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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 110-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917379

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension is a rare and progressive illness with a devastating prognosis. Promising research efforts have advanced the understanding and recognition of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Despite remarkable achievements in terms of improving the survival rate, reducing disease progression, and enhancing quality of life, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not completely curable. Therefore, an effective treatment strategy is still needed. Recently, many studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms and technological developments have led to new approaches and paradigms for PAH treatment. Management based on stem cells and related paracrine effects, epigenetic drugs and gene therapies has yielded prospective results for PAH treatment in preclinical research. Further trials are ongoing to optimize these important insights into clinical circumstances.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916888

ABSTRACT

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited autosomal-dominant tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Since patients with LFS are likely to develop therapy-related cancers, radiation therapy should be avoided if breast cancer is found in these individuals. Herein, we present a case of secondary breast cancer in an LFS patient after radiation and chemotherapy for the first diagnosed breast sarcoma.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 554-560, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914826

ABSTRACT

Axillary ultrasonography (US) is the most commonly used imaging modality for nodal evaluation in patients with breast cancer. No Axillary Surgical Treatment in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative Patients after Ultrasonography (NAUTILUS) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial investigating whether sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can be safely omitted in patients with clinically and sonographically node-negative T1–2 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. In this trial, a standardized imaging protocol and criteria were established for the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes. Women lacking palpable lymph nodes underwent axillary US to dismiss suspicious nodal involvement.Patients with a round hypoechoic node with effaced hilum or indistinct margins were excluded. Patients with T1 tumors and a single node with a cortical thickness ≥ 3 mm underwent US-guided biopsy. Finally, patients with negative axillary US findings were included. The NAUTILUS axillary US nodal assessment criteria facilitate the proper selection of candidates who can omit SLNB.

4.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901626

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. To provide an overview of the temporal trends in the burden of CVD, the Korean Society of Cardiology has published the Korea Heart Disease Fact Sheet in 2020. @*Methods@#We analyzed anonymized data of the Causes of Death Statistics, National Health Insurance Claims Database, and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess mortality, hospitalizations, and risk factors for CVD. @*Results@#The CVD mortality decreased until 2010, then steadily increased up to 123 per 100,000 persons in 2018. Since 2002, the number and rate of CVD hospitalization have continued to grow. In 2018, approximately 12.1 million Korean adults had hypertension, 4.3 million had diabetes, 8.7 million had hypercholesterolemia, 14.9 million had obesity, and 8.8 million were currently smoking. The number of risk factors increased markedly with older age; 58.4% of adults age ≥70 years had ≥2 risk factors. @*Conclusions@#CVD mortality and hospitalization have gradually increased in the last decade, and a substantially high proportion of adults were carrying more than 1 cardiovascular risk factor in 2018. With the rapid population aging, a continued increase in CVD appears inevitable in Korea. Concerted and sustained approaches are essential to achieve early prevention and reduce the burden of CVD.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898738

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) have been verified in many human and animal studies. Although some tissues contain MSCs, the number of cells harvested from those tissues and rate of proliferation in vitro are not enough for continuous transplantation. In order to produce and maintain stable MSCs, many attempts are made to induce differentiation from pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs. In particular, it is also known that the paracrine action of stem cell-secreted factors could promote the regeneration and differentiation of target cells in damaged tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the secreted factors, are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of a gene. It is known that miRNAs help communication between stem cells and their surrounding niches through exosomes to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. While studies have so far been underway targeting therapeutic miRNAs of MSDs, studies on specific miRNAs secreted from MSCs are still minimal. Hence, our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient amounts of exosomes from iPSC-MSCs and develop them into therapeutic agents, furthermore to select specific miRNAs and provide safe cell-free clinical setting as a cell-free status with purpose of delivering them to target cells. This review article focuses on stem cell therapy on MSDs, specific microRNAs regulating MSDs and updates on novel approaches.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898712

ABSTRACT

Accurate identification of microbes facilitates the prediction, prevention, and treatment of human diseases. To increase the accuracy of microbiome data analysis, a long region of the 16S rRNA is commonly sequenced via paired-end sequencing. In paired-end sequencing, a sufficient length of overlapping region is required for effective joining of the reads, and high-quality sequencing reads are needed at the overlapping region. Trimming sequences at the reads distal to a point where sequencing quality drops below a specific threshold enhance the joining process. In this study, we examined the effect of trimming conditions on the number of reads that remained after quality control and chimera removal in the Illumina paired-end reads of the V3–V4 hypervariable region. We also examined the alpha diversity and taxa assigned by each trimming condition. Optimum quality trimming increased the number of good reads and assigned more number of operational taxonomy units. The pre-analysis trimming step has a great influence on further microbiome analysis, and optimized trimming conditions should be applied for Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm 2 analysis in QIIME2 platform.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 606-615, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898434

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent data indicate the presence of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver enzymes. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of 874 COVID-19 patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals from February 20 to April 14, 2020. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and treatment outcomes were collected until April 30, 2020, and compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferases. @*Results@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels were observed in 362 patients (41.1%), of which 94 out of 130 (72.3%) and 268 out of 744 (36.0%) belonged to the severe and non-severe COVID-19 categories, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for male patients, patients with a higher body mass index, patients with severe COVID-19 status, and patients with lower platelet counts were 1.500 (1.029 to 2.184, p=0.035), 1.097 (1.012 to 1.189, p=0.024), 2.377 (1.458 to 3.875, p=0.001), and 0.995 (0.993 to 0.998, p>0.001), respectively, indicating an independent association of these variables with elevated aminotransferase levels. Lopinavir/ ritonavir and antibiotic use increased the odds ratio of abnormal aminotransferase levels after admission (1.832 and 2.646, respectively, both p<0.05). The median time to release from quarantine was longer (22 days vs 26 days, p=0.001) and the mortality rate was higher (13.0% vs 2.9%, p<0.001) in patients with abnormal aminotransferase levels. @*Conclusions@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels are common in COVID-19 patients and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis of patients with normal aminotransferase levels on admission showed that the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and antibiotics was associated with abnormal aminotransferase levels; thus, careful monitoring is needed.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 432-435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897777

ABSTRACT

Angiolipoma is a benign fatty neoplasm that has components of proliferating blood vessels. These types of lesions commonly occur in the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs and trunk. Angiolipoma in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, and the final diagnosis generally depends on histological examination of the excised biopsy. In most previously reported cases, the lesions were diagnosed and treated with surgical management. In this study, we report a case of gastric angiolipoma of approximately 4 cm in size that was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 391-399, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896564

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Heart failure (HF) poses significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, the ventriculo-vascular coupling index (VVI) was introduced as an independent prognostic factor reflective of the overall cardiovascular performance index in HF. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of force-titration of valsartan on VVI values in HF patients. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter and prospective observational trial, the effect of valsartan was stratified according to dosages [non-ceiling dose (NCD) vs. ceiling dose (CD)] in HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%. Biochemical studies, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), echocardiography with VVI, the treadmill test, and the activity scale index were assessed at baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#One-hundred thirty-eight patients were force-titrated to either a CD group (n=81) or a NCD group (n=57). The mean age of the study participants was 59 years and 66% were male. After 6 months of follow up, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) values had significantly improved in the CD group but not in the NCD group. Intriguingly, in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (n=52, LVEF <40%), a significant improvement in VVI was only observed in the CD group (from 2.4±0.6 to 1.8±0.5, p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#CDs of valsartan for 6 months showed better improvement in VVI, as well as LVMI, in patients with HFrEF, compared with NCDs.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895930

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, tissue biopsies of kidney lesions are usually performed with CT or percutaneous ultrasound guidance, but biopsies using EUS have rarely been reported. In this report, we describe a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosed using EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A 75-year-old woman taking aspirin due to stable angina continued to exhibit weight loss and anemia and visited the gastroenterology department. No bleeding was observed on upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. A contrast-enhanced mass was observed in the left kidney, accompanied by 8.9×10.8 cm-sized necrosis suggesting RCC on abdominal CT. Chest CT showed masses in both lungs. We planned to administer targeted therapy after pathological confirmation using EUS. Aspirin was continued, and we performed fine-needle biopsy using a 22-gauge needle three times. No adverse events were observed after the procedure. Pathological examination confirmed RCC, clear cell type, and the patient is currently undergoing treatment with sunitinib. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is safe for liver, pancreatic, or other tumors accessible from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This technique shows fewer adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no other reports on EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy to identify RCC in Korea.

12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 236-240, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894562

ABSTRACT

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a rare lung complication of liver cirrhosis, caused by pulmonary microvascular vasodilation that induces abnormal arterial oxygenation. Typical findings on physical examination are finger clubbing and cyanosis. Dyspnea is a common symptom and is worse in the upright position. Contrast echocardiography is a useful diagnostic test. Currently, the only effective treatment is liver transplantation. We report the case of a woman with cirrhosis who has hepatopulmonary syndrome with finger clubbing, confirmed by contrast echocardiography. The patient is waiting for a liver transplant.

13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893922

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. To provide an overview of the temporal trends in the burden of CVD, the Korean Society of Cardiology has published the Korea Heart Disease Fact Sheet in 2020. @*Methods@#We analyzed anonymized data of the Causes of Death Statistics, National Health Insurance Claims Database, and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess mortality, hospitalizations, and risk factors for CVD. @*Results@#The CVD mortality decreased until 2010, then steadily increased up to 123 per 100,000 persons in 2018. Since 2002, the number and rate of CVD hospitalization have continued to grow. In 2018, approximately 12.1 million Korean adults had hypertension, 4.3 million had diabetes, 8.7 million had hypercholesterolemia, 14.9 million had obesity, and 8.8 million were currently smoking. The number of risk factors increased markedly with older age; 58.4% of adults age ≥70 years had ≥2 risk factors. @*Conclusions@#CVD mortality and hospitalization have gradually increased in the last decade, and a substantially high proportion of adults were carrying more than 1 cardiovascular risk factor in 2018. With the rapid population aging, a continued increase in CVD appears inevitable in Korea. Concerted and sustained approaches are essential to achieve early prevention and reduce the burden of CVD.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891034

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) have been verified in many human and animal studies. Although some tissues contain MSCs, the number of cells harvested from those tissues and rate of proliferation in vitro are not enough for continuous transplantation. In order to produce and maintain stable MSCs, many attempts are made to induce differentiation from pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs. In particular, it is also known that the paracrine action of stem cell-secreted factors could promote the regeneration and differentiation of target cells in damaged tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the secreted factors, are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of a gene. It is known that miRNAs help communication between stem cells and their surrounding niches through exosomes to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. While studies have so far been underway targeting therapeutic miRNAs of MSDs, studies on specific miRNAs secreted from MSCs are still minimal. Hence, our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient amounts of exosomes from iPSC-MSCs and develop them into therapeutic agents, furthermore to select specific miRNAs and provide safe cell-free clinical setting as a cell-free status with purpose of delivering them to target cells. This review article focuses on stem cell therapy on MSDs, specific microRNAs regulating MSDs and updates on novel approaches.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891008

ABSTRACT

Accurate identification of microbes facilitates the prediction, prevention, and treatment of human diseases. To increase the accuracy of microbiome data analysis, a long region of the 16S rRNA is commonly sequenced via paired-end sequencing. In paired-end sequencing, a sufficient length of overlapping region is required for effective joining of the reads, and high-quality sequencing reads are needed at the overlapping region. Trimming sequences at the reads distal to a point where sequencing quality drops below a specific threshold enhance the joining process. In this study, we examined the effect of trimming conditions on the number of reads that remained after quality control and chimera removal in the Illumina paired-end reads of the V3–V4 hypervariable region. We also examined the alpha diversity and taxa assigned by each trimming condition. Optimum quality trimming increased the number of good reads and assigned more number of operational taxonomy units. The pre-analysis trimming step has a great influence on further microbiome analysis, and optimized trimming conditions should be applied for Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm 2 analysis in QIIME2 platform.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 606-615, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890730

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent data indicate the presence of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver enzymes. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective, multicenter study of 874 COVID-19 patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals from February 20 to April 14, 2020. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and treatment outcomes were collected until April 30, 2020, and compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferases. @*Results@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels were observed in 362 patients (41.1%), of which 94 out of 130 (72.3%) and 268 out of 744 (36.0%) belonged to the severe and non-severe COVID-19 categories, respectively. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for male patients, patients with a higher body mass index, patients with severe COVID-19 status, and patients with lower platelet counts were 1.500 (1.029 to 2.184, p=0.035), 1.097 (1.012 to 1.189, p=0.024), 2.377 (1.458 to 3.875, p=0.001), and 0.995 (0.993 to 0.998, p>0.001), respectively, indicating an independent association of these variables with elevated aminotransferase levels. Lopinavir/ ritonavir and antibiotic use increased the odds ratio of abnormal aminotransferase levels after admission (1.832 and 2.646, respectively, both p<0.05). The median time to release from quarantine was longer (22 days vs 26 days, p=0.001) and the mortality rate was higher (13.0% vs 2.9%, p<0.001) in patients with abnormal aminotransferase levels. @*Conclusions@#Abnormal aminotransferase levels are common in COVID-19 patients and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis of patients with normal aminotransferase levels on admission showed that the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and antibiotics was associated with abnormal aminotransferase levels; thus, careful monitoring is needed.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 432-435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890073

ABSTRACT

Angiolipoma is a benign fatty neoplasm that has components of proliferating blood vessels. These types of lesions commonly occur in the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs and trunk. Angiolipoma in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, and the final diagnosis generally depends on histological examination of the excised biopsy. In most previously reported cases, the lesions were diagnosed and treated with surgical management. In this study, we report a case of gastric angiolipoma of approximately 4 cm in size that was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 391-399, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904268

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Heart failure (HF) poses significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, the ventriculo-vascular coupling index (VVI) was introduced as an independent prognostic factor reflective of the overall cardiovascular performance index in HF. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of force-titration of valsartan on VVI values in HF patients. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter and prospective observational trial, the effect of valsartan was stratified according to dosages [non-ceiling dose (NCD) vs. ceiling dose (CD)] in HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%. Biochemical studies, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), echocardiography with VVI, the treadmill test, and the activity scale index were assessed at baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#One-hundred thirty-eight patients were force-titrated to either a CD group (n=81) or a NCD group (n=57). The mean age of the study participants was 59 years and 66% were male. After 6 months of follow up, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) values had significantly improved in the CD group but not in the NCD group. Intriguingly, in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (n=52, LVEF <40%), a significant improvement in VVI was only observed in the CD group (from 2.4±0.6 to 1.8±0.5, p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#CDs of valsartan for 6 months showed better improvement in VVI, as well as LVMI, in patients with HFrEF, compared with NCDs.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903634

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, tissue biopsies of kidney lesions are usually performed with CT or percutaneous ultrasound guidance, but biopsies using EUS have rarely been reported. In this report, we describe a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosed using EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A 75-year-old woman taking aspirin due to stable angina continued to exhibit weight loss and anemia and visited the gastroenterology department. No bleeding was observed on upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. A contrast-enhanced mass was observed in the left kidney, accompanied by 8.9×10.8 cm-sized necrosis suggesting RCC on abdominal CT. Chest CT showed masses in both lungs. We planned to administer targeted therapy after pathological confirmation using EUS. Aspirin was continued, and we performed fine-needle biopsy using a 22-gauge needle three times. No adverse events were observed after the procedure. Pathological examination confirmed RCC, clear cell type, and the patient is currently undergoing treatment with sunitinib. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is safe for liver, pancreatic, or other tumors accessible from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This technique shows fewer adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no other reports on EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy to identify RCC in Korea.

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