were the most common GA in ALL and AML, respectively. Overall sensitivity of HemaVision was 98.4%, with false-negative results in 2 instances: 1 each for TEL-AML1 and MLL-AF4. An aggregate of diseasesspecific FISH showed 100% sensitivity in detection of GA covered by HemaVision for actual probes utilized. G-band karyotype revealed GA other than those covered by HemaVison screening in 133 patients (49.3%). Except for hyperdiplody and hypodiploidy, recurrent GA as defined by the World Health Organizationthat were not screened by HemaVision, were absent in the karyotype. CONCLUSION: HemaVision, supported by an aggregate of FISH tests for important translocations, may allow for accurate diagnosis of GA in Korean children with acute leukemia.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Child , Fluorescence , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Korea , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Global Health
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reticulocyte count is a good marker of erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow. In the mid-1990s, automated flow cytometric analysis replaced microscopy for the quantification of reticulocytes. Leukocytosis cases with an erroneously high reticulocyte count and a high immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) have been reported. In this study, we analyzed reticulocyte counts in leukocytosis samples, in an effort to identify a correction method. METHODS: The study comprised of 21 samples from 16 leukocytosis patients. Results of reticulocyte analyses obtained using a XE-2100 hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Japan) were compared with those obtained using the supravital staining technique, which is a reference method. If the samples showed erroneously high reticulocyte counts and IRF, they were reanalyzed after serial dilution with isotonic solution. RESULTS: Five samples from 4 patients showed erroneously elevated reticulocyte counts and/or IRF on the XE-2100 analyzer. They displayed abnormal reticulocyte scattergrams, with 4 of 5 cases indicated by a flag. The white blood cell (WBC) fractions overlapped with the reticulocyte regions, especially with the IRF. Diagnoses and blast counts were variable when such errors occurred; WBC counts varied from 218.19x10(9)/L to 725.14x10(9)/L. The errors were corrected by simple dilution with isotonic solution. However, the corrective WBC counts differed according to individual cases. CONCLUSIONS: When leukocytosis samples exhibit an abnormal reticulocyte scattergram with a flag, or an abnormally high IRF, we recommend the dilution of the sample with isotonic solution to a WBC count of about 100.00x10(9)/L, followed by reanalysis of the reticulocyte count and reticulocyte scattergram.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematology analyzers may ineffectively recognize abnormal cells, and manual differential counts may be imprecise for leukopenic samples. We evaluated the efficacy of the Hematoflow method for determining the leukocyte differential in leukopenic samples and compared this method with the manual differential method. METHODS: We selected 249 blood samples from 167 patients with leukopenia (WBC counts, 500-2,000/microL) for analysis in this study. The EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples were analyzed using an automatic blood cell counter (DxH800; Beckman Coulter, USA) and flow cytometry (FC 500; Beckman Coulter) by using Cytodiff reagent and analysis software (Beckman Coulter). Hematoflow results were selected or calculated from DxH800 and Cytodiff results. Two trained pathologists performed a manual differential count by counting 50-100 cells. RESULTS: The precision of the Hematoflow method was superior to that of the manual method in counting 5 leukocyte subpopulations, immature granulocytes (IGs), and blasts. Blasts were detected in all 45 cases (100%) by Hematoflow. The correlation of the Cytodiff blast count to the reference count was high (r = 0.8325). For all other cell populations, the correlation of the Hematoflow results with the reference count was stronger than that of the other manual counts with the reference count. CONCLUSIONS: The Hematoflow differential counting method is more reproducible and sensitive than manual counting, and is relatively easy to perform. In particular, this method detected leukemic blasts more sensitively than manual differential counts. The Hematoflow method is a very useful supplement to automated cell counting.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Granulocytes/cytology , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count/methods , Leukocytes/cytology , Leukopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Software
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematology analyzers may ineffectively recognize abnormal cells, and manual differential counts may be imprecise for leukopenic samples. We evaluated the efficacy of the Hematoflow method for determining the leukocyte differential in leukopenic samples and compared this method with the manual differential method. METHODS: We selected 249 blood samples from 167 patients with leukopenia (WBC counts, 500-2,000/microL) for analysis in this study. The EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples were analyzed using an automatic blood cell counter (DxH800; Beckman Coulter, USA) and flow cytometry (FC 500; Beckman Coulter) by using Cytodiff reagent and analysis software (Beckman Coulter). Hematoflow results were selected or calculated from DxH800 and Cytodiff results. Two trained pathologists performed a manual differential count by counting 50-100 cells. RESULTS: The precision of the Hematoflow method was superior to that of the manual method in counting 5 leukocyte subpopulations, immature granulocytes (IGs), and blasts. Blasts were detected in all 45 cases (100%) by Hematoflow. The correlation of the Cytodiff blast count to the reference count was high (r = 0.8325). For all other cell populations, the correlation of the Hematoflow results with the reference count was stronger than that of the other manual counts with the reference count. CONCLUSIONS: The Hematoflow differential counting method is more reproducible and sensitive than manual counting, and is relatively easy to perform. In particular, this method detected leukemic blasts more sensitively than manual differential counts. The Hematoflow method is a very useful supplement to automated cell counting.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Granulocytes/cytology , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count/methods , Leukocytes/cytology , Leukopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Software
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. METHODS: Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). RESULTS: Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368+/-42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030+/-48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750+/-48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211+/-29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436+/-21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. CONCLUSIONS: NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Protein Binding , Radioimmunotherapy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. METHODS: Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). RESULTS: Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368+/-42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030+/-48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750+/-48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211+/-29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436+/-21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. CONCLUSIONS: NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Protein Binding , Radioimmunotherapy , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The JAK2 V617F mutation has been noted in the cases of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis patients. This mutation occurs less frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other hematologic diseases, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); myelodysplatic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U); and refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with hematologic diseases other than MPN who visited Seoul St Mary's Hospital from January 2007 to February 2010 were selected. A total of 43 patients were enrolled in this study: 12 MDS, 9 MDS/MPN-U, 7 RARS-T, and 15 AML patients. The diseases were diagnosed according to the 2008 WHO classification criteria. Data obtained from JAK2 V617F mutation analysis and cytogenetic study as well as complete blood count and clinical data were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 43 patients, 6 (13.9%) harbored the JAK2 V617F mutation. The incidence of the JAK2 V617F mutation in each patient group was as follows: 8.3% (1/12), MDS; 22.2% (2/9), MDS/MPN-U; 14.3% (1/7), RARS-T; and 13.3%, (2/15) AML. The platelet count was higher than 450x10(9)/L in 3 of the 6 patients (50%) harboring the JAK2 V617F mutation, and it was in the normal range in the remaining 3 patients. Among the 6 patients, 1 MDS and 1 MDS/MPN-U patients had the 46,XX,del(20)(q11.2) karyotype. CONCLUSION: The JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with an increased platelet count in MDS, MDS/MPN-U, RARS-T, and AML patients. Cytogenetic abnormalities of del(20)(q11.2) occurred in 1/3 of patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation but further studies are required to confirm this association.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Refractory , Blood Cell Count , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Incidence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Platelet Count , Polycythemia Vera , Primary Myelofibrosis , Reference Values , Thrombocythemia, Essential , Thrombocytosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720268

ABSTRACT

A subgroup of acute leukemia with morphology resembling acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) shows variant translocations involving RARA and has a different morphology from that of classical APL. The variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA subgroup has been reported to have leukemic cells with regular nuclei, many granules, absence of Auer rods, an increased number of Pelgeroid neutrophils, strong myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and all-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) resistance. Here, we report a case of variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA showing typical morphological features of classical APL, including numerous Auer rods and faggot cells. The leukemic cells expressed CD13, CD33, CD117, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and cytoplasmic-MPO on the immunophenotyping study. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular studies. To distinguish variant APL cases from classical APL cases, regardless of whether morphologically the findings are consistent with those of classical APL, combining morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular studies before chemotherapy is very important.


Subject(s)
Cytogenetics , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocytes , Neutrophils , Peroxidase
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