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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 580-591, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976691

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of second non-breast primary cancer (SNBPC) among Korean survivors of breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service were searched to identify women who received curative surgery for initial breast cancer (IBC) between 2003 and 2008 (n=64,340). Among them, patients with the following characteristics were excluded: other cancer diagnosis before IBC (n=10,866), radiotherapy before IBC (n=349), absence of data on sex or age (n=371), or male (n=248). Accordingly, data of 52,506 women until December 2017 were analyzed. SNBPC was defined as a newly diagnosed SNBPC that occurred 5 years or more after IBC diagnosis. @*Results@#The median follow-up time of all patients was 12.13 years. SNBPC was developed in 3,084 (5.87%) women after a median of 7.61 years following IBC diagnosis. The 10-year incidence of SNBPC was 5.78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.56 to 6.00). Higher SNBPC incidence was found in survivors with the following factors: old age at IBC diagnosis, low household income, and receiving combined chemotherapy with endocrine therapy, whereas receiving radiotherapy was related to a lower incidence of SNBPC (hazard ratio, 0.89; p < 0.01). Among the patients with SNBPC, the 5-year survival rate was 62.28% (95% CI, 65.53 to 69.02). @*Conclusion@#Approximately 5% of breast cancer survivors developed SNBPC within 10 years after IBC diagnosis. The risk of SNBPC was associated with patient’s age at IBC diagnosis, income level, and a receipt of systemic treatments.

2.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 52-55, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894100

ABSTRACT

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a life-threatening complication secondary to oropharyngeal abscesses, cervical esophageal perforation, or neck infections spreading along the fascial planes into the mediastinum. Post-thyroidectomy surgical site infection is a highly unusual complication that is typically localized around the incision, but may be propagated into the mediastinum, causing DNM. We encountered a case of this rare complication after thyroidectomy. The patient was a 33-year-old woman who was admitted to our center for left hemithyroidectomy. The surgery was performed without any intraoperative events. However, she later developed fever, hypotension, and tachycardia. Imaging revealed deep neck emphysema and focal pneumomediastinum with infiltration in the anterior neck and mediastinum with abscess formation. Additional imaging at 7 days postoperatively revealed reduced fluid collection deep in the neck with minimal changes in fluid collection in the mediastinum. Esophageal perforation was excluded via an esophagogram, which lead to the conclusion that the infection may have been caused by open thyroidectomy. The patient was treated with prompt medical and surgical intervention. After treatment, she was discharged from the hospital with no further complications. We present our case report as well as a literature review of the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

3.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 52-55, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901804

ABSTRACT

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a life-threatening complication secondary to oropharyngeal abscesses, cervical esophageal perforation, or neck infections spreading along the fascial planes into the mediastinum. Post-thyroidectomy surgical site infection is a highly unusual complication that is typically localized around the incision, but may be propagated into the mediastinum, causing DNM. We encountered a case of this rare complication after thyroidectomy. The patient was a 33-year-old woman who was admitted to our center for left hemithyroidectomy. The surgery was performed without any intraoperative events. However, she later developed fever, hypotension, and tachycardia. Imaging revealed deep neck emphysema and focal pneumomediastinum with infiltration in the anterior neck and mediastinum with abscess formation. Additional imaging at 7 days postoperatively revealed reduced fluid collection deep in the neck with minimal changes in fluid collection in the mediastinum. Esophageal perforation was excluded via an esophagogram, which lead to the conclusion that the infection may have been caused by open thyroidectomy. The patient was treated with prompt medical and surgical intervention. After treatment, she was discharged from the hospital with no further complications. We present our case report as well as a literature review of the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

4.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 26-29, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899024

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a well-established staging procedure for patients with early breast cancer who have clinically negative axillary lymph node. However, no consensus exists about the number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) that should be removed based on radioactivity counts in breast cancer. We reviewed and analyzed cases in which more than one SLN was detected and there was at least one pathologically positive node. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied breast cancer patients who underwent lymphoscintigraphy with injection of a radioactive colloid and SLNB along with intraoperative determination of radioactive counts of lymph nodes using a gamma probe between 2006 and 2018. In total 326 patients with more than one radioactive SLN were enrolled in this study. @*Results@#Fifty-four patients had nodal metastases, of whom 46 (85.2%) had metastases in the hottest lymph node. All metastatic SLNs were identified as one of the first three lymph nodes dissected. The lowest radioactive count of a positive SLN corresponded to 10% of that of the hottest node. @*Conclusion@#We suggest that removal of the first three lymph nodes or nodes covered by the “10% rule” is sufficient in SLNB for patients with breast cancer.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

6.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 26-29, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891320

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a well-established staging procedure for patients with early breast cancer who have clinically negative axillary lymph node. However, no consensus exists about the number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) that should be removed based on radioactivity counts in breast cancer. We reviewed and analyzed cases in which more than one SLN was detected and there was at least one pathologically positive node. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied breast cancer patients who underwent lymphoscintigraphy with injection of a radioactive colloid and SLNB along with intraoperative determination of radioactive counts of lymph nodes using a gamma probe between 2006 and 2018. In total 326 patients with more than one radioactive SLN were enrolled in this study. @*Results@#Fifty-four patients had nodal metastases, of whom 46 (85.2%) had metastases in the hottest lymph node. All metastatic SLNs were identified as one of the first three lymph nodes dissected. The lowest radioactive count of a positive SLN corresponded to 10% of that of the hottest node. @*Conclusion@#We suggest that removal of the first three lymph nodes or nodes covered by the “10% rule” is sufficient in SLNB for patients with breast cancer.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 288-296, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716747

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) is induced by hypoxia and hypothermia. Recently, high expression of RBM3 was reported to be associated with a good prognosis in colon cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, and malignant melanoma. Studies on RBM3 in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC), however, are limited. METHODS: RBM3 expression was examined using a tissue microarray from 361 patients with IBC. Immunohistochemistry was performed for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 to compare the expression of these markers. For scoring of RBM3 expression, NF (nuclear staining fraction)×NI (nuclear staining intensity) was used. The RBM3 expression score was considered indicative of either low (≤4) or high (>4) expression. Western blot analysis was performed on breast cancer cell lines to evaluate RBM3 expression. RESULTS: Of the total 361 samples, 240 (66.5%) exhibited high RBM3 expression. High RBM3 expression was significantly associated with positivity for ER (p < 0.001), PR (p < 0.001), T stage (p < 0.001), histologic grade (p < 0.001), and % Ki-67 staining (p=0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that high RBM3 expression was closely associated with prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) (p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Western blot analysis revealed reduced RBM3 expression in HCC1954 (HER2-enriched) and BT-20 (basal-like) cells with an aggressive phenotype. CONCLUSION: High nuclear RBM3 expression is strongly associated with a prolonged DFS and OS. Furthermore, RBM3 expression is closely associated with good prognostic markers such as ER and PR in IBC. High nuclear RBM3 expression is, therefore, a critical biomarker of favorable clinical outcomes in IBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypoxia , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Line , Colonic Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Hypothermia , Immunohistochemistry , Melanoma , Multivariate Analysis , Ovarian Neoplasms , Phenotype , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , RNA-Binding Proteins
9.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 24-27, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646619

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report five cases of occult breast cancer treated with axillary node dissection only, without breast surgery or whole breast radio-therapy. The patients complained of a large, hard mass in the axillary area, although no breast masses were palpable. Biopsy of the axillary mass was performed in each case, and histological examination showed a metastatic carcinoma. No malignant findings were observed by mammography or ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging and systemic examinations revealed no extramammary primary lesions. All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection without breast surgery, and were administered adjuvant chemotherapy but not whole breast radiation therapy. The median follow-up period was 56 months (range, 15–241 months). The patients were all alive with no evidence of disease at the end of the follow-up period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axilla , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Ultrasonography
10.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 1-9, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99612

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nodal infiltration has been one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. In recent decades, risk stratification has greatly changed, and is applied in accordance with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. We compared the prognostic power of tumor subtype to nodal involvement in early breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 505 patients who had curative surgery for stage I or II breast cancer. We analyzed clinicopathologic factors according to tumor subtype and nodal involvement. Tumors were classified into 4 subtypes according to immunohistochemical status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki67 labeling index. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 363 node-negative patients (71.9%) and 142 node-positive patients (28.1%). Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2, and triple-negative breast cancer subtypes were composed of 207 (41.0%), 147 (29.1%), 42 (8.3%), and 109 patients (21.6%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 89.5 months. Node negative-luminal A subtype showed the best prognosis with regard to 5-year DFS, and the pN1-triple negative subtype was associated with the shortest DFS (95.1% vs. 67.8%; hazard ratio, 9.554; P < 0.001). However, the node negative-triple negative subtype was associated with a worse 5-year DFS than the pN1-luminal A subtype ([86.4%; hazard ratio, 2.647; P = 0.048] vs. [93.2%; hazard ratio, 2.061; P = 0.194]). CONCLUSION: Node negative-triple negative breast cancer was associated with a poorer prognosis than pN1-luminal A subtype. Tumor subtype has greater prognostic power compared to nodal status in early breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphatic Metastasis , Medical Records , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
11.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 533-544, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine levels of physical activity, anthropometric features, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Korean breast cancer survivors who reported changes in their diet after diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 380 women who had been diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview were included. Participants provided information on dietary change after diagnosis, post-diagnostic diet, physical activity, anthropometric measures, and HRQoL through face-to-face interview. We assessed HRQoL levels of breast cancer survivors using a validated Korean version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and Breast Cancer Module (BR23). We used the logistic regression and generalized linear models to identify the associations of dietary changes in relation with physical activity, anthropometry, and HRQoL. RESULTS: The majority of participants (72.6%) reported that they have changed their diet to a healthier diet after diagnosis. Breast cancer survivors who reported to have change to a healthy diet had higher intakes of vegetables and fruits and lower intakes of red and processed meats, and refined grains than those who did not. Also, survivors with a healthy change in their diet were more likely to engage in physical activity (top vs. bottom tertile: odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02-3.36) and have lower body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98 for one kg/m² increment in BMI) compared to those who did not. We found that a healthy change in diet was associated with higher scores of physical functioning (p=0.02) and lower scores of constipation (p=0.04) and diarrhea (p=0.006) compared to those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy changes in diet after breast cancer diagnosis may be associated with lower levels of BMI, and higher levels of physical activity and HRQoL.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Anthropometry , Body Mass Index , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Diet , Fruit , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Meat , Motor Activity , Odds Ratio , Quality of Life , Survivors , Vegetables
12.
Korean Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery ; : 85-88, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81484

ABSTRACT

Ciliated foregut cyst of gallbladder is a very rare benign cystic lesion. A 39-year-old woman was referred to our hospital after abdominal ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion of gallbladder. On abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, a unilocular cystic lesion was found at right upper quadrant with attachment to the gallbladder neck. The gallbladder with cystic lesion was resected through laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cystic lesion revealed a unilocular cyst with ciliated cuboidal or columnar epithelium and abundant goblet cells. Pathologic examination is essential to distinguish from other cystic lesions of the gallbladder and avoid unnecessary additional treatment. In the current case report, we presented the clinico-pathologic findings of the ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder and review of literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Congenital Abnormalities , Epithelium , Gallbladder , Goblet Cells , Neck , Ultrasonography
13.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 47-51, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206801

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy via bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) without a drainage procedure. METHODS: A total of 64 patients who underwent robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy via BABA without a close suction drain between February and March 2012 were enrolled. We checked postoperative symptoms or signs including change of vital signs, dyspnea, swelling or fluctuation of anterior chest and neck and compression symptoms at 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 1 month after surgery. Postoperative ultrasonography was performed in patients with at least one or more postoperative symptoms or signs in order to confirm hematoma or fluid collection. RESULTS: None of the enrolled patients had dyspnea or change of vital signs. Two of 64 patients had swelling, 1 of 64 patients had fluctuation on the anterior chest, and 1 of 64 patients had compression symptoms. Fluid collection was confirmed in 2 of 4 of the above mentioned patients and the collected fluid was aspirated. The amounts of aspirated fluid were 25 mL and 8 mL. Thereafter, the follow up ultrasonography showed no more fluid collection in all patients. In addition, we rechecked the above mentioned symptoms or signs at 1 month after surgery; none of the enrolled patients had symptoms or signs. CONCLUSION: Robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy via BABA without a closed suction drain shows no serious seroma or hematoma collection. Therefore, we expect that robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy via BABA without a closed suction drain can reduce the pain, discomfort or longer hospital stay as a result of closed suction drain using this method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drainage , Dyspnea , Follow-Up Studies , Hematoma , Length of Stay , Neck , Seroma , Suction , Thorax , Thyroidectomy , Ultrasonography , Vital Signs
14.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 133-139, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109088

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Follow-up after primary treatment for breast cancer is an important component of survivor care and various international guidelines exist for the surveillance. However, little is known about current actual practice patterns of physicians whether they adhere to or deviate from recommended guidelines. The aim of this study was to determine how physicians follow-up their patients after primary treatment for breast cancer in Korea. METHODS: A questionnaire survey with 34 questions in 4 categories was e-mailed to the members of Korean Breast Cancer Society from November to December 2013. Respondents were asked how they use follow-up modalities after primary treatment of breast cancer and we compared the survey results with present guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 129 respondents, 123 (95.3%) were breast surgeons. The most important consideration in follow-up was tumor stage. History taking, physical examinations, and mammography were conducted in similar frequency recommended by other guidelines while breast ultrasonography was performed more often. The advanced imaging studies such as CT, MRI, and bone scan, which had been recommended to be conducted only if necessary, were also examined more frequently. Regular screenings for secondary malignancy were performed in 38 respondents (29.5%). Five years later after primary treatment, almost the whole respondents (94.6%) themselves monitored their patients. CONCLUSION: A majority of respondents have been performed more intensive follow-up modalities in comparison with present guidelines and less frequently screenings for secondary malignancy. For optimal follow-up of breast cancer survivors, tailored delivery system should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electronic Mail , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Mass Screening , Physical Examination , Survivors , Ultrasonography, Mammary , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 189-199, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20463

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that more breast cancer survivors are currently enjoying longer lifespans, there remains limited knowledge about the factors and issues that are of greatest significance for these survivors, particularly from their perspectives. This review was based on the concept that the topics addressed should focus on the perspectives of current survivors and should be extended to future modalities, which physicians will be able to use to gain a better understanding of the hidden needs of these patients. We intended to choose and review dimensions other than the pathology and the disease process that could have been overlooked during treatment. The eight topics upon which we focused included: delay of treatment and survival outcome; sexual well-being; concerns about childbearing; tailored follow-up; presence of a family history of breast cancer; diet and physical activity for survivors and their families; qualitative approach toward understanding of breast cancer survivorship, and; mobile health care for breast cancer survivors. Through this review, we aimed to examine the present clinical basis of the central issues noted from the survivors' perspectives and suggest a direction for future survivorship-related research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Diet , Follow-Up Studies , Motor Activity , Pathology , Quality of Life , Survival Rate , Survivors , Telemedicine
16.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 235-239, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200087

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic thyroidectomy with bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) is a feasible method of thyroidectomy with good surgical outcome and excellent cosmetic result as compared with conventional open thyroidectomy in selective patients. Thus, endoscopic thyroidectomy is widely used in treatment of thyroid diseases. However, despite the many advantages, we sometimes encounter unexpected complication, such as neck stiffness caused by adhesion, change of sensory, seroma formation, and subcutaneous soft tissue implantation. Subcutaneous soft tissue implantation of thyroid tissue is a very rare complication of thyroid surgery. However, it is troublesome to both patient and doctor. We experienced a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence at anterior and antero-lateral subcutaneous area after endoscopic total thyroidectomy. Our case presented with a papillary thyroid carcinoma measuring 2.1 cm in size and showed thyroidal capsule invasion and extra-thyroidal extension on the permanent pathologic report. Therefore, we suggest that appropriate indications should be applied for an endoscopic thyroidectomy and efforts should be made to decrease tumor cell spillage in order to prevent tumor rupture, and for careful handling and protection of the extraction site.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neck , Recurrence , Rupture , Seroma , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ; : 47-49, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90661

ABSTRACT

Endogenous endophthalmitis is rare and refers to an intraocular inflammatory process that may result from exogenous or endogenous causes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for diagnosing endophthalmitis, and valuable to reach the diagnosis of brain abscess. We report here the MR findings of simultaneously developed endogenous endophthalmitis and brain abscesses.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Abscess , Endophthalmitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ; : 55-58, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90659

ABSTRACT

Persistent proatlantal artery (PPA) is a rare embryologically remnant carotico-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. There are two types of PPA according to embryological considerations, origin and anatomic course. Type I PPA usually originate from internal carotid artery and not traversing transverse foramen. Type II PPA traverses from external carotid artery to C1 transverse foramen. The PPA is usually found incidentally without clinical symptoms, but can be related to several clinically significant vascular lesions, such as hypoplastic vertebral artery, intracranial arteriovenous malformation and in a case of carotid endarterectomy or external carotid artery embolization. So, thorough understanding of this anomaly is needed and we report a case of type II PPA diagnosed by MR angiography.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Carotid Artery, External , Carotid Artery, Internal , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Magnetics , Magnets , Vertebral Artery
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 386-394, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to confirm the prognostic and predictive value of p53 expression, particularly in invasive breast cancer patients, according to immunohistochemical hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. METHODS: Immunohistochemical data for p53, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression from a total of 15,598 patients were retrospectively retrieved from the web-based database of the Korean Breast Cancer Society. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were calculated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, respectively. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stratified Cox proportional hazard regression model. A model evaluating interactions between p53 expression and both hormonal therapy and chemotherapy was used to determine the treatment benefit from both modalities. RESULTS: The prognostic value of p53 for OS and BCSS was most significant in the HR+/HER2- subgroup, with hazard ratios of 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.93) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.09-1.99), respectively. The p53 overexpression hazard ratios were of borderline significance for the HR+/HER2+ subgroup and were not significant for the HR-/HER2+ and HR-/HER2- subgroups. The model with interaction terms revealed that hormonal therapy significantly interacts with p53 status (p=0.002 and p=0.007 for OS and BCSS, respectively), suggesting an insignificant prognostic value for p53 status (p=0.268 and p=0.296 for OS and BCSS, respectively). An interaction between chemotherapy and p53 status was not found in this model. CONCLUSION: p53 overexpression has independent prognostic value, particularly in cases of HR+/HER2- invasive breast cancer, which may be due to effect modification of hormonal therapy dependent on p53 status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Estrogens , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
20.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society ; : 271-276, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35375

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The extracelluar domain (ECD) of HER2 may be cleaved from the surface of cancer cells whereby serum HER2 ECD levels can be detected. We explored the correlation between serum HER2 ECD and tissue HER2 status and their relationship with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: We included 125 patients with stage 0-3 breast cancer. The serum HER2 ECD level was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay (ADVIA Centaur(R) system). The tissue HER2 status was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in all tumors. We reviewed the medical records retrospectively. The analyzed clinicopathological parameters were age, tumor size, histologic grade, vascular invasion, lymph node involvement, stage, estrogen receptor (ER) and CA 15-3. RESULTS: High serum HER2 ECD levels (> or =15 ng/ml) were reported in 15 patients (12.0%). For tissue HER 2 status, 30 patients (24.0%) had positive results in FISH and 46 patients (37.0%) had strong positive results in IHC (3+). The specificity of serum HER2 ECD was 92.6% but the sensitivity was only 26.7%. The concordance between serum HER2 ECD and FISH tests was 23.3%. High serum HER2 ECD levels were significantly associated with old age (P=0.005), large tumor size (P=0.021), vascular invasion (P=0.001), lymph node involvement (P=0.010) and advanced stage (P<0.001). ER and CA 15-3 levels were not significantly related with serum HER2 ECD. CONCLUSION: Serum HER2 ECD test could not be substituted for tissue HER2 status because of low concordance. However, high levels of serum HER2 were associated with large tumor size, lymph node involvement and advanced stage. We need to study serum HER2 ECD test as a role of prognostic marker.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Estrogens , Fluorescence , Immunoassay , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Luminescence , Lymph Nodes , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
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