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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917653

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nipple adenoma (NA) is a rare benign tumor arising in the lactiferous ducts of the nipple. It typically presents as a palpable nodule, erosion, or discharge with erythema of the nipple. NA is different from other mammary proliferative diseases of the nipple; however, its clinicopathologic characteristics have been scarcely elucidated. @*Objective@#In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and histopathological characteristics of NA and compare them with mammary Paget’s diseases and breast carcinomas of the nipple. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed fifteen patients with NA. Furthermore, we reviewed fifteen patients with nipple Paget’s diseases and five patients with breast carcinomas (ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma). Skin lesions’ clinical characteristics and general histopathological findings were investigated. @*Results@#NA showed significantly early onset (p=0.014), delayed time for onset to diagnosis (p=0.026), and smaller lesion than other nipple malignant diseases (p<0.001). NA was predominantly localized on the right side and exhibited as more palpable mass and less nipple discharge as initial symptoms. Estimated prevalence of Korean cases (0.026%) was twice higher than Western countries (0.012%). p16 immunostaining in NA and other malignant diseases did not differ. @*Conclusion@#NA is a benign neoplasm arising on the nipple. NA showed earlier onset with smaller size at initial presentation than other malignant diseases which presented more crusts. Unnecessary surgical procedures for NA should be avoided with preceding clinical differential diagnosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917391

ABSTRACT

In primary prevention for cardiovascular diseases, there are significant barriers to adherence including freedom from symptoms, long latency for therapeutic benefits, life-long duration of treatment, and need for combined lifestyle changes. However, to implement more systematic approaches, the focus on adherence improvement needs to be shifted away from patient factors to the effects of the treatment team and healthcare system. In addition to conventional educational approaches, more patient-oriented approaches such as patientcentered clinical communication skills, counseling using motivational strategies, decisionmaking by patient empowerment, and a multi-disciplinary team approach should be developed and implemented. Patients should be involved in a program of self-monitoring, self-management, and active counseling. Because most effective interventions on adherence improvement demand greater resources, the health care system and educational or training system of physicians and healthcare staff need to be supported for systematic improvement.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916877

ABSTRACT

Cardiac CT is the most accurate tool for diagnosing and evaluating coronary artery anomalies.Coronary anomalies can often be observed as the number of cardiac CT scans increases. In this review article, we described the CT findings and clinical significance of coronary anomalies that radiologists should know. In particular, we described the dangerous anatomical findings of coronary anomalies on CT images in detail.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916052

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is a standard diagnostic tool for swallowing disorders. However, it has not been used frequently in Korea because of the long test time, low cost, and the absence of a standard evaluation system. The purpose of this study was to suggest a standard fill-out form for the FEES result. @*Methods@#From February 2019 to June 2020, a total of 98 FEES tests were performed by an otolaryngologist (JYJ) at the Wonkwang University Hospital. After the exclusion of 68 cases, 30 cases were analyzed twice by 4 raters with over 5 years of experience as otolaryngologists working in various hospitals. The results were measured for the rater’s test-retest reliability and inter-rater consistency. @*Results@#Cohen’s kappa values for measuring the intra-rater consistency of the four raters were 0.984, 0.887, 0.848, and 0.930, respectively, meaning very good alignment of 0.8 or more, respectively. The Fleiss Kappa value for measuring inter-rater consistency was 0.276, meaning ‘fair’ for values of 0.2 or more. To examine consistency, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis conducted by assuming the grading score to be a constant continuous variable gave an ICC value of 0.729 (P<0.001), showing a very reliable tendency. @*Conclusion@#In this study, all the items of the fill-out form were rated using a three-step grading scale, so the degree of agreement was high when performed twice by the same rater, but the degree of agreement among raters was relatively low. Therefore, our fill-out form for FEES will be useful in evaluating the improvement of a patient over the course of clinical treatment.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915759

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly efficacious and safe modality for the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), with overall success rates of 90%. Thus, FMT has been widely used for 10 years. The incidence and clinical characteristics of CDI, the main indication for FMT, differ between countries. To date, several guidelines have been published. However, most of them were published in Western countries and therefore cannot represent the Korean national healthcare systems. One of the barriers to performing FMT is a lack of national guidelines. Accordingly, multidisciplinary experts in this field have developed practical guidelines for FMT. The purpose of these guidelines is to aid physicians performing FMT, which can be adapted to treat CDI and other conditions.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915754

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is expected in children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). This study is conducted to estimate the prevalence of SIBO and to investigate the role of SIBO in children and adolescents with FAPDs. @*Methods@#This prospective study enrolled children with FAPDs fulfilling the Rome IV criteria. A hydrogen-methane glucose breath test was used to diagnose SIBO. A survey of bowel symptoms using questionnaires, birth history, types of feeding, and the presence of allergy was conducted. @*Results@#Sixty-eight children and adolescents (range, 6-17 years; median, 12.5 years) were enrolled. SIBO was detected in 14 patients (20.6%). Age (≥ 12 years) (P < 0.003) and loose stool (P = 0.048) were significantly more common in children with SIBO than in children without SIBO. However, the history of allergies (P = 0.031) was less common in children with SIBO than those without SIBO. No significant differences were observed in other demographic findings. In multivariate analysis, age (≥ 12 years) was the independent factor predicting SIBO in children with FAPDs. @*Conclusions@#SIBO is not uncommon in children and adolescents with FAPDs. Among children aged above 12 years and diagnosed with FAPDs, SIBO is a suspected clinical target for treatment to relieve intestinal symptoms. A further study to investigate the association between intestinal bacteria and history of allergy is needed.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 44-52, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914382

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a curative treatment modality for early gastric neoplasms; however, ESD can be a time-consuming process. To overcome this pitfall, we developed the one-step knife (OSK) approach, which combines an endoscopic knife and injection needle on a single sheath. We aimed to evaluate whether this approach could reduce the ESD procedure time. @*Methods@#This single-blinded randomized multicenter trial at four tertiary hospitals from June 2019 to June 2020 included patients aged 19 to 85 years undergoing ESD. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups (OSK or conventional knife [CK]). The injection time, total procedure time, resected specimen size, submucosal fluid amount, degree of device satisfaction, and adverse events were evaluated and compared between groups. @*Results@#Fifty-one patients were analyzed (OSK: 25 patients and CK: 26 patients). No baseline differences were observed between groups, with the exception of a higher portion of males in the OSK group. The mean injection time was significantly reduced in the OSK group (39.0 seconds) compared to that in the CK group (87.5 seconds, p<0.001). A decrease of more than 10 minutes in the total procedure time (18.0 minutes vs 28.1 minutes, p=0.055) in the OSK group compared to the CK group was observed. Second-look esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two delayed bleeding cases in the OSK group that were easily controlled by endoscopic hemostasis. @*Conclusions@#OSK reduced the injection time and showed a decrease in total procedure time compared with the CK approach. OSK can be a feasible tool for ESD, especially in difficult cases.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 81-91, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914380

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to investigate the perceptions and behaviors of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the major epidemic area in Korea. @*Methods@#Between April and May 2020, a cross-sectional survey was performed at two tertiary hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, on patients’ experiences, coping strategies and perceptions. @*Results@#Most of the 544 patients participating in the survey strictly adhered to personal protection guidance against COVID-19. In the early COVID-19 crisis, many patients canceled or postponed hospital visits (57.5%) and rescheduled biologics administrations (26.4%). Although 13.6% utilized telemedicine, the frequency of individuals leaving their homes remained unchanged. Although 50.4% were concerned about their susceptibility to COVID-19, 72.2% adhered to their treatment for IBD. In patients taking biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors, 86.8% disagreed that they should discontinue their medication as a preventative measure against COVID-19, but 21.9% actually discontinued their medications. Of those with discordance between the perception of IBD drug adherence and active behaviors, 5.4% of all and 39.4% of biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors withheld drugs specifically due to fear of COVID-19. Only 7% of all patients discussed drug safety with their physicians. The level of concern for COVID-19 depended on the type of drug used. @*Conclusions@#Patients with IBD showed concerns about the increased risk of COVID-19 due to IBD or their medications, and a considerable number of patients withheld their medications without consulting medical staff. Enhanced active communications with patients with IBD and appropriate health-related education should be provided.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913611

ABSTRACT

Background@#Single free flaps are a commonly used reconstructive method for multiple soft tissue defects in digits. We analyzed the flap size, division timing, and degree of necrosis in cases with various types of flap division. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective review of the medical charts of patients who had undergone single free flap reconstruction for multiple soft tissue defects across their digits from 2011 to 2020. The flap types included were the lateral arm free flap, venous forearm free flap, thenar free flap, hypothenar free flap, anterolateral thigh free flap, medial plantar free flap, and second toe pulp free flap. Flap size, anastomosed vessels, division timing, and occurrence of flap necrosis were retrospectively investigated and then analyzed using the t-test. @*Results@#In total, 75 patients were included in the analysis. The success rate of the free flaps was 97.3%. All flaps were successfully divided after at least 17 days, with a mean of 47.17 days (range, 17–243 days) for large flaps and 42.81 days (range, 20–130 days) for the medium and small flaps (P=0.596). The mean area of flap necrosis was 2.38% in the large flaps and 2.58% in the medium and small flaps (P=0.935). Severe necrosis of the divided flap developed in two patients who had undergone flap division at week 6 and week 34. @*Conclusions@#In cases where blood flow to the flap has been stable for more than 3 weeks, flap division can be safely attempted regardless of the flap size.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913610

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fingertip injuries are very common; however, the reconstruction of volar pulp defects with nail bed defects is challenging in the absence of the amputated segment. We reconstructed fingertip amputations with nail bed defects using a new surgical approach: a subcutaneous flap and composite graft. @*Methods@#We treated 10 fingertip amputation patients without an amputated segment, with exposed distal phalangeal bone and full-thickness nail bed defects between February 2018 and December 2020. All patients underwent two-stage surgery: in the first stage, a subcutaneous flap was performed to cover the exposed distal phalanx, and in the second stage, a composite graft, consisting of nail bed, hyponychium, and volar pulp skin, was applied over the subcutaneous flap. @*Results@#All flaps survived and all composite grafts were successful. The wounds healed without any significant complications, including the donor site. The average follow-up duration was 11.2 months (range, 3–27 months). The new nail and the shape of the volar pulp were evaluated during follow-up. All patients were satisfied with their natural fingertip shapes and the new nails did not have any serious deformities. @*Conclusions@#A subcutaneous flap in combination with a composite graft fitting the shape of the defect could be another option for fingertip injuries without amputated segments.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913532

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway is the critical mechanism in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study analyzed the prognostic impact of pretransplant serum soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) concentration and α-FP–des-γ- –tumor volume (ADV) score in patients with previously untreated HCC undergone liver transplantation (LT). @*Methods@#This retrospective single-center study enrolled 100 patients with HCC who underwent living donor LT from 2010 to 2016. Concentrations of sPD-1 were measured in stored serum samples. @*Results@#Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of 2-year tumor recurrence resulted in an sPD-1 cutoff of 177.1 µg/mL, which was associated with higher rates of tumor recurrence (P = 0.022), but not with overall patient survival (P = 0.460). The derived cutoff for pretransplant ADV score was 5.4log, which was associated with higher tumor recurrence rate (P 177.1 µg/mL (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; P = 0.020) and pretransplant ADV score of >5.4log (HR, 3.56; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for posttransplant HCC recurrence. The combination of these 2 factors enabled the stratification of patients into 3 groups, with groups having 0, 1, and 2 risk factors differing significantly in the prognosis of tumor recurrence (P < 0.001) and overall patient survival (P = 0.006). @*Conclusion@#Both sPD-1 concentration and ADV score have prognostic impacts in patients who underwent LT for untreated HCCs. These factors, both individually and combined, can help in predicting posttransplant prognosis.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926992

ABSTRACT

Multidrug resistance in bacteria is an important issue and is increasing in frequency worldwide because of the limitations of therapeutic agents. From 2010 to 2019, 14 new systemic antibiotics received regulatory approval in the United States. However, few new antibiotics have been introduced in Republic of Korea to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we introduce six novel antibiotics for Gram-positive bacteria and five for Gram-negative bacteria approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency from 2009 to October 2021, and recommend that they be approved for use in Republic of Korea at the earliest possible date.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926983

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study evaluated the incidence of iatrogenic colonic perforation (ICP) in a high-volume center and analyzed the clinical outcomes and associated factors. @*Methods@#As a retrospective study of the electronic medical records, the whole data of patients who underwent colonoscopy from June 2004 to May 2020 were reviewed. @*Results@#During 16 years, 69,458 procedures were performed, of which 60,288 were diagnostic and 9,170 were therapeutic. ICP occurred in 0.027% (16/60,288) for diagnostic colonoscopies and in 0.076% (7/9,170) for therapeutic purposes (p=0.015; hazard ratio 2.878; 95% CI, 1.184-6.997). Fifty-two percent (12 cases) were managed with endoscopic clip closure, and 43.5% (10 cases) required surgery. The reasons for the procedure and the procedure timing appeared to affect the treatment decision. Perforations during therapeutic colonoscopy were treated with surgery more often than those for diagnostic purposes (66.7% [4/6] vs. 37.5% [6/16], p=0.221). Regarding the timing of the procedure, ICP that occurred in the afternoon session was more likely treated surgically (56.3% [9/16] vs. 0/5, p=0.027). Mortality occurred in two patients (2/23, 8.7%). Both were aged (mean age 84.0±1.4 vs. 65.7±10.5, p<0.001) and lately recognized (mean elapsed time [hours], 43.8±52.5 vs. 1.5±3.0, p<0.001) than the surviving patients. @*Conclusions@#ICP occurs in less than 0.1% of cases. The events that occurred during the morning session were more likely managed endoscopically. Age over 80 years and a longer time before perforation recognition were associated with mortality.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926907

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial characteristics of the employees working at a university hospital and investigated the factors affecting their quality of life (QOL) under COVID-19. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 1,191 healthcare workers from a university hospital, including doctors, nurses, administrative officer and technicians. Besides demographic information, depression, anxiety, somatization, insomnia, resilience, and QOL were assessed. @*Results@#The nurses presented significantly higher scores for anxiety, depression and showed significantly higher insomnia scores and significantly lower resilience scores. The occupations showed significant differences in the QOL and sub-groups, including the overall quality of life and general health (F=4.774, p<0.001), psychological domain (F=6.230, p<0.001), and environment domain (F=5.254, p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the QOL and resilience (r=0.608, p<0.01). However, depression (r=-0.502, p<0.01), anxiety (r=-0.425, p<0.01), somatization (r=-0.364, p<0.01), and insomnia (r=-0.385, p<0.01) showed negative correlations with the QOL. Resilience was the most important factor influencing the QOL. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study showed that low resilience adversely affected the QOL and the mental health of the healthcare workers, which consequently had a direct effect on the quality of medical care given to patients.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Numerous studies have examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) for adults, but these include very few studies for young adults. This study therefore undertook to investigate the association between drinking behaviors and components of MetS among adult drinkers aged 20–30 years. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#Using the 2016–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, drinking behaviors of adults in the age group 20–30 years were divided into 4 groups: 1) group A, good drinking habits; 2) group B, frequent binge drinking but not frequent drinking; 3) group C, frequent drinking but not frequent binge drinking; 4) group D, frequent drinking and binge drinking. The association between MetS components and drinking behaviors was analyzed by applying multiple logistic regression analysis. @*RESULTS@#We determined the prevalence risk compared to group A. In men, the prevalence risk of high triglyceride (TG) increased 2.051-fold in group C and 1.965-fold in group D.Moreover, in group D, the prevalence risk of low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased 0.668-fold, high blood pressure (BP) increased 2.147-fold, and MetS increased 1.567-fold. In women, there was an increased prevalence risk of low HDL-C (0.353-fold) and MetS (3.438-fold) in group C, whereas group D showed increased prevalence risk of abdominal obesity (2.959-fold), high TG (1.824-fold, and low HDL-C (0.424-fold). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study indicates that frequent drinking increases the risk of high TG, whereas frequent and binge drinking increases the risk of high TG, low HDL-C, high BP, and prevalence of MetS in men. In women, frequent drinking without binge drinking increases the risk of low HDL-C and MetS, whereas frequent and binge drinking increases the risk of abdominal obesity, high TG, and low HDL-C. We propose that improvements in the drinking behaviors can reduce the prevalence of MetS.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926710

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is characterized by sudden onset of impaired hearing, and systemic steroid is the most widely accepted treatment option for it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of stellate ganglion block (SGB) as a treatment option for SSNHL.Subjects and Method A total of 318 patients diagnosed with SSNHL were treated with systemic steroid and SGB (SGB group, 127 patients) or systemic steroid only (non-SGB group, 191 patients). Hearing improvement was defined as a hearing gain of more than slight improvement using Siegel’s criteria. @*Results@#The SGB group did not show any significant effects on hearing improvement compared with the non-SGB group (60% vs. 65%). However, some patients with profound hearing loss of more than 90 dB have recovered above average after the SGB treatment. Also, we used multiple regression analysis to ascertain which factors influenced hearing recovery, and found that the initial pure-tone audiometry thresholds at 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz were statistically associated with hearing recovery. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, SGB did not show a clear therapeutic effect, but suggested the possibility of treatment for improving the inner ear circulation of patients with profound hearing loss.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926701

ABSTRACT

Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common condition in clinical otolaryngology practice. The eustachian tube (ET) is the only pathway connecting the middle ear cavity and the nasopharynx, and has a ventilation function to equalize the pressure of the middle ear and the atmosphere, a discharge function of middle ear secretions into the nasopharynx, and a defense function to prevent reflux from the nasopharynx. The most important function of the ET is to maintain a consistent middle ear air pressure for efficient sound transmission. Various methods have been used to measure the physiological function of ET. Traditional methods include the Valsalva, Toynbee, and Politzer test. Physiological methods include the 9-step Bluestone inflation-deflation test and sonotubometry. Evaluation of ETD using questionnaires is also being conducted, and currently, imaging tests are also conducted to evaluate the structure of ET. However, no standard protocols have been established until now. In this article, the types, methods, and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available ET function tests are introduced.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926694

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze 10-year trends in utilization of visual field tests for adult glaucoma or glaucoma-suspect patients using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment data. @*Methods@#Health claims for the years 2010 to 2019, as recorded via Korea’s Health Insurance Review and Assessment service, were accessed. We identified glaucoma patients using the glaucoma diagnostic codes H40 (glaucoma) and H42 (glaucoma in other diseases classified elsewhere). For verification of the glaucoma diagnosis, information on any antiglaucoma medication prescriptions and ocular surgery history also was obtained. Visual field testing data was isolated using procedural codes E6690 (kinetic perimetry) and E6691 (standard automated perimetry [SAP]) performed in tertiary hospitals. Any changes in visual field test utilization were identified using regression trend analysis. @*Results@#From 2010 to 2019, the total number of SAP procedures performed in tertiary hospitals for either glaucoma or glaucoma-suspect patients increased gradually from 93,459 to 216,433. With regard to kinetic perimetry examinations, the total number decreased gradually from 6,364 to 3,792. The yearly average SAP number per patient showed a slight increase, from 1.168 to 1.248 (ß = 0.008, R2 = 0.669, p = 0.004). Meanwhile, the yearly average number of kinetic perimeter examinations per patient showed a significant decrease, from 1.093 to 0.940 (ß = -0.013, R2 = 0.580, p = 0.010). @*Conclusions@#Between 2010 and 2019, the yearly average number of SAP procedures performed per glaucoma or glaucoma-suspect patient increased in Korea. Meanwhile, the yearly average number of kinetic perimetry examinations per patient significantly decreased.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926606

ABSTRACT

Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is a type of porokeratosis that is characterized by multiple small lesions on the sun-exposed areas of the body. The presence of dermal amyloid deposition associated with disseminated superficial porokeratosis has rarely been reported in the literature. A 69-year-old female presented to our department with multiple pruritic brownish macules. Physical examination revealed scattered 2∼3-mm-sized, brownish-colored, round to annular macules limited to the sun-exposed areas, such as the forearms, lower legs, and upper trunk. Dermoscopy revealed a peripheral rim and central white hub surrounded by brown pigmentation. Skin biopsy of the leg showed not only the typical finding of DSAP, including the cornoid lamella, but also deposits of eosinophilic amorphous materials in the dermis. After Congo red staining, the dermal deposits were confirmed to be amyloid. Herein, we report a rare case of DSAP with dermal amyloid deposition and dermoscopic presentation.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926599

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The purposes of this study were to compare the degree of sodium reduction practice and estimate sodium intake by salty food preference. @*Methods@#Sodium reduction practices, salty food preferences and estimated sodium intake were surveyed for restaurant owners (n = 80), employees (n = 82) and customers (n = 727) at the restaurants participating in the sodium reduction project in Daegu, Korea. Estimated sodium intake was performed by examining sex, age, body mass index (BMI), salty eating habit and dietary behaviors. @*Results@#The degree of sodium reduction practice was significantly higher in salinity meter use (P < 0.001), low salt seasonings (P < 0.001) and efforts to make the foods as bland as possible overall (P < 0.001) in the restaurants participating in sodium reduction project than in homes (P < 0.001). The degree of sodium reduction practice appeared lower in the high salty food preference group than in the low-preference group in such items as efforts to make the foods as bland as possible overall (P < 0.05) and washing the salty taste and then cooking (P < 0.05). The high-preference group showed high-salt dietary behavior, including eating all the soup until nothing was left (P < 0.05) more than the low-preference group, but low-salt dietary behavior included checking the sodium content in processed foods (P < 0 .0 5) less than the low-preference group. The high-preference group was higher in the soup and stew intake frequency than the low-preference group (P < 0.05) and much lower in nuts (P < 0.05) and fruits (P < 0.05) intake frequency. The high-preference group had a higher salty eating habit (P < 0.05), salty taste assessment (P < 0.05) and estimated sodium intake (P < 0.05) than the low-preference group. @*Conclusions@#The present study showed that the salty food preference was strongly associated with lower sodium reduction practice and higher estimated sodium intake.

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