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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 62-70, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914386

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although mucosal healing (MH) is acknowledged as the treatment target in the treat-to-target era, there are limitations on repeated endoscopic examinations, especially in pediatric patients. We aimed to investigate whether fecal calprotectin (FC) could serve as a surrogate marker for the assessment of MH in pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have achieved sustained clinical remission (CR) while treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study included pediatric CD patients who had sustained a CR for at least 6 months with anti-TNF agents and who simultaneously underwent ileocolonoscopy and FC tests during follow-up. MH was defined as the absence of any ulcer on ileocolonoscopy. @*Results@#A total of 131 patients were included in this study. MH was observed in 87 patients (66.7%). The FC level was significantly lower in patients with MH than in those without MH (median 49.0 mg/kg vs 599.0 mg/kg; p<0.001). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, FC was the only factor associated with MH (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.73; p<0.001). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal cutoff value for FC for the association with MH was <140 mg/kg (area under the curve 0.890, 95% CI 0.829 to 0.951, sensitivity 78.2%, specificity 88.6%, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#FC was associated with MH in pediatric patients with CD who had achieved a sustained CR for at least 6 months with anti-TNF agents. In these patients, FC can be used to stratify patients and guide decisions regarding ileocolonoscopy in the treat-to-target era.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 71-80, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914384

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#The efficacy of biologics for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) is affected by the drug concentrations. We aimed to evaluate the importance of albumin and globulin which are known to be associated with drug concentrations as prognostic biomarkers in CD. @*Methods@#In total, 121 pediatric patients with CD who had received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy were retrospectively examined between January 2010 and February 2019. @*Results@#Relapse was observed in 48.8% of patients (59/121). The level of calprotectin (odds ratio, 2.13; p=0.03) and the albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy (odds ratio, 0.0002; p=0.003) were associated with relapse. The AGR at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy was the only factor associated with the time-to-relapse (hazard ratio, 0.02; p<0.001). The optimal AGR cutoff value for the prediction of relapse was 1.47 (area under the curve, 0.916; p<0.001). The median infliximab trough level (TL) was lower in patients with AGRs <1.47 than in those with AGRs ≥1.47. Anti-drug antibody (ADA) concentrations were negatively correlated with the AGR at 1 year of anti-TNF-α therapy (r=-0.413, p=0.032). @*Conclusions@#AGR can be used to predict relapse. Patients with AGRs <1.47 at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy are more likely to have low drug TLs and develop ADAs, which increase the possibility of relapse than those with AGRs ≥1.47. Therefore, if the AGR at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy is less than 1.47, clinicians should monitor disease activity, assess the TLs of the anti-TNF-α agents, test for ADAs and determine the appropriate therapeutic strategies.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914213

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range, and glycemic variability in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. @*Methods@#This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in eight centers in Korea (clinical trial registration number: NCT03508323). Sixty-five participants aged ≥65 years, who were treatment-naïve or had been treated with stable doses of metformin, were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of teneligliptin (n=35) or placebo (n=30) for 12 weeks. The main endpoints were the changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to week 12, CGM metrics-derived time in range, and glycemic variability. @*Results@#After 12 weeks, a significant reduction (by 0.84%) in HbA1c levels was observed in the teneligliptin group compared to that in the placebo group (by 0.08%), with a between-group least squares mean difference of –0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.08 to –0.44). The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion significantly decreased in participants treated with teneligliptin as compared to those in the placebo group. Teneligliptin treatment significantly decreased the time spent above 180 or 250 mg/dL, respectively, without increasing the time spent below 70 mg/dL. The mean percentage of time for which glucose levels remained in the 70 to 180 mg/dL time in range (TIR70–180) at week 12 was 82.0%±16.0% in the teneligliptin group, and placebo-adjusted change in TIR70–180 from baseline was 13.3% (95% CI, 6.0 to 20.6). @*Conclusion@#Teneligliptin effectively reduced HbA1c levels, time spent above the target range, and glycemic variability, without increasing hypoglycemia in our study population.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913530

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Various hemostatic agents have been introduced in therapy as postoperative bleeding is a poor prognostic factor for postoperative outcomes. These products can be divided into those that directly promote the hemostatic cascade and those that physically form a barrier by absorbing blood. The latter, powder-type hemostatic agents have the advantages of being inexpensive and more absorbable with less foreign body reactions (FBRs) and are applicable to a relatively wide area. This study was conducted to verify the safety and efficacy of a newly invented polysaccharide product (OOZFIX, Theracion Biomedical), which improves blood absorption and hemostatic effects. @*Methods@#Two separate animal experiments were performed. The first evaluated FBRs histologically at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, after implantation of OOZFIX in rats, and the second compared hemostatic performance of OOZFIX and Arista AH (Bard) in the porcine liver punch biopsy model. @*Results@#We found minimal FBRs in the 3-day group and no reactions in both the 2-week and 4-week groups after implantation of hemostatic agents. The time to hemostasis of OOZFIX was not significantly different from that of Arista AH (median [interquartile range]: 9 [6–10] minutes vs. 8 [6–10] minutes, respectively; P = 0.522). When comparing the serial bleeding grade tendency, there was no statistical difference between OOZFIX and Arista AH (P = 0.656). @*Conclusion@#OOZFIX caused a minimal FBR that disappeared within 2 weeks in vivo, and its hemostatic performance was comparable with that of an existing agent, Arista AH. Further clinical studies are required in the future.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 446-451, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927168

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the cumulative recurrence rate and risk factors for recurrent abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) after surgical treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single gynecological surgery center between January 2004 and December 2020. Patients who were surgically treated and followed up for at least 6 months after surgery were selected. @*Results@#Eighteen patients with pathologically diagnosed AWE were included in this study. The median follow-up duration was 22.5 months (range, 6–106). The median age was 37 years (range, 22–48), and 33.3% of the patients were nulliparous. Among the patients included in our study, 55.6% complained of a mass with cyclic pain, and 27.8% had a palpable mass. In addition, 22.2% of patients experienced recurrence with 17.5±9.7 months of mean time to recurrence. The cumulative recurrence rates at 24 and 60 months after surgical treatment of AWE were 23.8% and 39.1%, respectively. There were no statistically significant risk factors for the recurrence of AWE, including postoperative medical treatment. @*Conclusion@#The recurrence rate of AWE appears to be correlated with the follow-up duration. There was no statistically significant risk factor for the recurrence of AWE. Unlike ovarian endometriosis, postoperative hormonal treatment does not seem to lower the recurrence of AWE. The findings of the current study may help healthcare providers in counselling and managing patients with AWE.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 259-264, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927155

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neuroinflammation is considered an important pathway associated with several diseases that result in cognitive decline. 18F-THK5351 positron emission tomography (PET) signals might indicate the presence of neuroinflammation, as well as Alzheimer’s disease-type tau aggregates. β-amyloid (Aβ)-negative (Aβ–) amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) may be associated with non-Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology. Accordingly, we investigated associations between 18F-THK5351 PET positivity and cognitive decline among Aβ– aMCI patients. @*Materials and Methods@#The present study included 25 amyloid PET negative aMCI patients who underwent a minimum of two follow-up neuropsychological evaluations, including clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes (CDR-SOB). The patients were classified into two groups: 18F-THK5351-positive and -negative groups. The present study used a linear mixed effects model to estimate the effects of 18F-THK5351 PET positivity on cognitive prognosis among Aβ– aMCI patients. @*Results@#Among the 25 Aβ– aMCI patients, 10 (40.0%) were 18F-THK5351 positive. The patients in the 18F-THK5351-positive group were older than those in the 18F-THK5351-negative group (77.4±2.2 years vs. 70.0±5.5 years; p<0.001). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to the proportion of apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. Interestingly, however, the CDR-SOB scores of the 18F-THK5351-positive group deteriorated at a faster rate than those of the 18F-THK5351-negative group (B=0.003, p=0.033). @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study suggest that increased 18F-THK5351 uptake might be a useful predictor of poor prognosis among Aβ– aMCI patients, which might be associated with increased neuroinflammation (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02656498).

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927047

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the removal torque of microimplants upon post-use removal and post-retention removal and to assess the influencing factors. @*Methods@#The sample group included 241 patients (age, 30.25 ± 12.2 years) with 568 microimplants. They were divided into the post-use (microimplants removed immediately after use or treatment) and post-retention (microimplants removed during the retention period) removal groups. The removal torque in both groups was assessed according to sex, age, placement site and method, and microimplant size. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed for evaluating variables influencing the removal torque. @*Results@#The mean period of total in-bone stay of microimplants in the postretention removal group (1,237 days) was approximately two times longer than that in the post-use removal group (656.28 days). The removal torques in the post-retention removal group (range, 4–5 N cm) were also higher than those in the post-use removal group. The mandible and pre-drilling groups demonstrated higher placement and removal torques than did the maxilla and no-drilling groups, respectively. In the no-drilling post-use removal group, the placement torque and microimplant length positively correlated with the removal torque. In the post-retention removal group, unloading in-bone stay period and microimplant diameter positively correlated with the removal torque in the no-drilling and pre-drilling methods, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The removal torques differed according to the orthodontic loading and removal time of microimplants. With prolonged retention of microimplants inserted using the no-drilling method, the removal torque was clinically acceptable and positively correlated with the unloading in-bone stay period.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927023

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, both in Korea and worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure (KF). The natural course of kidney function among people with diabetes (especially type 2 diabetes) may be complex in real-world situations. Strong evidence from observational data and clinical trials has demonstrated a consistent association between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subsequent development of hard renal endpoints (such as KF or renal death). The disadvantage of hard renal endpoints is that they require a long follow-up duration. In addition, there are many patients with diabetes whose renal function declines without the appearance of albuminuria, measurement of the eGFR is emphasized. Many studies have used GFR-related parameters, such as its change, decline, or slope, as clinical endpoints for kidney disease progression. In this respect, understanding the trends in GFR changes could be crucial for developing clinical management strategies for the prevention of diabetic complications. This review focuses on the clinical implication of the eGFR-related parameters that have been used so far in diabetic kidney disease. We also discuss the use of recently developed new antidiabetic drugs for kidney protection, with a focus on the GFR as clinical endpoints.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926997

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#While switching strategies of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (RIs) have sometimes been used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, the current status of in-hospital P2Y12RI switching remains unknown. @*Methods@#Overall, 8,476 AMI patients who underwent successful revascularization from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) were divided according to in-hospital P2Y12RI strategies, and net adverse cardiovascular events (NACEs), defined as a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding during hospitalization were compared. @*Results@#Patients with in-hospital P2Y12RI switching accounted for 16.5%, of which 867 patients were switched from clopidogrel to potent P2Y12RI (C-P) and 532 patients from potent P2Y12RI to clopidogrel (P-C). There were no differences in NACEs among the unchanged clopidogrel, the unchanged potent P2Y12RIs, and the P2Y12RI switching groups. However, compared to the unchanged clopidogrel group, the C-P group had a higher incidence of non-fatal MI, and the P-C group had a higher incidence of TIMI major bleeding. In clinical events of in-hospital P2Y12RI switching, 90.9% of non-fatal MI occurred during pre-switching clopidogrel administration, 60.7% of TIMI major bleeding was related to pre-switching P2Y12RIs, and 71.4% of TIMI major bleeding was related to potent P2Y12RIs. Only 21.6% of the P2Y12RI switching group switched to P2Y12RIs after a loading dose (LD); however, there were no differences in clinical events between patients with and without LD. @*Conclusions@#In-hospital P2Y12RI switching occurred occasionally, but had relatively similar clinical outcomes compared to unchanged P2Y12RIs in Korean AMI patients. Non-fatal MI and bleeding appeared to be mainly related to pre-switching P2Y12RIs.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926978

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnostic criteria for EoE have changed with our growing knowledge over the past two decades. Esophageal eosinophilia, which responds histologically to a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is not a distinct disease but a subset of EoE. An endoscopic scoring system that relies on the assessment of exudates, rings, edema, furrows, and strictures is a useful tool for assessing endoscopic severity. PPIs are regarded as safe and effective first-line treatments for EoE. Oral topical corticosteroids or dietary therapy are also options for first-line treatment. Endoscopic dilation is effective for relieving the dysphagia symptoms of a patient with an esophageal stricture.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926974

ABSTRACT

Olmesartan, a recently introduced angiotensin II receptor blocker for hypertension, has been reported to cause drug-induced small bowel enteropathy. The diagnosis of olmesartan-associated enteropathy (OAE) needs clinical suspicion and the exclusion of coeliac disease, as it mimics coeliac sprue. Once diagnosed, it can be completely cured with the discontinuation of olmesartan. However, due to the extremely low incidence of OAE in Korea, clinical suspicion and diagnosis may be a challenge. The authors report the first case of OAE presenting with chronic diarrhea and acute kidney injury in Korea.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 197-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926916

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Comprehensive understanding of polyenvironmental risk factors for the development of psychosis is important. Based on a review of related evidence, we developed the Korea Polyenvironmental Risk Score (K-PERS) for psychosis. We investigated whether the K-PERS can differentiate patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) from healthy controls (HCs). @*Methods@#We reviewed existing tools for measuring polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis, including the Maudsley Environmental Risk Score (ERS), polyenviromic risk score (PERS), and Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS). Using odds ratios and relative risks for Western studies and the “population proportion” (PP) of risk factors for Korean data, we developed the K-PERS, and compared the scores thereon between patients with SSDs and HCs. In addition, correlation was performed between the K-PERS and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). @*Results@#We first constructed the “K-PERS-I,” comprising five factors based on the PPS, and then the “K-PERS-II” comprising six factors based on the ERS. The instruments accurately predicted participants’ status (case vs. control). In addition, the K-PERS-I and -II scores exhibited significant negative correlations with the negative symptom factor score of the PANSS. @*Conclusion@#The K-PERS is the first comprehensive tool developed based on PP data obtained from Korean studies that measures polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis. Using pilot data, the K-PERS predicted patient status (SSD vs. HC). Further research is warranted to examine the relationship of K-PERS scores with clinical outcomes of psychosis and schizophrenia.

14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 213-219, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926915

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in drug-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 24 months. The secondary objective was to investigate whether the age of MPH initiation and sex act as risk factors for growth retardation. @*Methods@#A total of 82 patients with ADHD were included. Weight, height, and BMI were measured at baseline and every 6 months up to 24 months. Weight, height, and BMI data were converted to z-scores and analyzed using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. @*Results@#The z-score of height, weight and BMI decreased from the baseline values. The z-scores of height were at baseline 0.002; 6 months -0.100; 12 months -0.159; 18 months -0.159; 24 months -0.186. The z-scores of weight were at baseline 0.104; 6 months -0.155; 12 months -0.256; 18 months -0.278; 24 months -0.301. Here were no age and sex differences of height, weight, and BMI. @*Conclusion@#The use of MPH was associated with attenuation of weight and height gain rates in children and adolescents with ADHD.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926787

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the urinary bladder is an uncommon disease in young patients that presents with gross hematuria. However, IMT should be cautiously diagnosed because of its similarities with malignant spindle cell sarcoma. In this case, the tumor was successfully removed by transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and a final diagnosis of IMT was established conclusively.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926768

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing the consensus statement from the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging-Practical Tutorial 2020 (ASCI-PT 2020) on the reliability of cardiac MR with late gadolinium enhancement (CMR-LGE) myocardial viability scoring between observers in the context of ischemic cardiomyopathy. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 17 cardiovascular imaging experts from five different countries evaluated CMR obtained in 26 patients (male:female, 23:3; median age [interquartile range], 55.5 years [50–61.8]) with ischemic cardiomyopathy. For LGE scoring, based on the 17 segments, the extent of LGE in each segment was graded using a five-point scoring system ranging from 0 to 4 before and after exposure according to the consensus statement. All scoring was performed via webbased review. Scores for slices, vascular territories, and total scores were obtained as the sum of the relevant segmental scores. Interobserver reliability for segment scores was assessed using Fleiss’ kappa, while the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for slice score, vascular territory score, and total score. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using the limits of agreement from the mean (LoA). @*Results@#Interobserver reliability (Fleiss’ kappa) in each segment ranged 0.242–0.662 before the consensus and increased to 0.301–0.774 after the consensus. The interobserver reliability (ICC) for each slice, each vascular territory, and total score increased after the consensus (slice, 0.728–0.805 and 0.849–0.884; vascular territory, 0.756–0.902 and 0.852–0.941; total score, 0.847 and 0.913, before and after implementing the consensus statement, respectively. Interobserver agreement in scoring also improved with the implementation of the consensus for all slices, vascular territories, and total score. The LoA for the total score narrowed from ± 10.36 points to ± 7.12 points. @*Conclusion@#The interobserver reliability and agreement for CMR-LGE scoring for ischemic cardiomyopathy improved when following guidance from the ASCI-PT 2020 consensus statement.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926727

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyomas are rare benign tumors. Most extracardiac rhabdomyomas are found in the head and neck region, especially in the pharynx and larynx. Herein, we have described the case of a 1-year-old boy presenting with recurrent otorrhea and postauricular swelling. His symptoms were due to a mass that was histologically diagnosed as fetal rhabdomyoma (FR). Here, we report the first case of FR in the postauricular area. Clinicians should keep in mind the possibility of FR if a child presents with external auditory canal mass associated with recurrent otorrhea and signs of mastoiditis.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926695

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to establish and validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) based diagnostic criteria of high myopia. @*Methods@#This was a cross-sectional study including 100 eyes of high myopia with axial length larger than 26.5 mm and 100 control eyes, which were examined by spectral-domain OCT. Vertical and horizontal OCT of 9 mm scanning across fovea were analyzed. OCT characteristics including mirror artifact, scleral sink due to steep inclination of posterior sclera, scleral visibility, abnormality of outer retinal layer, foveoschisis, and dome-shaped macula were assessed in each group. @*Results@#The mean axial length was 28.65 ± 2.07 mm (range, 26.51–34.59 mm) in high myopia group and 23.79 ± 0.99 mm (range, 21.26–25.94 mm) in control group. Among the OCT characteristics noted at high frequency in the eyes with high myopia, three criteria achieving high sensitivity and specificity were determined: scleral sink over 500 μm, scleral visibility over 100 μm, and dome-shaped macula. Under conditions of presence of any of three criteria in either horizontal or vertical OCT scanning, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for high myopia were found to be 95.0%, 98.0%, 98.0%, and 95.1%, respectively. In a new set of OCT images from 50 eyes with high myopia and 50 eyes of nonhigh myopia cases, the OCT-based criteria also proved similar level of diagnostic validity. @*Conclusions@#The OCT-based criteria, which directly addressed posterior scleral contour changes, may lead to an intuitive and accurate diagnosis of high myopia. Also, the criteria may contribute to early detection and monitoring of eyes that cannot be defined as high myopia but can progress. OCT may be useful for monitoring high myopia patients as OCT can detect myopia-associated retinal pathologies as well as scleral contour changes.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926687

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to report the efficacy and safety of one-snip punctoplasty and 18-gauge irrigation technique in patients with primary canaliculitis. @*Methods@#All patients diagnosed with primary canaliculitis between January 2020 and August 2021 at Inje University Busan Paik Hospital are included. All patients underwent one-snip punctoplasty and 18-gauge irrigation technique. After the procedure, patients had topical antibiotics. The resolution of symptoms and inflammatory signs and complications were evaluated 3 weeks after the procedure. @*Results@#A total of 11 patients (eight female patients and three male patients, 14 canaliculi) aged 34 to 82 years with a mean age of 63.8 ± 15.7 years were participated. Common symptoms were epiphora, mucopurulent discharge, and injection, and common signs were discharge from punctum, pouting punctum, punctal erythema, and swellling. Among 14 canaliculi, 12 (85.7%) had complete resolution and two underwent second treatment which showed completed resolution after the treatment. @*Conclusions@#One-snip punctoplasty and 18-gauge irrigation technique are minimally invasive to punctum and canaliculi and are a highly effective surgical procedure for patients with primary canaliculitis.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926580

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Recently, weight loss has emerged as a national concern in South Korea, and this has resulted in an increase in the frequency of use of central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating appetite suppressants. This study aimed to collect cases of psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders triggered by phentermine and phendimetrazine and explore the clinical features and courses. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed the electronic medical records of patients and selected eight patients who developed psychotic symptoms and manic symptoms for the first time after taking phentermine and phendimetrazine. All cases were reviewed, and their clinical features and course were summarized. @*Results@#All eight patients developed psychotic symptoms, and one had accompanying manic symptoms. The final diagnosis was appetite-suppressant-induced psychotic disorder in four patients, schizophrenia in three, and appetite-suppressant-induced bipolar disorder in one. In addition, three patients were diagnosed as having substance-use disorder. The key psychotic symptoms of these patients were hallucinations and paranoia. @*Conclusions@#These case findings suggest that phentermine and phendimetrazine can cause psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, or substance use disorder and that medical professionals and the public should practice caution when prescribing and using these drugs.

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