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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931493

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the epidemic characteristics and current situation of animal plague in Zhejiang Province, in order to provide data support for prevention and control of the plague in the whole province.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out to collect surveillance data of animal plague in Zhejiang Province from 2006 to 2020 from the "Pubonic Plague Control Management Information System". Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the density of domestic and wild rodents, the distribution of rodent species and flea species, and the serological and pathogenic test results of host animals.Results:From 2006 to 2020, the annual average density of domestic rodent in Zhejiang Province was 3.99%, which was lower than that in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2019 and 2020. The annual average density of wild rodents was 4.52%, which was lower than that in 2013, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. From 2006 to 2020, a total of 173 432 rodents were captured, belonging to 3 orders, 5 families, 12 genera and 17 species; in the composition of rodent species, Rattus norvegicus was the most, accounting for 32.15% (55 765/173 432). A total of 107 736 rodents were examined, the number of flea-infected rodent was 3 885, and the flea-infested rate was 3.61%; the total number of flea collected was 9 039 and the total flea index was 0.083 9. A total of 172 235 serological samples were tested at various monitoring sites in Zhejiang Province, and 10 positive samples were detected, there were 7 copies of Apodemus agrarianus, 2 copies of Smelly Shrew and 1 copy of Rattus norvegicus, with titers ranging from 1 ∶ 40 - 1 ∶ 320; a total of 163 618 copies of rodent liver and spleen organs were cultured, and no Yersinia pestis was isolated. Conclusions:Positive host animals have been detected in Zhejiang Province for many years. It is necessary to further standardize plague surveillance and make emergency preparations to prevent relapse and import of the epidemics.

2.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 217-220, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815719

ABSTRACT

@#Mosquito control and "mosquito-free village" construction in rural areas played positive roles in preventing mosquito-borne diseases and improving rural living environments. However,there was a lack of the target and specific evaluation system for mosquito control and prevention in rural areas. Based on the main contents of mosquito control works in rural areas,the national standards for mosquito control and practical experiences for“mosquito-free village”construction in Zhejiang Province,we built a evaluation system suitable for mosquito control in rural areas,in order to provide reference for the evaluation standard and the sustainable development of mosquito control in rural areas. This evaluation system included four indices named mosquito density control,village administration,health education and the villagers' attitude;each index had three levels named A,B and C from high to low. When all the four indices were evaluated as C,the village was regarded as basically meeting the requirements of mosquito control;when all the four indices were evaluated as A,the village was regarded as a "mosquito-free village".

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 597-599, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737474

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the performance of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease prevention and control.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the clinical manifestations,laboratory detection results and disease progression of the third imported ZIKV disease case in the mainland of China.Results On 19 February 2016,a ZIKV disease case was confirmed in Yiwu,Zhejiang province,which was the third imported case of ZIKV disease confirmed by China CDC laboratory and expert consulting.The patient just had a travel to Fiji and Samoa and had mosquito bite history in Samoa.The patient was hospitalized on 16 February after the onset on 14 February and the eruption on 15 February.The body temperature of the patient became normal on 17 February,the rash disappeared on 19 February and the conjunctivitis resolved on 20 February.The positive detection of the viral nucleic acid in blood was only for 3 consecutive days,and the viral nucleic acid could be detected in urine even after negative detection in blood for 4 days.Conclusion The symptoms of the patient were typical.ZIKV can be detected by using blood sample in early phase,but after body temperature become normal,the virus can be detected in urine.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 597-599, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736006

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the performance of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease prevention and control.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the clinical manifestations,laboratory detection results and disease progression of the third imported ZIKV disease case in the mainland of China.Results On 19 February 2016,a ZIKV disease case was confirmed in Yiwu,Zhejiang province,which was the third imported case of ZIKV disease confirmed by China CDC laboratory and expert consulting.The patient just had a travel to Fiji and Samoa and had mosquito bite history in Samoa.The patient was hospitalized on 16 February after the onset on 14 February and the eruption on 15 February.The body temperature of the patient became normal on 17 February,the rash disappeared on 19 February and the conjunctivitis resolved on 20 February.The positive detection of the viral nucleic acid in blood was only for 3 consecutive days,and the viral nucleic acid could be detected in urine even after negative detection in blood for 4 days.Conclusion The symptoms of the patient were typical.ZIKV can be detected by using blood sample in early phase,but after body temperature become normal,the virus can be detected in urine.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269952

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to evaluation five counties (cities) belong to the plague had a lower risk areas, according to the level of risk score (Pf) Longquan city and Yiwu (Pf was 0.314, 0.292, respectively) plague risk were higher than three other regions (Pf were all 0.292).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The main host and media were lower in five key plague surveillance counties (cities) of Zhejiang province; The result of Borda count method and Delphi approach for risk assessment indicated that endogenous plague recrudescence was at lower level, but Longquan city and Yiwu city risk were higher than other counties (cities).</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cities , Epidemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Murinae , Plague , Rats , Risk Assessment , Yersinia pestis
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 364-367, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240093

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the source, transmission route and risk factors of an outbreak of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Case definition was made and suspected cases were searched. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic features (age, gender, occupation, residential address), history of exposure, clinical signs and symptoms etc. Blood samples were collected from 12 suspected cases while index patient's blood samples were collected from walls of the residence. All samples were detected for SFTS virus using RT-PCR. Sero-prevalence rates of SFTS virus IgG were also conducted among healthy people, host and vectors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 13 cases including 6 male and 7 female were identified during this outbreak in May 2014. Index patient developed illness onset on April 23 and died on May 1. Secondary patients would include 8 family members, 3 neighborhoods, 1 individual who lived in the same village, developing illness onset between May 10 and 16, with a peak on May 13. The incubation period was 9-15 days. Clinical signs and symptoms appeared as fever (100%), chill (92%), anergy (92%), body aches (92%), anorexia (92%), headache (77%), nausea (69%) etc. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia also appeared. History of the index patient showed that she collected tea leaves in her hometown 1 month before the illness onset. After index patient died on May 1, 9 secondary patients had directly contacted the blood of the deceased. Data from the retrospective cohort study showed that 'direct contact with blood' was an important risk factor (RR = 43.36, 95% CI: 13.66-137.63, P = 0.000).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Majority of the secondary patients of these clusters contracted the SFTS virus infection through exposure to the blood of the index patient. However, aerosol transmission could not be ruled out, suggesting that precaution should be taken for doctors, nurses and family members when looking after the patients with SFTS virus infection.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Environment , Female , Fever , Epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , Epidemiology
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 496-500, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240065

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a gene identification method of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis for plague surveillance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to the specific genomic sequences of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis, i.e. "pestis Island (PeI)" and "pseudotuberculosis Island (PsI)" and the published genomic sequences of 12 strains of Y. pestis and 4 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, the specific identification primers of these sequences were designed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 52 strains of Y. pestis and 57 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and other intestinal bacteria strains were tested with PCR. Of the 5 pairs of Y. pestis identification primers, PeI2 and PeI11 were specific for Y. pestis. Besides Y. pestis, the primers PeI1, PeI3 and PeI12 could detect part of 57 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Of the 5 pairs of Y. pseudotuberculosis identification primers, PsI1 could detect all the 52 strains of Y. pestis and 57 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PsI7, PsI16, PsI18 and PsI19 were specific for Y. pseudotuberculosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The primers PsI1, PeI 2 and PeI11, PsI7, PsI16, PsI18 and PsI19 can be used in the rapid identification of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis, which can be also used to explore the circulation of atypical Y. pestis in quiescent plague foci.</p>


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , China , Epidemiology , DNA Primers , Genomics , Humans , Plague , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Surveillance , Methods , Yersinia pestis , Genetics , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , Genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-418707

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the risk factors involved in the refractory pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) in pediatric Intensive care unit (PICU).Methods From January 2009 to August 2011,115 patients with MDRAb pneumonia were treated in Department of Emergency,Wuhan Children's Hospital,Wuhan.Another 45 patients with negative MDRAb (NMDRAb)pneumonia served as control.The patients in the two goups were analyzed using univariate and multivariate Logistic regression to find out the risk factors for MDRAb infection.Results Among the 176 clinical strains of acinetobacter baumannii isolated,128 (72.73%) strains were MDRAb.After drug susceptibility tests,acinetobacter baumannii showed the rates of resistance to β-lactams antibiotics not including cefoperazone-sulbactam were more than 70%,and the rates of resistance to carbapenems antibiotics were higher than 90%.All rates of resistance to antibiotics of betalactams and carbapenems in MDRAb were higher than those in NMDRAb significantly.There were very low rates of drug-resistance found in Amikacin,Levofloxacin,Ciprofloxacin and Minocycline ( <20% ).Multivariate logistic regression revealed that ICU stay,length of time for mechanical ventilation,anemia,hypoproteinemia and the use of carbapenems were independent risk factors involved in MDRAb pneumonia.Conclusions MDRAb was an important conditional pathogen with high rate of drug-resistance to many antibiotics leading to pneumonia in PICU.It increased the mortality of patients significantly.To control the infection of MDRAb was the key to increasing efficacy of treatment of pneumonia in PCIU.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415922

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the pathogenic bacteria strains with drug-resistance prevailing in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP)in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit(PICU)in order to provide a reasonable guidance to the clinical use of suitable antibiotics.Method A retrospective clinical study in 46 patients with VAP was carried out in PICU of Wuhan Children's Hospital between January 2008 and June 2010.The prevalent strains of the pathogenic bacteria with drug-resistance isolated from lower respiratory tract by aspiration were analyzed.Results In total,119 pathogenic microbial strains were isolated including Gram-negative bacilli(G-,65.55%),fungi(21.01%)and Gram-positive cocci(G+,13.45%).Among pathogens,the most common pathogenic strains were Acinetobacter baummannii, Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae,candida albicans and coagulase-negative staphylococci.Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the situation of the multiple drug-resistances to antibiotics found in G- and G+ Was serious. Most of G- were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, imipenem, meropenem,cefoperazone-sulbaetam and piperacillin-tazobactam.The G+ cocci were 100% susceptibility to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid.Fungi were almost sensitive to all the anti-funaus agents. Conclusions The oredominant oathogens of VAP were G- bacilli,and their multiple drug-resistances to antibiotics were the serious problems.The monitoring of the drugresistance should be emphasized, and the option of antibiotics should depend on the antibiotic sensitivity test.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-404850

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of hepatocyte growth factor(HGF),keratinocyte growth factor(KGF) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in tracheal aspirates (TA) in the genesis and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods The levels of HGF,KGF and IL-1β in TA of 25 children with ARDS (ARDS group) and 23 children with non-ARDS (control group) were assayed by ELISA.Lung injury score was applied to all patients.Results The levels of HGF,KGF and IL-1β in TA were significantly higher in ARDS group than in control group(P<0.0 1).As compared with survivors,the levels of HGF,KGF and IL-1β in TA were markedly higher in dead patients(P<0.01).LIS had a positive correlation with the levels of HGF,KGF and IL-1β(P<0.01).Conclusion HGF,KGF and IL-1β participate in the development of ARDS.The degree of lung injury and prognosis of ARDS may be early estimated by the levels of HGF,KGF and IL-1β in TA.

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