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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928051

ABSTRACT

In this study, we employed Q Exactive to determine the main differential metabolites of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex du-ring the "sweating" process. Further, we quantified the color parameters and determined the activities of polyphenol oxidase(PPO), peroxidase(POD), and tyrosinase of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex during the "sweating" process. Gray correlation analysis was performed for the color, chemical composition, and enzyme activity to reveal the effect of enzymatic reaction on the color of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex during the "sweating" process. Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex sweating in different manners showed similar metabolite changes. The primary metabolites that changed significantly included amino acids, nucleotides, and sugars, and the secondary metabolites with significant changes were phenols and phenylpropanoids. Despite the different sweating methods, eleven compounds were commonly up-regulated, including L-glutamic acid, acetylarginine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine; six compounds were commonly down-re-gulated, including L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, and phenylalanine. The brightness value(L~*), red-green value(a~*), and yellow-blue value(b~*) of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex kept decreasing during the "sweating" process. The changes in the activities of PPO and POD during sweating were consistent with those in the color parameter values. The gray correlation analysis demonstrated that the main differential metabolites such as amino acids and phenols were closely related to the color parameters L~*, a~* and b~*; POD was correlated with amino acids and phenols; PPO had strong correlation with phenols. The results indicated that the color change of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex during "sweating" was closely related to the reactions of enzymes dominated by PPO and POD. The study analyzed the correlations among the main differential metabolites, color parameters, and enzyme activities of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex in the "sweating" process. It reveals the common law of material changes and ascertains the relationship between color changes and enzymatic reactions of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex during "sweating". Therefore, this study provides a reference for studying the "sweating" mechanism of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex and is of great significance to guarantee the quality of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex.


Subject(s)
Magnolia/chemistry , Quality Control , Sweating
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906341

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the differences in genetic relationship, shape, size, and flavonoid content between traditional and nontraditional medicinal varieties of Citri Reticulatae Semen produced in Sichuan province as well as their equivalence. Method:Six batches of traditional medicinal Citri Reticulatae Semen (<italic>Citrus reticulata</italic> 'Dahongpao') and 23 batches of nontraditional medicinal varieties were collected, and their genetic relationship was explored using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Following the observation of their shapes and sizes under a stereomicroscope, the contents of naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SIMCA 14.1 software was used for cluster analysis of their shapes, sizes, and flavonoid contents, thus figuring out the similarities between the traditional and nontraditional medicinal varieties in character, size, and chemical components. Result:SRAP markers-based genetic relationship analysis effectively distinguished different Citri Reticulatae Semen varieties from each other. Some samples collected from the same or adjacent places exhibited a close genetic relationship and they shared high similarities in shape, size, and flavonoid content. However, the traditional medicinal Citri Reticulatae Semen was still quite different from most nontraditional medicinal varieties. Conclusion:The analysis of differences in genetic materials, appearance, character, and active ingredient content between the traditional and nontraditional medicinal varieties revealed that the equivalence<italic> </italic>of <italic>C.</italic> <italic>reticulata</italic> 'Ponkan' samples from some regions with the traditional medicinal variety was the largest, enabling them to be considered as the emerging medicinal variety.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879001

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Breeding , Plant Extracts
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873079

ABSTRACT

Objective::To develop high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) wavelength switching for simultaneously determining the contents of inosine, loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, amygdalin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, gentiopicroside, ferulic acid and liquiritin in 15 batches of material benchmarks of Shentong Zhuyutang. Method::The quantitative analysis was carried out on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1%phosphoric acid aqueous solution for gradient elution, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the detection wavelengths were set as 248 nm (0-11 min, inosine), 235 nm (11-14 min, loganic acid), 324 nm (14-16 min, chlorogenic acid), 220 nm (16-19 min, amygdalin and hydroxysafflor yellow A), 274 nm (19-26 min, gentiopicroside), 247 nm (26-54 min, ferulic acid and liquiritin), the column temperature was maintained at 25 ℃. According to the contents of eight active components in 15 batches of material benchmarks, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) in SIMCA 14.1 was used to evaluate the quality difference of each batch of samples. Result::Each component had good separations, the linear ranges of the above 8 components were 2.1-67.2, 1.812 5-58, 1.937 5-62, 5.212 5-166.8, 8.45-270.4, 7.075-226.4, 1.775-56.8, 3.875-124 mg·L-1, respectively (r≥0.999 6). The average recoveries of them were 99.23%, 100.09%, 99.33%, 98.85%, 99.15%, 98.75%, 99.42%, 98.96%, respectively (RSD<2%). The contents of the above eight components in 15 batches of material benchmarks were 0.183 5-0.250 3, 0.173 1-0.265 3, 0.069 5-0.169 8, 0.959 2-1.458 2, 1.905 4-2.553 3, 0.933 3-1.997 5, 0.084 6-0.143 4, 0.212 5-0.704 3 mg·g-1, respectively. Liquiritin, ferulic acid, gentiopicroside and hydroxysafflor yellow A were determined to have significant impact on the quality of different batches of material benchmarks of Shentong Zhuyutang through OPLS-DA. Conclusion::The established method for simultaneous determination of multi-components is reliable, simple and in line with the requirements of methodological verification. It is suitable for the quality control of research and development of compound preparations of Shentong Zhuyutang.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872861

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the fight against coronavirus diseasef-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. A total of 241 Chinese patent medicines and 242 prescriptions were recommended by the state and 26 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. A total of 53 varieties of commonly used medicinal materials were selected by analysis, of which 20 were common key varieties in medicinal materials of Chinese patent medicines and prescriptions, including Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Forsythiae Fructus, Pogostemonis Herba, etc. At the same time, some cold-quilt medicines and ethnic medicines also played an important role in the epidemic. By evaluating the supply and regeneration ability of the key varieties of TCM resources under the current COVID-19 epidemic situation, means of the source, regeneration cycle, medicinal parts, new production and market information of 53 kinds of TCM at present, it is suggested that the artificial cultivation of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra can be strengthened, the development of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Isatidis Radix and other domestic medicinal materials can be controlled. In response to the change in market demand, the production variety structure and planting area of Chinese medicinal materials were timely adjusted to improve the quality standard and safety index of Chinese medicinal materials, and in order to provide ideas for the rational allocation of TCM resources and the development of Chinese medicinal materials industry under the epidemic situation.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827941

ABSTRACT

Animal medicines have been called "medicine with affinity to flesh and blood" by doctors of all ages, which always act as an important branch of Chinese medicine. They have various types, extensive sources and long application history, with unique cli-nical effects in anti-coagulation, anti-thrombosis, anti-fatigue, immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-convulsion and so on. Most animal medicines contain proteins, fatty acids, and trimethylamine oxides, which are prone to decomposition and produce substances such as biological amines, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, trimethylamine and ammonia with unpleasant odors. The stench produced by the combination of various odors can easily cause side effects such as nausea and vomiting, which would probably affect the drug compliance and clinical efficacy in patients, and block the development of high-quality animal medicines. At present, we have insufficient understanding on sources and formation mechanism of the stench of animal medicines, lacking development of taste-masking technology. Therefore, the universality, formation, vomiting mechanism, evaluation methods, and masking technology of stench of animal medicines were summarized in this paper, so as to deepen the recognition of stench, provide references for the development of animal medicines deodorization technology, enhance patients' compliance with animal medicines, and promote animal drugs to better serve public health in the new era.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fatigue , Humans , Neoplasms , Taste , Technology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828379

ABSTRACT

Magnolia officinalis is a traditional Chinese medicine,with many years of cultivating process, M. officinalis leaves show more differentiation types due to the exchange of seeds from different provenances. "Da Ao"(DA), "Xiao Ao"(XA), "Chuan Hou"(CH),and "Liu Ye"(LY)are the main types of M. officinalis in Sichuan province of China,and there were obvious differences in growth rate,chemical composition,leaf shape and leaf colour. This study selected different types of M. officinalis leaves(DA,XA,LY and CH)from Sichuan to determine their chlorophyll content. Transcriptomic level sequencing of different types of M. officinalis leaf tissues was by high-throughput sequencing analysis and proteomics used an integrated approach involving TMT labelling and LC-MS/MS to quantify the dynamic changes of the whole proteome of M. officinalis. The results showed that CH had the lowest chlorophyll content while DA had the highest chlorophyll content. Furthermore,transcriptome and proteomics results showed that chlorophyll synthesis pathway in DA glutamine-tRNA reductase,urinary porphyrins decarboxylase(UROD),oxygen-dependent protoporphyrin(ODCO),the original-Ⅲ oxidase protoporphyrin oxidase(PPO),magnesium chelating enzyme subunit ChlD,protoporphyrin magnesium Ⅸ monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase(MPPMC)were significantly higher than CH,XA and LY,consistent in the results of determination of chlorophyll content(chlorophyll content was highest of 37.56 mg·g~(-1) FW). Some rate-limiting enzymes related to the chlorophyll synthesis,such as ODCO,PPO and MPPMC were tested by Parallel Reaction Monitoring(PRM),and the results showed that the rate-limiting enzyme content in DA was higher than that in other three types. Therefore,based on the differences in leaf color of four types of M. officinalis,the research conducted a preliminary study on the chlorophyll metabolism pathway in leaves of different types of M. officinalis,and explored relevant genes and proteins causing leaf color differences from the molecular level,so as to lay a foundation for studying the differences in growth and development of different types of M. officinalis.


Subject(s)
China , Chlorophyll , Chromatography, Liquid , Magnolia , Plant Leaves , Proteome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Transcriptome
8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 554-558, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the correlation of storage life and effective composition content with color value of Carthamus tinctorius ,and to provide reference for the quality evaluation of C. tinctorius with different years of storage. METHODS:Using 24 batches of C. tinctorius from same place of production with different years of storage (0,1,2 years,8 batches each type )as samples ,the contents of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA)and kaempferol were determined by HPLC. Color value [lightness value (L*),red-green value (a*),yellow-blue value (b*)] were determined by spectrophotometer. SPSS 19.0 statistical software was used to analyze the correlation of storage life and effective composition content with color value. RESULTS:Kaempferol content was still high after 1 year or 2 years of storage (0.161%,0.061%,respectively). However ,the content of HSYA decreased with the prolongation of the storage life (the average content of HSYA were 2.46%,1.58%,and 1.51% after storage 0,1 and 2 years,respectively),and the color of the drug became darker (a* value decreased ). Results of correlation analysis showed that the content of HSYA was positively associated with color value L*,a*(r=0.430,0.781,P<0.05 or P<0.01);the content of HSAY was negatively associated with storage life (r=-0.777,P<0.01). There was no correlation between the remaining variables (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS :The longer the storage life ,the darker the color and the lower the content of HSYA ,so it is not suitable for over year and multiyear preservation.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878772

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to investigate the active components and mechanism of Taohong Siwu Decoction in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea(PD) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) was used to search the chemical compositions and targets of six herbs in Taohong Siwu Decoction. The targets for PD treatment were selected through the databases of DrugBank, OMIM, TTD and CTD, and gene annotation of the targets was conducted with UniProt database. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was then used to construct the drug-compound-target network. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed based on STRING, and the core targets of Taohong Siwu Decoction in the treatment of PD were selected according to the topological parameters. David database was used for GO enrichment analysis and KOBAS 3.0 was used for KEGG enrichment analysis. The molecular docking technology was used to connect the components with higher medium values in the network with core targets. The results showed that the network contained 36 compounds such as quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, myricanone and ferulic acid, and 99 targets such as PTGS2, PTGS2, PGR and PPARG. Totally 102 GO terms were obtained by GO functional enrichment analysis(P<0.01), and 228 signal pathways were obtained by KEGG pathway enrichment(P<0.05), mainly involving inflammatory factors, hormone regulation, central analgesia, amino acid metabolism and spasmolysis. The results of molecular docking showed that the main active components can spontaneously bind to the targets. This study preliminarily revealed the mechanism of Taohong Siwu Decoction for treatment of primary dysmenorrheal through multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways, providing theoretical references for further researches on mechanism of Taohong Siwu Decoction.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Dysmenorrhea/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Technology
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2169-2177, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780349

ABSTRACT

There are many kinds of processed products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (ALRP), but their differences in toxicity and efficacy have not been identified. The minimum premature ventricular contraction (PVC) method was used to evaluate the biological toxicity of eight processed products. The results showed that the minimal toxic dose (MTD) of an ethanol extract of Shengfupian (SFP) was 0.16 g·kg-1, which was much lower than that of Heishunpian (HSP), Baifupian (BFP), Baofupian (BAP), Paofuzi (PFZ) or Zhengfupian (ZFP), with MTDs ranging from 2.64 to 5.75 g·kg-1. No cardiotoxicity was detected with Chaofupian (CFP) and Paotianxiong (PTX). A novel +dp/dtmax assay for acute heart failure in rats was developed to evaluate the cardiac activity. It was found that all eight processed products had cardiac effects, with Shengfupian showing the strongest cardiotonic effect and the ability to restore damaged cardiac function to normal within 15 minutes of injection. Heishunpian, Baifupian and the three other products displayed moderate activity, while Paofuzi and Paotianxiong were the weakest. An LC-MS/MS method was utilized to determine the content of 13 alkaloids in water extracts. The results demonstrated that hypertoxic aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine could not be detected, higenamine was only present in Shengfupian, and salsolinol was about 4-56 times higher in Shengfupian than in other products. A correlation analysis showed that salsolinol had the best correlation with the cardiotonic index, with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.817, while the three monoester alkaloids failed to correlate with the cardiotonic effect. Higenamine and salsolinol were cardiotonic, while the 11 other components had no cardiotonic activity. This study establishes methods for precise evaluation of cardiotoxicity and cardiac activity, reveals the toxicity and efficacy of common processed products, and identifies the key quality markers for cardiac activity, providing scientific support for the quality evaluation and clinical application of processed products of aconite.

11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1951-1958, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The effect and mechanism of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) in inflammatory bowel disease are unclear. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Sb on intestinal mucosal barrier and intestinal flora in a colitis mouse model.@*METHODS@#Forty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal control group (A), pathologic control group (B), Sb treatment group (C), mesalazine treatment group (D), and Sb combined with mesalazine treatment group (E). Colitis was induced by the addition of 2.5% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water ad libitum for 7 days. The general condition, weight change, stool property, and bloody stool level of mice were observed to evaluate the disease activity index. The expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in intestinal tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-8 in plasma was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Inter-cellular tight junctions were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The feces and intestinal contents were collected sterilely, and intestinal flora was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Compared with group B, Sb reduced the disease activity index and histological score of group C (disease activity index: group B 2.708 ± 0.628, group C 1.542 ± 0.616, PBC = 0.005; histological score: group B 9.875 ± 3.271, group C 4.750 ± 1.832, PBC = 0.005) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. Sb exerted a protect effect on the expression of ZO-1 (group B 2.075 ± 1.176, group C 4.225 ± 1.316, PBC = 0.019) and occludin (group B 2.200 ± 0.968, group C 3.525 ± 1.047, PBC = 0.023). Compared with group B, Sb decreased the level of TNF-α and IL-8 of group C (TNF-α: group B 716.323 ± 44.691 ng/L, group C 521.740 ± 90.121 ng/L, PBC = 0.001; IL-8: group B 128.992 ± 11.475 pg/mL, group C 106.283 ± 15.906 pg/mL, PBC = 0.012). Treatment with Sb preserved the tight junctions and ameliorated microvilli and inter-cellular space. Treatment with Sb also showed its own characteristics: a higher percentage of Bacteroidetes and a lower percentage of Firmicutes, with significant differences or a significant trend. The proportion of the S24-7 family was increased significantly in the Sb treatment group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Sb shows an anti-inflammatory effect and has a protective effect on the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier. Sb may up-regulate the abundance of family S24-7 specifically, and maybe a mechanism underlying its function.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-803220

ABSTRACT

Perioperative pressure injury accounts for a large proportion of hospital-acquired pressure injury. However, most of them can be effectively prevented by taking measures. Hospital-acquired pressure injury has become one of the ten safety goals to prevent and reduce accidental injury. Chain management is a scientific management mode, emphasizing horizontal and continuous management. This paper summarizes the application progress of chain management in perioperative pressure injury from its concept, application mode, effect, existing problems and enlightenment. It suggests that we should pay more attention to the handover between ward and operating room and the collaboration between nurses and physicians, then establish a standardized prevention program of perioperative pressure injury to improve nursing care.

13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1951-1958, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802776

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect and mechanism of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) in inflammatory bowel disease are unclear. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Sb on intestinal mucosal barrier and intestinal flora in a colitis mouse model.@*Methods@#Forty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal control group (A), pathologic control group (B), Sb treatment group (C), mesalazine treatment group (D), and Sb combined with mesalazine treatment group (E). Colitis was induced by the addition of 2.5% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water ad libitum for 7 days. The general condition, weight change, stool property, and bloody stool level of mice were observed to evaluate the disease activity index. The expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in intestinal tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-8 in plasma was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Inter-cellular tight junctions were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The feces and intestinal contents were collected sterilely, and intestinal flora was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing.@*Results@#Compared with group B, Sb reduced the disease activity index and histological score of group C (disease activity index: group B 2.708 ± 0.628, group C 1.542 ± 0.616, PBC = 0.005; histological score: group B 9.875 ± 3.271, group C 4.750 ± 1.832, PBC = 0.005) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. Sb exerted a protect effect on the expression of ZO-1 (group B 2.075 ± 1.176, group C 4.225 ± 1.316, PBC = 0.019) and occludin (group B 2.200 ± 0.968, group C 3.525 ± 1.047, PBC = 0.023). Compared with group B, Sb decreased the level of TNF-α and IL-8 of group C (TNF-α: group B 716.323 ± 44.691 ng/L, group C 521.740 ± 90.121 ng/L, PBC = 0.001; IL-8: group B 128.992 ± 11.475 pg/mL, group C 106.283 ± 15.906 pg/mL, PBC = 0.012). Treatment with Sb preserved the tight junctions and ameliorated microvilli and inter-cellular space. Treatment with Sb also showed its own characteristics: a higher percentage of Bacteroidetes and a lower percentage of Firmicutes, with significant differences or a significant trend. The proportion of the S24-7 family was increased significantly in the Sb treatment group.@*Conclusions@#Sb shows an anti-inflammatory effect and has a protective effect on the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier. Sb may up-regulate the abundance of family S24-7 specifically, and maybe a mechanism underlying its function.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802252

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the change rules of active ingredients in Phyllanthi Fructus of different storage years,in order to provide theory basis for storage. Method: Seven Phyllanthi Fruatus samples of different storage years were collected. HPLC-UV detection method was established to determine the contents of gallic acid,corilagin,chebulagic acid,ellagic acid and quercetin. Samples were fingerprinted by FT-NIR and identified by PLS-DA model. Result: Gallic acid,which was the bioactive marker in Chinese Pharmacopoeia,had the highest content. It was followed by ellagic acid and chebulagic acid,and corilagin and quercetin had the least content. The components had significant differences between samples of different storage years (P-1 respectively. The contents of chebulagic acid,corilagin and ellagic acid reached a maximum at 4 years of storage,which were 18.85,7.97,21.46 mg·g-1,respectively. FT-NIR data was optimized by MSC+SG (second derivative, the window parameter as 11,and the polynomial order as 3). The classification accuracy was 84.5%. Spectral data reduced to several important potential variables,and was fused with 5 active components based on minimum cross-validation root mean square error,and the classification accuracy increased to 98.8%. Conclusion: The analysis of PLS-DA by HPLC-UV and FT-NIR could effectively explain the accumulation characteristics of active components in Phyllanthi Fruatus. According to the data fusion strategy,PLS-DA model could distinguish samples of different qualities. The results provide a scientific basis for the quality evaluation and identification of Phyllanthi Fruatus.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801735

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the odorous components and their contents in raw products, wine-processed products, vinegar-processed products and wheat bran-processed products of Periplaneta americana. Method:Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to extract the volatile components from different processed products, the chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the relative contents of each component was calculated by peak area normalization method. Result:A total of 41, 32, 40 and 47 components were respectively identified from raw, wine-processed, vinegar-processed and wheat bran-processed products of P. americana, involving a total of 13 common components. Conclusion:The odorous components in the raw products are mainly derived from aldehydes, alcohols, amines, hydrocarbons and other volatile substances. Odorous components can be reduced effectively and flavoring substances can be increased by wine, vinegar and wheat bran processing. This study provides a scientific basis for the further study of correcting odor of P. americana, it also provides a reference for analysis and correction of odor of animal medicines.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752709

ABSTRACT

Perioperative pressure injury accounts for a large proportion of hospital-acquired pressure injury. However, most of them can be effectively prevented by taking measures. Hospital-acquired pressure injury has become one of the ten safety goals to prevent and reduce accidental injury. Chain management is a scientific management mode, emphasizing horizontal and continuous management. This paper summarizes the application progress of chain management in perioperative pressure injury from its concept, application mode, effect, existing problems and enlightenment. It suggests that we should pay more attention to the handover between ward and operating room and the collaboration between nurses and physicians, then establish a standardized prevention program of perioperative pressure injury to improve nursing care.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 141-146, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779857

ABSTRACT

Safflower is a dried flower of the annual herbaceous plant safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). As a traditional Chinese medicine, it was widely used in the regulation of blood circulation. Flavonoids are the main active ingredients in safflower. MYB transcription factors are involved in the regulation of flavonoids. The cloning and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor genes in safflower is of great significance, not only for clarifying the regulation mechanism of flavonoids biosynthesis in safflower, but also for the artificial regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower. Based on the transcriptome data, we used iTAK to annotate the MYB transcription factors in safflower. The MYB transcription factors were cloned and their sequences were analyzed. Besides, their expressions were analyzed by a Real-time PCR. In the experiment, eight long fragment MYB transcription factors were screened and six MYB transcription factors was successfully cloned, named CtMYB-TF1, CtMYB-TF2, CtMYB-TF4, CtMYB-TF5, CtMYB-TF6 and CtMYB-TF7, respectively. The six MYB transcription factors had the core domain of MYB transcription factor family, and evolutionary analysis showed that the CtMYB-TF7 transcription factor was closely related to the factors AtMYBL2 and AtMYB12. Expression analysis showed that the expression of CtMYB-TF5, CtMYB-TF6 and CtMYB-TF7 was low in roots, stems and leaves, and was high in the flower. The results provide a foundation for study of mechanism of molecular regulation of safflower flavonoids.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773575

ABSTRACT

According to folk usage of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the present study was designed to determine the feasibility of the stems and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. as a new medicinal resource. Fourteen alkaloids in mother roots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. And multivariate analysis methods, such as clustering analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to analyze the difference among various parts. In addition, the acute toxicity, analgesia, and anti-inflammatory tests were carried out. The results suggested that the contents of alkaloids in mother roots and fibrous roots were approximate, but those of leaves and stems were different from mother roots and fibrous roots. The results of the acute toxicity testing demonstrated the toxicity of fibrous root was strongest, and mother roots were slightly less toxic than fibrous roots. The stems and leaves were far less toxic than mother and fibrous roots. In addition, the analgesia and inflammatory tests showed the effects of the various tissues had no difference each other. These results provided a basis for developing new complementary and alternative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Simultaneously, the approach may also turn wastes into treasure and promote the development of circular economy.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Alkaloids , Chemistry , Toxicity , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Toxicity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812364

ABSTRACT

According to folk usage of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the present study was designed to determine the feasibility of the stems and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. as a new medicinal resource. Fourteen alkaloids in mother roots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. And multivariate analysis methods, such as clustering analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to analyze the difference among various parts. In addition, the acute toxicity, analgesia, and anti-inflammatory tests were carried out. The results suggested that the contents of alkaloids in mother roots and fibrous roots were approximate, but those of leaves and stems were different from mother roots and fibrous roots. The results of the acute toxicity testing demonstrated the toxicity of fibrous root was strongest, and mother roots were slightly less toxic than fibrous roots. The stems and leaves were far less toxic than mother and fibrous roots. In addition, the analgesia and inflammatory tests showed the effects of the various tissues had no difference each other. These results provided a basis for developing new complementary and alternative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Simultaneously, the approach may also turn wastes into treasure and promote the development of circular economy.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Alkaloids , Chemistry , Toxicity , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Toxicity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-698560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In traditional culture systems for embryonic stem cells, feeder cell preparation and embryonic stem cell culture are mostly performed under normoxic conditions. Changes in oxygen culture conditions are likely to influence feeder cells, thereby altering the growth characteristics or differentiation ability of embryonic stem cells, but there is still no relevant systematic report until now. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sustained hypoxia culture on the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers. METHODS: Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts were persistently subcultured under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (5% O2) conditions. Cell proliferation was measured for drawing growth curve. Reactive oxygen species level and mitochondria membrane potential of the feeder cells were detected respectively. Mouse embryonic stem cells were divided into two groups: normoxia group (plated on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers under 20% O2), and hypoxia group (plated on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers under 5% O2). The cell morphology was observed and the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells were detected by measurement of Oct4 and Sox2 expressions. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α mRNA expression was also tested in the four groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: As compared to the normoxia group, mouse embryonic fibroblasts in the hypoxia group proliferated faster, reactive oxygen species significantly declined, and the mitochondria membrane potential level increased significantly (P < 0.05). Embryonic stem cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase, and highly expressed Oct4 and Sox2 mRNA. Much more median- or small-sized colonies formed in the hypoxia group than the normoxia group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in embryonic stem cells had a significant difference between the hypoxia and normoxia groups (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that a sustained hypoxia environment can significantly promote the viability of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layers and maintain the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells under 5% O2.

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