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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 511-517, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003208

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Anatomical landmarks can provide vital information on the distribution of nerves in the gastrocnemius muscle. We aimed to provide an anatomical perspective on appropriate locations for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections in the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius for calf shaping. @*Materials and Methods@#A modified Sihler’s method was applied to both the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius muscles (16 specimens). Intramuscular neural distributions were revealed by dissecting along a transverse line crossing the fibular head and superior margin of the calcaneal tuberosity. @*Results@#The intramuscular neural distribution for the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius had the greatest arborized patterns in the 7/10–8/10 section of the medial head and 7.5/10–8.5/10 section of the lateral part of the gastrocnemius. @*Conclusion@#We propose that BoNT injections should be directed to the 7/10–8/10 section of the medial head and the 7.5/10– 8.5/10 section of the lateral part of the gastrocnemius. Following our guidelines, clinicians can ensure satisfactory results with the use of minimal doses to limit adverse effects, such as gait disturbance, antibody production, and bruising, due to multiple injections. The results can also be altered and applied to electromyography.

2.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 553-562, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003143

ABSTRACT

Tendon, connective tissue between bone and muscle has unique component of the musculoskeletal system. It plays important role for transporting mechanical stress from muscle to bone and enabling locomotive motion of the body. There are some restoration capacities in the tendon tissue, but the injured tendons are not completely regenerated after acute and chronic tendon injury. At this point, the treatment options for tendon injuries are limited and not that successful. Therefore, biomedical engineering approaches are emerged to cope with this issue. Among them, three-dimensional cell culture platforms provided similarity to in vivo conditions and suggested opportunities for new therapeutic approaches for treatment of tendon injuries. In this review, we focus on the characteristics of tendon tissue and tendon pathologies which can be targets for tendon tissue engineering strategies. Then proof-of-concept and pre-clinical studies leveraging advanced 3-dimensional cell culture platforms for tendon tissue regeneration have been discussed.

3.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 237-242, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002787

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated occupational exposure levels of doxorubicin in healthcare workers performing rotational intraperitoneal pressurized aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) procedures. @*Methods@#All samples were collected during PIPAC procedures applying doxorubicin to an experimental animal model (pigs). All procedures were applied to seven pigs, each for approximately 44 min. Surface samples (n = 51) were obtained from substances contaminating the PIPAC devices, surrounding objects, and protective equipment. Airborne samples were also collected around the operating table (n = 39). All samples were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. @*Results@#Among the surface samples, doxorubicin was detected in only five samples (9.8%) that were directly exposed to antineoplastic drug aerosols in the abdominal cavity originating from PIPAC devices. The telescopes showed concentrations of 0.48–5.44 ng/cm2 and the trocar showed 0.98 ng/cm2 in the region where the spraying nozzles were inserted. The syringe line connector showed a maximum concentration of 181.07 ng/cm2, following a leakage. Contamination was not detected on the surgeons' gloves or shoes. Objects surrounding the operating table, including tables, operating lights, entrance doors, and trocar holders, were found to be uncontaminated. All air samples collected at locations where healthcare workers performed procedures were found to be uncontaminated. @*Conclusions@#Most air and surface samples were uncontaminated or showed very low doxorubicin concentrations during PIPAC procedures. However, there remains a potential for leakage, in which case dermal exposure may occur. Safety protocols related to leakage accidents, selection of appropriate protective equipment, and the use of disposable devices are necessary to prevent occupational exposure.

4.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 463-471, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002218

ABSTRACT

For all suspected, clinical, or confirmed cases of scabies, treatment should be initiated. Affected patients should be adequately isolated, and high-risk groups with close contact histories should be treated irrespective of their symptoms. Optimal treatment strategies can be selected based on age, clinical subtype, and patient’s health status. In Korea, commercially available preparations for scabies treatment include topical 5% permethrin, topical 10% crotamiton, and oral ivermectin. Topical 5% permethrin is the first-line selective treatment for both classic and crusted scabies. Alternative treatments are topical 10% crotamiton and oral ivermectin. Following treatment completion, a follow-up visit at 2 and 4 weeks is recommended to monitor therapeutic response. Treatment failure is considered when scabies mites or burrows are detected, upon development of new clinical characteristics, or upon aggravation of pruritus. Scabies itch should be adequately managed with emollients, oral antihistamines, and topical corticosteroids. Preventive measures, including personal hygiene, patient education, and environmental control should be rendered to reduce the transmission of scabies.

5.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 265-274, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002193

ABSTRACT

Background@#Guselkumab is a monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks the p19 subunit of interleukin-23. It has shown good efficacy and safety profile in several clinical trials of plaque psoriasis. However, studies on the efficacy of guselkumab in patients treated with other biologics are lacking. @*Objective@#We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety profile of guselkumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. We also compared the efficacy of guselkumab between biologic-naïve (Bio-Naïve) and biologicexperienced (Bio-Ex) patients. @*Methods@#This multicenter, retrospective study included 72 patients treated with guselkumab. The patients’ clinical characteristics and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores were recorded at each visit. The PASI90 and PASI100 responses and mean PASI scores were compared between the Bio-Naïve and Bio-Ex groups. @*Results@#Fifty-five Bio-Naïve patients and 17 Bio-Ex patients were included in the study. At week 20, there were no significant differences in the PASI90 (64.2% vs. 53.8%) and PASI100 (28.3% vs. 15.4%) responses between the groups. However, at weeks 36 and 44, the PASI90 response (week 36: 89.2% vs. 36.4% and week 44: 97.8% vs. 63.6%) and the PASI100 response (week 36: 64.9% vs. 18.2% and week 44: 68.9% vs. 27.3%) were significantly higher in the Bio-Naïve group (p<0.05). There were no differences in PASI90 and PASI100 responses between the groups in terms of other clinical characteristics and comorbidities at week 20. @*Conclusion@#The efficacy of guselkumab remained consistent among patients in whom other biologics had failed. However, the efficacy was slightly lower in the Bio-Ex group than in the Bio-Naïve group.

6.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 374-377, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002172

ABSTRACT

Desmoplastic Spitz nevus is a rare variant of Spitz nevus characterized by predominantly spindle-shaped or epithelioid nevus cells within the fibrotic stroma that can be confused with fibrous lesions. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 1-cm-sized dome-shaped papule on the dorsum of her left foot. The lesion showed histopathological features of a desmoplastic Spitz nevus with structures that resemble adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for S-100 protein, Melan-A, and SOX-10. Herein, we report this case because desmoplastic Spitz nevus is rare and can lead to confusion regarding the diagnosis of adnexal neoplasms.

7.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 393-403, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002166

ABSTRACT

Scabies is a skin disease caused by the parasite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, primarily transmitted via direct skin or sexual contact or, less commonly, via contact with infested fomites. In Korea, the incidence of scabies has decreased from approximately 50,000 people/yr in 2010 to approximately 30,000 people/yr in 2021. However, outbreaks have been consistently observed in residential facilities, such as nursing facilities, particularly among the older population. The clinical manifestations of scabies vary depending on a patient’s age, health status, number of mites, and transmission route. Typical clinical presentations of classic scabies include intense nocturnal pruritus and characteristic skin rashes (burrows and erythematous papules), with a predilection for the interdigital web spaces, inner wrists, periumbilical areas, axillae, and genital areas. Unlike classic scabies, older adults with immunodeficiency or neurological disorders exhibit hyperkeratotic scaly lesions or an atypical distribution with mild-to-non pruritus (crusted scabies). Diagnosis of scabies is based on clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests aimed at identifying the presence of the parasite. Although a close contact history and characteristic clinical findings are suggestive of scabies, confirmation of diagnosis requires detection of scabies mites, eggs, or scybala.This can be achieved through light microscopy of skin samples, non-invasive dermoscopy, and other high-resolution in vivo imaging techniques.

8.
Korean Journal of Dental Materials ; (4): 59-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002141

ABSTRACT

This study compared the effectiveness of self-propelling diatom microbubblers to clean dental appliances with commercial denture cleaning agents according to the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety’s guidelines. The microbubbler is made by doping diatoms with MnO2 nanosheets that can decompose hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen bubbles. Artificial saliva is prepared in accordance with the criteria presented by the American Dental Association, dispensed, and dried in 96 well plates. Experimental groups include 10-15% NaOCl (positive control), distilled water (negative control), diatom microbubbler A (Aulacoseira, MnO2-polydopamine (PDA)-A), diatom microbubbler M (Melosira nummuloids, MnO2-sugar (S)-M), Polident (GlaxoSmithKline, Dungarvan, Ireland), Dentfix-forte (Helago-Phama GmbH&Co, Parchim, Germany). After washing, absorbance (OD 600) was measured. If the absorbance was 70% or higher, the condition was determined to have “cleaning power potency,”Statistical significance was evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction to compare cleaning effects among groups (p<0.05).The average cleaning rates were 93.8±1.0% in NaOCl (positive control) and 79.1±1.5% in distilled water (negative control).With the diatom microbubbler A, the average cleaning rate was 79.8±4.5% in the 3% H 2O 2 2 mg/mL, 64.7±5.5% in 6% H 2O 2 2 mg/mL, and 81.9±7.9% in 6% H 2O 2 4 mg/mL. The diatom microbubbler M group showed average cleaning rates of 88.5±3.6% in 3% H2O2 2 mg/mL, 75.8±4.0% in 6% H2O2 2 mg/mL, and 84.5±4.5% in 6% H2O2 4 mg/mL. Finally, conventional denture cleaning agents showed average cleaning rates of 88.2±1.2% in Polident and 83.3±3.0% in Dentfix-forte. The positive control group had significant differences from all experimental groups, but the negative control group showed significant differences only in A2 and A3, M1 and M2, M3, Polident, and Dentfix-forte (F=190.141, p<0.001). Among all groups except the positive control group, MnO2 -S-M mixed with 3% H2O2 2 mg/mL showed the highest cleaning rate. As the results of this study show, diatom complexes exhibit cleaning effects compatible with conventional denture cleaning agents. Further studies need to be conducted to narrow down the specific optimal conditions of diatom microbubblers and maximize the cleaning effect.

9.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 314-317, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001749

ABSTRACT

Pachymeningitis is an inflammatory process mainly involving the dura mater and is possibly associated with infectious, neoplastic, or autoimmune disease. However, in most cases, the etiology remains unknown. Clinical manifestations of pachymeningitis can vary, ranging from headache, cranial neuropathy, cerebellar dysfunction, to seizure. Here we report two cases of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with pachymeningitis, in both the visual loss attributed to optic neuropathy was the primary sign.

10.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 318-320, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001748

ABSTRACT

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a condition characterized by lancinating pain in the tongue, soft palate, and pharynx. This condition can be caused by the combination of traction and compression of the glossopharyngeal nerve by tortuous vertebral and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, which tug down and exert pressure on the nerve. Medical treatments including carbamazepine and gabapentin have been found to effectively manage glossopharyngeal neuralgia, even in cases with overt compression and traction of the nerve.

11.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 525-535, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001279

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: We performed an expanded multi-ethnic meta-analysis to identify associations between inflammation-related loci with intracranial aneurysm (IA) susceptibility. This meta-analysis possesses increased statistical power as it is based on the most data ever evaluated. @*Methods@#: We searched and reviewed relevant literature through electronic search engines up to August 2022. Overall estimates were calculated under the fixed- or random-effect models using pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were performed according to ethnicity. @*Results@#: Our meta-analysis enrolled 15 studies and involved 3070 patients and 5528 controls including European, Asian, Hispanic, and mixed ethnic populations. Of 17 inflammation-related variants, the rs1800796 locus (interleukin [IL]-6) showed the most significant genome-wide association with IA in East-Asian populations, including 1276 IA patients and 1322 controls (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56–0.75; p=3.24×10-9) under a fixed-effect model. However, this association was not observed in the European population (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.80–1.47; p=0.5929). Three other variants, rs16944 (IL-1β), rs2195940 (IL-12B), and rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor-α) showed a statistically nominal association with IA in both the overall, as well as East-Asian populations (0.01

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e230-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001112

ABSTRACT

Background@#Data on the status of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care for childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) in Korea is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the current status of LTFU care for CCSs and relevant physicians’ perspectives. @*Methods@#A nationwide online survey of pediatric hematologists/oncologists in the Republic of Korea was undertaken. @*Results@#Overall, 47 of the 74 board-certified Korean pediatric hematologists/oncologists currently providing pediatric hematology/oncology care participated in the survey (response rate = 63.5%). Forty-five of the 47 respondents provided LTFU care for CCSs five years after the completion of primary cancer treatment. However, some of the 45 respondents provided LTFU care only for CCS with late complications or CCSs who requested LTFU care. Twenty of the 45 respondents oversaw LTFU care for adult CCSs, although pediatric hematologists/ oncologists experienced more difficulties managing adult CCSs. Many pediatric hematologists/oncologists did not perform the necessary screening test, although CCSs had risk factors for late complications, mostly because of insurance coverage issues and the lack of Korean LTFU guidelines. Regarding a desirable LTFU care system for CCSs in Korea, 27 of the 46 respondents (58.7%) answered that it is desirable to establish a multidisciplinary CCSs care system in which pediatric hematologists/oncologists and adult physicians cooperate. @*Conclusion@#The LTFU care system for CCS is underdeveloped in the Republic of Korea. It is urgent to establish an LTFU care system to meet the growing needs of Korean CCSs, which should include Korean CCSs care guidelines, provider education plans, the establishment of multidisciplinary care systems, and a supportive national healthcare policy.

13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 254-267, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000784

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to analyze contemporary practice patterns in breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) and assess longitudinal changes over five years in Korea. @*Methods@#In 2022, a nationwide survey was conducted among board-certified radiation oncologists. The survey consisted of 44 questions related to six domains: hypofractionated (HypoFx) whole breast RT, accelerated partial breast RT (APBI), regional nodal irradiation (RNI), RT for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), postmastectomy RT (PMRT), and tumor bed boost. @*Results@#Seventy radiation oncologists from 61 (out of 101; 60%) institutions participated in the survey. HypoFx RT was used by 62 respondents (89%), a significant increase from 36% in 2017. HypoFx RT is commonly administered at 40–42.5 Gy in 15–16 fractions. APBI was used by 12 respondents (17%), an increase from 5% in 2017. The use of RNI did not change significantly: ≥ pN2 (6%), ≥ pN1 (33%), and ≥ pN1 with pathological risk factors (61%).However, indications for internal mammary lymph node (IMN) irradiation have expanded.In particular, the rates of routine treatment of IMN (11% from 6% in 2017) and treatment in cases of ≥ pN2 (27% from 14% in 2017) have doubled; however, the rate of treatment for only IMN involvement, identified on imaging, has decreased from 47% in 2017 to 31%. For DCIS, the use of HypoFx RT increased from 25% in 2017 to 75%, and the rate of RT omissions after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) decreased from 48% in 2017 to 38%. The use of HypoFx RT for PMRT increased from 8% in 2017 to 36%. @*Conclusion@#The adoption of HypoFx RT after BCS for invasive breast cancer and DCIS has increased significantly, whereas the use of HypoFx PMRT has increased moderately since 2017. However, further studies are required to determine the optimal use of RNI.

14.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 809-817, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000188

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cage subsidence after oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) induces restenosis and adversely affects patient outcomes. Many studies have investigated the causes of subsidence, one of which is endplate fracture (EF). This study aimed to identify predictors of EF after OLIF. @*Methods@#This retrospective study reviewed consecutive patients who underwent OLIF at a single institute between August 2019 and February 2022. A total of 104 patients were enrolled. The patients’ demographic data and surgical details were collected through chart reviews. Radiographic variables were measured. Related variables were also analyzed using binomial logistic regression, dividing each group into those with versus without EF. @*Results@#EF occurred at 30 of 164 levels (18.3%), and the binary logistic analysis revealed that sex (odds ratio [OR], 11.07), inferior endplate concave depth (OR, 1.95), disc wedge angle (OR, 1.22), lumbar lordosis (OR, 1.09), pelvic incidence (OR, 1.07), sagittal vertical axis (OR, 1.02), sacral slope (OR, 0.9), L3–4 level (OR, 0.005), and L4–5 level (OR, 0.004) were significantly related to EF. @*Conclusions@#OLIF in older Asian patients should be performed carefully after recognizing the high possibility of EF and confirming the factors that should be considered preoperatively.

15.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 873-879, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000173

ABSTRACT

Rotator cuff tears are a condition characterized by damage to the muscles and tendons that connect the scapula and humerus, which are responsible for shoulder rotation and arm lifting. Metabolic factors such as diabetes, thyroid disease, high cholesterol, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, and smoking have been associated with an increased risk of rotator cuff tears. Interestingly, patients with hyperlipidemia, a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood, have been found to have a higher incidence of rotator cuff tears and breakdown of tendon matrix. As a result, statin therapy, which is commonly used to lower cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemia, has been explored as a potential treatment to improve clinical outcomes in rotator cuff tears. However, the results of preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of statins on tendon healing in rotator cuff tears are limited and not well-defined. Moreover, since hyperlipidemia and rotator cuff tears are more prevalent in older individuals, a literature review on the efficacy and safety of statin therapy in this population is needed.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 992-1000, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999793

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at risk for premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). The aim of this study is to evaluate ovarian function and associated health outcomes in female adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty-nine female CCSs were enrolled. Medical records of CCSs were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels (cutoff, 12, 40 IU/L). Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) level less than 1 ng/mL was considered low AMH level. @*Results@#Of 69 subjects, 14 (20.3%) had POI and 14 (20.3%) had FSH levels between 12 and 40 IU/L. Forty-one of 69 (59.4%) had normal FSH levels. Pelvic irradiation and stem cell transplantation (SCT) were more frequently performed in subjects with POI (p=0.001 and p < 0.001). AMH levels were remarkably low when FSH levels were over 12 IU/L (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, cyclophosphamide equivalent dose and SCT were significant treatment factors for developing low AMH levels (p=0.005 and p=0.002, respectively). Total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly different in three groups according to FSH levels (p=0.047, p=0.030, and p=0.045). Z-score of femur neck bone mineral density was significantly reduced when FSH levels were increased (p=0.011). @*Conclusion@#Gonadal dysfunction is common in CCSs. Gonadal function was associated with a few treatment factors known to increase the risk of POI. Regular monitoring of gonadal function is needed for better health outcomes.

17.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 271-273, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999763

ABSTRACT

The authors report an extremely rare case of a massive hyperostotic meningioma en plaque, which had characteristics of unique bony growth. A 34-year-old man presented with a palpable solid mass in the left cranial region that had gradually grown in size with a broad base on the calvarium for 8 years. Radiologically, the area involved by the mass ranged from the sphenoid bone to the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones. Three-dimensional CT revealed multiple growing spiculate features on the inner and outer cranial surface. Even though the radiologic features resembled fibrous dysplasia, it was histologically found to be a type of meningioma.

18.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 392-400, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999581

ABSTRACT

Oblique lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive procedure for treating degenerative lumbar disease. Its advantages include correcting coronal and sagittal spinal alignment and indirect neural decompression. However, achieving a successful outcome is limited in some patients who need direct decompression for central canal lesions including hard stenotic lesions (endplate or facet articular osteophytes and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments) and sequestration of the disk. Biportal endoscopic spinal surgery is a minimally invasive technique, which directly decompresses the lesion. By taking advantage of two procedures, in a longlevel lumbar lesion, alignment correction and direct decompression can be both achieved. Herein, the authors introduce multilevel lumbar fusion through oblique lumbar interbody fusion and selective direct decompression through biportal endoscopic spinal surgery and discuss the surgical indications, surgical pitfalls, and recommendations for application. Consequently, it is regarded as a minimally invasive interbody fusion method for patients with multilevel lumbar degenerative degeneration.

19.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 66-72, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999505

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the everyday use of face masks massively increased to prevent the spread of infection. Many people complain of ear pain and erosion when wearing a mask for extended periods of time. If prolonged mask usage is uncomfortable for ordinary people, a question arises—how much more inconvenient must mask wearing be for patients with a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) donor site in the retroauricular region? Herein, we evaluated complications related to face mask use in 27 patients with a retroauricular FTSG donor site, with the goal of clarifying whether the retroauricular region is still an appropriate FTSG donor site in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#Complications in 27 patients treated by FTSGs harvested from the retroauricular region from 2019 to 2021 were investigated. A questionnaire comparing the normal and the operated sides was administered. Pain, itching, soreness, deformity, and symmetry were further investigated. @*Results@#Pain and itching were the only observed complications. The operated side was slightly more painful than the normal side in four patients (14.8%), and four patients (14.8%) reported itching on the operated side. However, all patients who experienced complications stated that the pain or itching did not interfere with mask wearing. Most symptomatic patients were older than 60 years of age (23.8%, p=0.185) and wore masks for longer periods of time (28.5%, p=0.326). @*Conclusion@#Few retroauricular donor site-related complications occurred, and none of these complications caused inconvenience in daily life. Therefore, in the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of the retroauricular region as an FTSG donor site remains appropriate.

20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 401-403, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999278

ABSTRACT

This case report describes a variation of the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) with a separated muscle belly and tendon at the fifth toe. The narrow tendon and muscle belly for the fifth toe arose from the intermuscular septum between the FDB and abductor digiti minimi adjacent to the arising fibers of the FDB, separating from its other fibers. The tendon and muscle belly for the fifth toe became wider at the base of the metatarsal bones and narrower as it coursed toward the toes in a fusiform shape. The tendon and muscle belly for the fifth toe became thin at the midfoot and coursed just beneath the flexor digitorum longus tendon and entered the digital tendinous sheath. FDB variations including that described herein should be considered when performing various surgical procedures and evaluating the biomechanics of the foot.

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