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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 581-585, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The adductor pollicis muscle is frequently targeted for botulinum neurotoxin injective treatment for spasticity. However, there are no injective guidelines for delivering injection to the muscle. @*Materials and Methods@#A method known as the modified Sihler’s method was used to stain the adductor pollicis muscle in 16 specimens to reveal intramuscular neural distribution of the muscle. @*Results@#The most intramuscular neural distribution was located on 1/5 to 3/5 of the muscle regarding midline of 3rd metacarpal bone (0) to the base of the 1st proximal phalanx (5/5). The nerve entry point was mostly located on 0 to 1/5 of the muscle. @*Conclusion@#The result suggests that botulinum neurotoxin should be delivered at the middle of second metacarpal bone via deep injection.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 511-517, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003208

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Anatomical landmarks can provide vital information on the distribution of nerves in the gastrocnemius muscle. We aimed to provide an anatomical perspective on appropriate locations for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections in the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius for calf shaping. @*Materials and Methods@#A modified Sihler’s method was applied to both the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius muscles (16 specimens). Intramuscular neural distributions were revealed by dissecting along a transverse line crossing the fibular head and superior margin of the calcaneal tuberosity. @*Results@#The intramuscular neural distribution for the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius had the greatest arborized patterns in the 7/10–8/10 section of the medial head and 7.5/10–8.5/10 section of the lateral part of the gastrocnemius. @*Conclusion@#We propose that BoNT injections should be directed to the 7/10–8/10 section of the medial head and the 7.5/10– 8.5/10 section of the lateral part of the gastrocnemius. Following our guidelines, clinicians can ensure satisfactory results with the use of minimal doses to limit adverse effects, such as gait disturbance, antibody production, and bruising, due to multiple injections. The results can also be altered and applied to electromyography.

3.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 563-580, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003146

ABSTRACT

In a conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture method, cells are attached to the bottom of the culture dish and grow into a monolayer. These 2D culture methods are easy to handle, cost-effective, reproducible, and adaptable to growing many different types of cells. However, monolayer 2D cell culture conditions are far from those of natural tissue, indicating the need for a threedimensional (3D) culture system. Various methods, such as hanging drop, scaffolds, hydrogels, microfluid systems, and bioreactor systems, have been utilized for 3D cell culture. Recently, external physical stimulation-based 3D cell culture platforms, such as acoustic and magnetic forces, were introduced. Acoustic waves can establish acoustic radiation force, which can induce suspended objects to gather in the pressure node region and aggregate to form clusters. Magnetic targeting consists of two components, a magnetically responsive carrier and a magnetic field gradient source. In a magnetic-based 3D cell culture platform, cells are aggregated by changing the magnetic force. Magnetic fields can manipulate cells through two different methods: positive magnetophoresis and negative magnetophoresis. Positive magnetophoresis is a way of imparting magnetic properties to cells by labeling them with magnetic nanoparticles. Negative magnetophoresis is a label-free principle-based method. 3D cell structures, such as spheroids, 3D network structures, and cell sheets, have been successfully fabricated using this acoustic and magnetic stimuli-based 3D cell culture platform. Additionally, fabricated 3D cell structures showed enhanced cell behavior, such as differentiation potential and tissue regeneration. Therefore, physical stimuli-based 3D cell culture platforms could be promising tools for tissue engineering.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 734-746, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003070

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of rituximab including chemotherapy in CD20-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). @*Methods@#Patients with newly diagnosed ALL, aged ≥ 15 years, were eligible for the study if their leukemic blast cells in bone marrow expressed CD20 ≥ 20% at the time of diagnosis. Patients received multiagent chemotherapy with rituximab. After achieving complete remission (CR), patients received five cycles of consolidation with concomitant rituximab. Rituximab was administered monthly from day 90 of transplantation for patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. @*Results@#In patients with Philadelphia (Ph)-negative ALL, 39 of 41 achieved CR (95.1%), the 2- and 4-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were 50.4% and 35.7%, and the 2- and 4-year overall survival (OS) rates were 51.5% and 43.2%, respectively. In the group with Ph-positive ALL, all 32 patients achieved CR, the 2- and 4-year RFS rates were 60.7% and 52.1%, and the 2- and 4-year OS rates were 73.3% and 52.3%, respectively. In the Ph-negative ALL group, patients with higher CD20 positivity experienced more favorable RFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p = 0.06) than those with lower CD20 positivity. Patients who received ≥ 2 cycles of rituximab after transplantation had significantly improved RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; p = 0.049) and OS (HR, 0.29; p = 0.021) compared with those who received < 2 cycles. @*Conclusions@#The addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy for CD20-positive ALL is effective and tolerable (Clinicaltrials. gov NCT01429610).

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 651-660, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003065

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recently, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus ascorbic acid (Asc) has been introduced in Korea as a colonoscopy preparation agent. Data on its efficacy and safety in older adults have been limited. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1 L PEG/Asc in older adults by comparing it with oral sulfate solution (OSS). @*Methods@#A prospective multicenter randomized study was conducted with subjects aged ≥ 65 years who underwent colonoscopy. The participants were randomized to receive 1 L PEG/Asc or OSS. The primary endpoint was successful bowel preparation, defined as total Boston Bowel Preparation Scale ≥ 6, and ≥ 2 at each segment. Patient satisfaction, adverse events, and renal function changes were compared between the groups. @*Results@#Among the 106 patients, 104 were finally included in the analysis. Overall, successful bowel preparation was achieved in 96.2% of both 1 L PEG/Asc and OSS groups. The satisfaction scores for taste, total amount ingested, overall feeling, and willingness to repeat the same regimen were not significantly different between the groups. Adverse events of moderate or higher severity occurred in 16 and 10 cases in the 1 L PEG/Asc and OSS group, respectively. There were no significant changes in electrolyte levels or renal function from baseline. @*Conclusions@#The successful bowel preparation rate was > 90% in both groups without severe adverse effects and significant changes in renal function. As a new low-dose preparation regimen for colonoscopy in older adults, 1 L PEG/Asc, is as effective and safe as OSS.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 818-830, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003035

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are limited studies on the management of hepatic hemangiomas (HHs). We investigated the proportion and predictors of surgical resection and analyzed HH growth rates in addition to associated factors. @*Methods@#A retrospective case-control study of patients treated in 2 centers was conducted. Thirty-six patients who underwent surgical resection were assigned to the case group. Patients who did not undergo surgical treatment were randomly sigselected at a 1:10 ratio and assigned to the control group (n = 360). Baseline characteristics, clinical course and surgical outcomes were analyzed. @*Results@#The proportion of surgically treated HH patients was 0.3% (36 per 11,049). The longest diameter at diagnosis (mean ± standard deviation) was 7.7 ± 5.2 cm in the case group and 2.4 ± 1.8 cm in the control group (p 10 cm (OR 10.50, 95% CI 1.06–103.77, p = 0.04). The subgroup analysis showed substantial growth in 41.3% with an overall mean annual growth rate of 0.14 cm. @*Conclusions@#Approximately one in 300 patients with an HH underwent surgical treatment. Multiple HHs and a growth rate of more than 4.8%/year were indications for surgical treatment. Nearly half of the HHs showed growing pattern in our study.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 259-264, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002946

ABSTRACT

The fundic gland type (GA-FG) of gastric adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of gastric cancer recently included in the 5th edition of the World Health Organization’s classification of digestive system tumors. Five patients with GA-FG underwent an endoscopic resection at our institution. None of the patients had a Helicobacter pylori infection. Four lesions were located in the upper third of the stomach, and one was in the lower third. Three lesions had a IIa shape, while two resembled a subepithelial tumor. An endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed in four patients and endoscopic mucosal resection in one. Tumor cells were composed of well-differentiated columnar cells mimicking fundic gland cells, and the median tumor size was 10 mm. Three lesions exhibited submucosal invasion. No lymphatic or venous invasion was observed. Tumor cells were positive for MUC6 in all five cases; one case was focally positive for MUC5AC. No recurrence was observed during a median follow-up period of 13 months. An endoscopic resection can be a safe treatment modality for GA-FG, considering its small size and low risk of recurrence or metastasis. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2023;81:259-264)

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 30-34, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002936

ABSTRACT

Phlebosclerotic colitis is a rare form of intestinal ischemia. It is caused by calcified peripheral mesenteric veins and a thickened colonic wall. These characteristic findings can be identified on CT and colonoscopy. A 37-year-old female with a history of long-term herbal medicine use presented with acute lower abdominal pain and vomiting of sudden onset. Colonoscopic findings showed dark-blue discolored edematous mucosa and multiple ulcers from the ascending colon to the sigmoid colon. Abdominal CT findings showed diffuse thickening of the colonic wall and calcifications of the peripheral mesenteric veins from the ascending colon to the sigmoid colon. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with phlebosclerotic colitis. We report this rare case of phlebosclerotic colitis in a healthy young female patient with a history of long-term herbal medicine use and include a review of the relevant literature.

9.
Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine ; : 71-75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002914

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To observe and compare the trends in epidemic aspects of imported shigellosis (Sg) cases from overseas travelers (OTs) in Korea and Japan between 2016 and 2020. @*Methods@#We analyzed the raw data of imported Sg cases from the Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan between 2016 and 2020. @*Results@#In Korea, there were a total of 596 Sg infections, including 353 cases from overseas travel-associated imported cases, with a cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of 0.23 per 100,000 populations. The CIR of imported Sg cases was 0.32 per 100,000 OTs. In Japan, during the same period, there were a total of 757 Sg cases, including 388 imported cases, with a CIR of 0.12 per 100,000 populations. The CIR of imported Sg cases was 0.50 per 100,000 OTs. The CIR of total Sg cases in Korea was higher than in Japan, but the CIR of imported cases in Korea was lower than in Japan (P<0.01).Additionally, the imported-to-domestic cases ratio of Sg in Korea (1.45) was higher than in Japan (1.05) (P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Based on the trends in the epidemiological aspects of domestic and imported Sg infection cases in both countries, a robust information system is needed to provide effective warnings and preventive measures for travelers visiting high-risk areas.

10.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 344-355, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002894

ABSTRACT

In complete denture fabrication, accurate preliminary impressions are crucial for obtaining an accurate final impression. However, it can be challenging in cases of atypical arch shapes. This case report compares diagnostic casts made with a stock tray and an intraoral scanner (IOS) in a patient with an atypical arch shape.A 58-year-old edentulous male patient with long, narrow, atypical arches was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department for complete denture fabrication. Compared to the diagnostic cast obtained using IOS with adequately captured anatomical parameters, the primary model obtained using a stock tray showed prominent overextended flanges on the labial and buccal sides of the maxillary arch and less prominent overextended flanges in the mandibular arch with pressure spots in the posterior palatal seal area. The custom tray fabricated from such a model required additional adjustment resulting in increased chair time during the final impression procedure.

11.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 204-214, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002887

ABSTRACT

The occlusal treatment including prosthetic treatment should be considered when the pathologic symptom was observed with the excessive discrepancy between the centric relation occlusion (CRO) and the maximum intercuspal position (MIP). Through careful diagnosis, the malocclusion and interarch relationship can be analyzed, and occlusal adjustment, restorative treatment, orthodontic therapy, or orthognathic surgery can be performed depending on the degree of disharmony. The patient in this case report complained the unstable occlusion and loss of masticatory function that had been occurring for several years. At the time of the visit, the patient showed severe occlusal disharmony, with only the upper right second molar contacting the lower jaw at the maximum intercuspal position. Based on the analysis of the occlusion, it was difficult to solve the problem with just occlusal adjustment or restorative treatment. In addition, the patient had the skeletal class II malocclusion between the upper and lower jaws. Therefore, for resolving the severe skeletal class II malocclusion, pre- and post-orthodontic treatment, bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) was performed. After that, the occlusal adjustment was performed for stable occlusion, and the missing teeth area was restored with dental implants. During the follow-up period, a periodic follow-up visits and additional occlusal adjustments were performed to achieve a stable centric occlusion and harmonious anterior and lateral guidance. As a result, the final prosthodontic treatment was completed, and the patient’s masticatory function was restored.

12.
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology ; : 9-12, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002832

ABSTRACT

Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are prevalent in various sleep disorders, such as restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements disorder, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and narcolepsy. PLMS has been hypothesized to be related to the decline of dopaminergic transmission. In RLS, PLMS is suggested to be related to iron deficiency and symptom severity. PLMD is a rare sleep disorder, and the role of PLMS in PLMD has not been clearly investigated yet. PLMS in OSA, which remain after proper PAP therapy, may need further management. The clinical relevance of PLMS in RBD and narcolepsy have not been investigated thoroughly and need further studies. Whether PLMS are to be considered as a mere symptom of individual sleep disorders or not can be elucidated through studies investigating the efficacy of therapeutic approaches to reduce PLMS in various sleep disorders.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 897-903, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002754

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The suicide rate in Korea was the highest among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 2019. In a previous study, higher intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation, and carotene-rich fruits and vegetables lowered the risk of depression. This study aimed to examine the direct relationship between carotene intake and suicidal ideation, adjusting for the effect on depression. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2015. Carotene intake was assessed through a food intake frequency survey with a 24-hour recall. Suicidal ideation and depression were assessed using the mental health section of the KNHANES. We applied logistic regression to assess the relationship between carotene intake and suicidal ideation, adjusting for potential confounders. @*Results@#A total of 5,480 females aged 19–64 years were included in this study. Carotene intake was significantly lower in the suicidal ideation group (3,034.5±1,756.4 μg/day) than in the nonsuicidal ideation group (3,225.4±1,795.1 μg/day) (p=0.015). We found a significant inverse association between carotene intake and the risk of suicidal ideation after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio=0.934, 95% confidence interval=0.873–0.999). @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that carotene intake may be inversely associated with the risk of suicidal ideation. Our findings may inform the development of new nutritional interventions to prevent increases in the risk of suicide worldwide.

14.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 263-271, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002619

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The household secondary attack rate (SAR) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important indicator for community transmission. This study aimed to characterize transmission by comparing household SARs and identifying risk factors during the periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance in Republic of Korea. @*Methods@#We defined the period of Delta variant predominance (Delta period) as July 25, 2021 to January 15, 2022, and the period of Omicron variant predominance (Omicron period) as February 7 to September 3, 2022. The number of index cases included was 214,229 for the Delta period and 5,521,393 for the Omicron period. To identify the household SARs and risk factors for each period, logistic regression was performed to determine the adjusted odds ratio (aOR). @*Results@#The SAR was 35.2% for the Delta period and 43.1% for the Omicron period. The aOR of infection was higher in 2 groups, those aged 0 to 18 years and ≥75 years, compared to those aged 19 to 49 years. Unvaccinated individuals (vs. vaccinated individuals) and individuals experiencing initial infection (vs. individuals experiencing a second or third infection) had an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the household SARs and risk factors. We hope that the @*results@#can help develop age-specific immunization plans and responses to reduce the SAR in preparation for emerging infectious diseases or potential new variants of SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 131-136, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002381

ABSTRACT

The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is still poor with a 5-year survival rate around 10%. We report a case of complete remission after palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer in a 61-year-old-female. She presented with indigestion and weight loss. A computed tomography scan revealed a 1.8 cm mass in the pancreatic head. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were elevated. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) and the pathologic examination showed adenocarcinoma. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pancreas showed a metastatic nodule in the S6 segment of the liver and a metastatic portocaval lymph node. The final diagnosis was stage IV pancreatic cancer. The patient received 24 cycles of palliative FOLFIRINOX regimen. Response evaluation demonstrated disappearance of all the lesions. She underwent pyloruspreserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). The pathologic examination of the surgical specimen showed complete remission of the pancreatic cancer. The patient is currently undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

16.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 365-372, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002365

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal brolucizumab injection with aflibercept in treatment-naive neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients. @*Methods@#A total of 59 eyes from 59 treatment-naive nAMD patients in three hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. Of which, 27 patients underwent intravitreal brolucizumab injections and 32 received aflibercept. After monthly consecutive three injections, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; in logarithm of minimal angle of resolution [logMAR]), central macular thickness (CMT), dry macula achievement rate, and intraocular inflammation (IOI) incidence were compared. @*Results@#After loading-phase treatment, BCVA was significantly increased from 0.48 ± 0.30 logMAR at baseline to 0.33 ± 0.21 logMAR at 3 months in the brolucizumab group (p = 0.002) and 0.40 ± 0.39 logMAR at baseline to 0.33 ± 0.36 logMAR at 3 months in the aflibercept group (p = 0.007). But there was no significant difference in BCVA improvement at 3 months between the two groups. CMT significantly decreased from 429.67 ± 250.59 μm at baseline to 210.67 ± 93.53 μm at 3 months in the brolucizumab group and from 346.69 ± 159.09 μm to 234.52 ± 83.42 μm in the aflibercept group (both p < 0.001). The amount of CMT reduction was significantly greater in the brolucizumab group after 3 months (p = 0.036). In typical AMD eyes, brolucizumab showed similar BCVA improvement but better CMT reduction at 3 months (p = 0.018). Dry macula achievement rate was not significantly different between the two groups. One IOI was observed in the brolucizumab group. @*Conclusions@#Intravitreal injections of brolucizumab and aflibercept showed similar anatomical and functional outcomes. But CMT reduction was greater in the brolucizumab group. One IOI was identified, which was tolerable for topical agents. These results suggest that brolucizumab could be a novel first line treatment option for treating naive nAMD patients.

17.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 95-104, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002284

ABSTRACT

A death certificate (DC) can be considered a legal document and in terms of societal use, it is a public document. A DC includes facts such as the time and place of death, as well as judgments as to the cause and manner of death. Whether it pertains to facts or judgments, recording false information results in a false DC. According to the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) in the United States, it is acknowledged that there are varying opinions and approaches when it comes to classifying the manner of death. Therefore, it may require a final judgment, including input from the legal system. Generally, deaths resulting from complications that occur during drug administration or medical procedures are classified as natural deaths, while deaths due to unforeseen complications that occur suddenly, are categorized as accidental deaths. Applying this classification by NAME to the principles and legal precedents related to the duty of explanation and medical lowas of the Korean Medical Association, it is reasonable to classify deaths resulting from complication, during medical care, as natural death. However, if the death occurs due to injury or poisoning during medical care, it falls under external causes, according to the principle of following the primary cause. In conclusion, it is considered reasonable to classify complications that occur during medical treatment as natural deaths when they are foreseeable and within the accepted range of complications determined by medical standards at that the time.

18.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 509-512, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002212

ABSTRACT

Neurothekeoma is a rare, benign, cutaneous tumor of unknown origin that can be classified into myxoid, cellular, and mixed types. The tumor presents as a solitary nodule mainly on the head, neck, and upper extremities of children and young adults with female preponderance. Histopathologically, epithelioid to spindled-shaped cells form lobules or micronodules and cytologic atypia are occasionally observed with variable fibrous and myxoid stroma.Neurothekeoma can mimic several benign and malignant tumors and recur if incompletely excised. Therefore, it is important to be aware of this tumor for accurate diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of nasal cellular neurothekeoma with a review of related literature.

19.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 342-351, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002177

ABSTRACT

Background@#Many aspects are considered when selecting psoriasis treatments, such as psoriasis severity. In particular, patients’ subjective aspects, such as quality of life and treatment satisfaction, are important when planning treatment, and several studies on these aspects exist. However, studies on the direct thoughts of Korean patients with psoriasis, such as what patients value the most, are limited. @*Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate treatment satisfaction and perceptions regarding the importance or subjective achievement of goals in Korean patients with psoriasis treated with biologics or oral agents. @*Methods@#A total of 59 patients with psoriasis treated with biologics or oral agents for >16 weeks completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of four main parts: patient information, past history and treatment experience associated with psoriasis, treatment satisfaction, and subjective importance and degree of achievement of treatment goals in daily life. @*Results@#Treatment satisfaction in the biologics group was higher in terms of effectiveness, improvement in symptoms, speed of improvement, method of administration, frequency of administration, and comprehensive aspects than that in the oral agents group (p<0.05). However, in both groups, the degree of improvement did not reach the patients’ subjective importance, and “concerned with other people’s eyes due to lesions in exposed area” had the biggest difference. @*Conclusion@#Although biologics had higher treatment satisfaction than oral agents, in some parts of daily life, the degree of improvement did not reach the patients’ subjective importance; therefore, some points still needs to be improved.

20.
Korean Journal of Dental Materials ; (4): 81-90, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002139

ABSTRACT

Lithium disilicate gradation block that have been recently introduced and used in dental clinics have superior light transmittance compared to zirconia-based restorations, so that when applied to anterior restorations, better esthetic results are expected. In addition, it has the advantage that the flexural strength is sufficient and chemical bonding with resin cement is possible. However, high transparency could be a disadvantage in the restoration of abutment teeth with severe discoloration, and various methods have been tried to compensate for this. In this study, in the restoration of central incisors with severe discoloration of the abutment, the inner surface of the crown made of lithium disilicate-based polychromatic blocks was treated with a liner to block the discoloration, and thus aesthetically satisfactory results were obtained.

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