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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918692

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Community-acquired bacterial enteritis (CABE) is a common problem in developed countries. It is important to understand the epidemiologic changes in bacterial pathogens for prevention and treatment. Therefore, we studied the epidemiologic changes in CABE in Korean children. @*Methods@#A total of 197 hospitalized pediatric patients aged <19 years that presented with dysentery symptoms and showed positive polymerase chain reaction results for bacterial species in stool samples, were enrolled in this study for 10 years (June 2010 to June 2020).We classified patients in phase I (06, 2010–06, 2015) and phase II (07, 2015–06, 2020) and analyzed their epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. @*Results@#The most common pathogens were Campylobacter species (42.6%) and Salmonella species were the second most common pathogens (23.9%). The abundance of pathogens decreased in the following order: Clostridium difficile (9.6%), Shigella (5.6%), and Clostridium perfringens (5.6%). Escherichia coli O157:H7 was found to be the rarest pathogen (2.0%).Campylobacter species showed an increase in the infection rate from 32.1% in phase I to 49.6% in phase II (p=0.0011). Shigella species showed a decline in the infection rate in phase I from 14.1% to 0.0% in phase II (p<0.001). C. difficile and C. perfringens showed an increase in infection rate in phase II compared to phase I, but the difference was not statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#The infection rate of Campylobacter species in CABE has been rising more recently, reaching almost 50%. This study may help establish policies for prevention and treatment of CABE in Korean children.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912836

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the health status, health-related behaviors and health needs of elderlies in eastern, central and western China and to understand their health experience, for exploring an efficient medical service model, and optimizing allocation of medical resources.Methods:This study used the 2008-2018 database from Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey organized by Peking University. It described the concentration trend of medical distance by median, compared the health status, health-related behaviors and health needs of the elderly in eastern, central and western China by χ2 tests, and analyzed time-distribution trends of the poor health status, negative health behaviors and health needs by linear relation test. Results:Among 49 611 subjects included in the study, 7 881 of them self-evaluated their health status as poor, 19 445 evaluated their recent health status as deteriorated, while 14 954 lack routine physical examination, 35 141 lack physical exercise, 8 178 smoked, 7 859 drunk, 35 814 had no access to health education services in their communities, 35 676 expressed their health education needs, and 2 637 lack adequate medical services. The difference of distribution of health status, health-related behaviors and health needs of the elderly in eastern, central and western China was statistically significant ( P<0.05). The health status, negative health behaviors and health needs of the elderly in 2008-2018 presented a linear time distribution trend( P<0.05), while the overall medical distance in eastern, central and western China was 1.02 km, 1.00 km and 1.56 km respectively, and the medical distance in the rural area further than that in the urban areas. Conclusions:The health status of the elderly in China needed to be further improved, the proportion of negative health behaviors was high, and the health needs of the elderly in central and western China were large. Promoting an active medical service mode in central and western China, strengthening the interactions between medical institutions and residential communities will contribute to health needs fulfillment and medical resource utilization.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912125

ABSTRACT

Objective:To identify new host substrate of SseK3 and study its biological function.Methods:A yeast two hybrid system (Y2H) was used to identify the potential binding proteins of SseK3 from the Hela cDNA library; the arginine N-acetylglucosamine (Arg-GlcNAc) modification of the substrate protein by SseK3 was detected by co-expression in 293T cells and in vitro activity test; the modification sites of the substrate protein by SseK3 were detected by point mutation; the effect of Arg-GlcNAc modification of the substrate protein on its interaction protein binding ability was detected by immunoprecipitation test. Results:Results of Y2H and gene sequencing showed that Snapin was a new substrate of SseK3. Snapin could be Arg-GlcNAc-modified by SseK3 in vivo and in vitro; the modification sites of Snapin were arginine 119 and arginine 120; Arg-GlcNAc-modified Snapin inhibited its binding with SNAP25. Conclusions:Snapin, a new host substrate protein of SseK3, was successfully screened in this study. The Arg-GlcNAc modification of Snapin by SseK3 was studied, and the effect of this modification on Snapin function was preliminarily studied, which provided theoretical basis for further understanding the function of Arg-GlcNAc modification of bacteria and the mechanism of action in the process of pathogen infection.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2980-2986, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To prepare chelerythrine nanoparticles(CHE-NPs),optimize their formulation ,and evaluate its drug release behavior in vitro and its inhibitory effect on melanoma. METHODS :Using methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly (lactic-co- glycolic acid )(mPEG-PLGA)as carrier ,CHE-NPs were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. HPLC method and dialysis bag method were used to determine entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The formulation of CHE-NPs was optimized by Box-Behnken response surface design using overall desirability (OD)of them as dependent variables ,CHE dosage ,mPEG-PLGA concentration and poloxamer 188(F68)concentration as independent variables. The particle size and Zeta potential of CHE-NPs prepared by the optimal formulation were detected ;the characteristics of drug release in vitro were investigated ;the effects of CHE and CHE-NPs on survival rate of mice B 16 melanoma cells were compared ,and median inhibition concentrations (IC50)of them were calculated. RESULTS :The optimal formulation included CHE of 2 mg,mPEG-PLGA of 13 mg/mL,F68 of 1.8%. Average entrapment efficiency rate of CHE-NPs prepared by the optimal formulation was (80.18±1.11)%,average drug loading was (11.36±0.28)%,average OD value was 0.96±0.04 [the relative deviation from predicted value (0.90)of OD was 6.67%]; particle size was (113.1±1.40)nm,and Zeta potential was (-21.6±0.29)mV;polydispersity index was 0.07±0.01(n=3); accumulative release rates of CHE control and CHE-NPs were 90.87% and 68.68% within 8 h,and drug release behavior in vitro of the latter was in accordance with Weibull kinetic model. Inhibitory effect of CHE-NPs on B 16 melanoma cells was significantly stronger than that of CHE ;the 24 h IC 50 of CHE-NPs and CHEwere 69.35 and 107.36 μg/mL,respectively. CONCLUSIONS :The prepared CHE-NPs show good sustained-effect and high capacity of drug loading ,and strengthen the inhibitory effect of CHE on melanoma.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906351

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the treasure of the Chinese nation. As an important raw material for clinical treatment of diseases, Chinese materia medica plays an extremely important role. However, in the process of transformation from traditional wild collection of animals and plants to modern artificial cultivation and industrial production of preparations, whether the quality of Chinese materia medica is fully transferred will directly affect the quality and clinical efficacy of Chinese materia medica preparation. From the field to the sickbed, process control of quality transfer of Chinese materia medica is the key to guarantee quality and curative effect. In this paper, the whole process that affects the quality of Chinese materia medica preparations such as seed and seedling, planting and breeding, harvesting and processing, processing of decoction pieces and preparation production was analyzed. Paying attention to the whole process of quality control of Chinese materia medica is of great significance to improve the quality of Chinese materia medica preparations and promote the rapid development of TCM. Based on this, the author intended to analyze the key control links in the quality transfer process of Chinese materia medica (breeding, planting areas and field management, timely harvesting and intensive primary processing, appropriate processing, optimization of preparation technology, standardization of packaging and informationization of storage and transportation), in order to provide reference for the design and development of Chinese materia medica preparations guided by clinical value.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906321

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the role of quantitative pharmacological models in applicable population of drugs and dose optimization has been widely recognized. In order to improve the efficiency of clinical development and optimize clinical rational drug use, quantitative pharmacological models are being gradually introduced into the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). There are various types of quantitative pharmacological models, among which the following three models are commonly used:①Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model, which is mainly used to explore the pharmacokinetic characteristics in different populations.②Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model, which is used to reveal the internal relationship among dose, time and efficacy. ③PPK-PD model, which integrates both the characteristics of PPK model and PK-PD model. The paper summarizes the application of the above three models in TCM, and extracts the main ideas and methods of TCM model research, in order to provide reference for clinical research and rational use of TCM.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the long-term effect of Zhenzhu Tiaozhi capsule(FTZ) on hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c)in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on real-world data. Method:T2DM patients who were provided with FTZ (FTZ group) and those receiving conventional hypoglycemic drugs (control group) were extracted from the hospital information system (HIS) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, followed by propensity score matching (PSM) for balancing the confounding factors between groups. With HbA1c as the efficacy evaluation index, the difference in efficacy between the two groups was compared using <italic>t</italic>-test and <italic>χ</italic><sup>2</sup> test. For repeated measurement data of the same patient, the difference in efficacy and the stability of FTZ against HbA1c were analyzed by generalized estimating equation (GEE). The factors that might affect the efficacy of FTZ against HbA1c were subjected to multivariate linear regression analysis (MLRA), and the subgroup analyses were then conducted after the stratification of relevant factors. Result:There were 46 patients included in the FTZ group and 1 208 patients in the control group. PSM yielded 42 pairs of samples with balanced covariates between groups. As revealed by one-year observation, ① HbA1c in the FTZ group after treatment was 6.51%±1.09%. No significant difference was observed either in pre- and post-treatment comparison in the FTZ group or in its comparison with the control group. At the same time, the HbA1c compliance rate in the FTZ group was 73.8% after treatment. No significant difference was observed either in pre- and post-treatment comparison in the FTZ group or in its comparison with the control group. ② The GEE results showed that the post-treatment HbA1c levels in the two groups were not significantly different from each other. Moreover, the HbA1c level remained stable over treatment time. ③ MLRA and subgroup analyses results demonstrated that FTZ was more effective in patients with high baseline HbA1c [<italic>β</italic>=-0.530,95% confidence interval(CI) -0.850~-0.209,<italic>P</italic><0.01] or those who were complicated with hypertension (<italic>β</italic>=-0.918,95%CI -1.614~-0.222,<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:In the real world, FTZ is able to control the blood sugar, and its effect is similar to those of conventional hypoglycemic drugs. Besides, it is capable of stabilizing the blood sugar for a long time.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900089

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study investigated the effectiveness of the intervention program for elementary school students with reading disorders. @*Methods@#The intervention program focused on phonological awareness, phonics, and decoding training applied individually to 25 children with a reading disorder by the teachers in charge for four months. To measure the efficacy, this study evaluated the word reading accuracy, fluency, and the related cognitive functions, including phonemic awareness, phonics, and rapid automatized naming using the Computerized Comprehensive Learning Test-Reading before and after the program. @*Results@#After the intervention, improvements were observed in the following: the reading fluency score and fluency percentile in the word attack test; reading accuracy rate, fluency score, and fluency percentile in the nonword decoding test; fluency score and fluency percentile in the rapid automatized naming tests; accuracy rate in the letter-sound matching test; accuracy rate in the nonword repetition test. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the paragraph reading fluency test. According to the subtypes of reading disabilities, children with dyslexic or mixed types improved after the intervention. @*Conclusion@#Reading accuracy and fluency of school-aged children with reading disorders improved through the intervention program by the schoolteachers.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899952

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is different from previous disasters in that it continues to the present and has affected all aspects of family life. During epidemics, psychosocial support is not less important than infection control. During COVID-19-related school closures, prolonged partial closures of schools could have detrimental social and health consequences for children and may increase the burden on the family. Based on a community sample in Korea, this study identified parental concerns, children's media usage, other various factors and examined whether parental stress level or depression were positively associated with problem behaviors, media exposure, and sleep problems of the primary school children during school closure under COVID-19. @*Methods@#Participants were 217 parents residing in Suwon, South Korea, who had primary school children and responded to a web-based questionnaire on parental concerns from school closure under COVID-19, subjective stress, depression, whether having received mental health services, and family characteristics; children's sleep patterns, problem behaviors, media usage during the online-only class period, and changes in activity level following the pandemic. @*Results@#During school closure, children gained body weight, spent less time in physical activities and more in media usage. Besides online learning content (97.2%), YouTube was highly used content (87.6%), and games followed (78.3%). Parental subjective stress index was highly associated with parental depression (Pearson correlation 0.439, P < 0.001), children's sleep problems (0.283, P < 0.001), tablet time (0.171, P = 0.012) and behavior problems (0.413, P < 0.001). Parental depression was associated with children's sleep problems (0.355, P < 0.001), TV time (0.153, P = 0.024), tablet time (0.159, P = 0.019), and behavior problems (0.524, P < 0.001). Parents who previously received mental services seemed to be more concerned about the problems their children already have getting worse because of COVID-19 than the disease itself. Children's sleep problem was associated with tablet (0.172, P = 0.011) and smartphone time (0.298, P < 0.001), but not its frequency. @*Conclusion@#During COVID-19-related school closures, many parents and children had various difficulties relating to mental health. Ongoing monitoring of mental health of highrisk groups and multiple support systems may need to be expanded to cover those parents having difficulty in caring for their children.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896271

ABSTRACT

The sleep-wake cycle is regulated by the alternating activity of sleep- and wake-promoting neurons. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) secretes 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), promoting wakefulness. Melatonin secreted from the pineal gland also promotes wakefulness in rats. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that daily changes in nitric oxide (NO) production regulates a signaling pathway involving with-no-lysine kinase (WNK), Ste20-related proline alanine rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress response kinase 1 (OSR1), and cation-chloride co-transporters (CCC) in rat DRN serotonergic neurons. This study was designed to investigate the effect of melatonin on NO-regulated WNK-SPAK/OSR1-CCC signaling in wake-inducing DRN neurons to elucidate the mechanism underlying melatonin’s wake-promoting actions in rats. Ex vivo treatment of DRN slices with melatonin suppressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and increased WNK4 expression without altering WNK1, 2, or 3. Melatonin increased phosphorylation of OSR1 and the expression of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 (NKCC1), while potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) remained unchanged. Melatonin increased the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, serotonin-synthesizing enzyme). The present study suggests that melatonin may promote its wakefulness by modulating NO-regulated WNK-SPAK/OSR1-KNCC1 signaling in rat DRN serotonergic neurons.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896009

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic factor implicated in pressure overload-mediated myocardial fibrosis. In this study, we determined the role of predicted CTGF-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) in rat models of aortic stenosis and reverse cardiac remodeling. @*Methods@#Minimally invasive ascending aortic banding was performed in 24 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into three groups. The banding group consisted of eight rats that were sacrificed immediately after 6 weeks of aortic constriction. The debanding group underwent aortic constriction for 4 weeks and was sacrificed 2 weeks after band removal. The third group underwent sham surgery. We investigated the expression of CTGF, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 using ELISA and examined miRNA-26b, miRNA-133a, and miRNA-19b as predicted CTGF-targeting miRNAs based on miRNA databases in 24-hour TGFβ-stimulated and TGFβ- washed fibroblasts and myocardial tissues from all subjects. @*Results@#CTGF was elevated in 24-hour TGFβ-stimulated fibroblasts and decreased in 24-hour TGFβ-washed fibroblasts. miRNA-26b was significantly increased in TGFβ-washed fibroblasts compared with control and TGFβ-stimulated fibroblasts (p < 0.05). CTGF expression was significantly higher in the banding group than that in the sham and debanding groups. The relative expression levels of miRNA-26b were higher in the debanding group than in the banding group. @*Conclusions@#The results of our study using models of aortic banding and debanding suggested that miRNA-26b was significantly increased after aortic debanding. The in vitro model yielded the same results: miRNA-26b was upregulated after removal of TGFβ from fibroblasts.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 789-794, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895469

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the annual incidence and direct medical cost of adjustment disorder in general population using the National Health Insurance Service Database (NHID) in Korea. @*Methods@#To examine the incidence, we selected patients who had at least one medical claim for adjustment disorder and had not been diagnosed in the previous 365 days, from 2010 to 2017. @*Results@#The number of newly diagnosed cases of adjustment disorder from 2011 to 2017 were total 101,922. Annual incidence of adjustment disorder was ranged from 22.0 to 36.8 per 100,000 persons. The incidence of adjustment disorder was found more in female and highest among 70–79 years of age group and medical aid beneficiaries group. Annual prevalence of adjustment disorder was in the range from 95.4 to 116.4 per 100,000 persons. Estimated annual medical cost per person of adjustment disorder was ranged from 162 to 231.4 US dollars. @*Conclusion@#From 2011 to 2017, the annual incidence and direct medical cost of adjustment disorder in Korea were increased. Proper information on adjustment disorder will not only allows us to accumulate more knowledge but also lead to more appropriate therapeutic interventions.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892385

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study investigated the effectiveness of the intervention program for elementary school students with reading disorders. @*Methods@#The intervention program focused on phonological awareness, phonics, and decoding training applied individually to 25 children with a reading disorder by the teachers in charge for four months. To measure the efficacy, this study evaluated the word reading accuracy, fluency, and the related cognitive functions, including phonemic awareness, phonics, and rapid automatized naming using the Computerized Comprehensive Learning Test-Reading before and after the program. @*Results@#After the intervention, improvements were observed in the following: the reading fluency score and fluency percentile in the word attack test; reading accuracy rate, fluency score, and fluency percentile in the nonword decoding test; fluency score and fluency percentile in the rapid automatized naming tests; accuracy rate in the letter-sound matching test; accuracy rate in the nonword repetition test. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the paragraph reading fluency test. According to the subtypes of reading disabilities, children with dyslexic or mixed types improved after the intervention. @*Conclusion@#Reading accuracy and fluency of school-aged children with reading disorders improved through the intervention program by the schoolteachers.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892248

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is different from previous disasters in that it continues to the present and has affected all aspects of family life. During epidemics, psychosocial support is not less important than infection control. During COVID-19-related school closures, prolonged partial closures of schools could have detrimental social and health consequences for children and may increase the burden on the family. Based on a community sample in Korea, this study identified parental concerns, children's media usage, other various factors and examined whether parental stress level or depression were positively associated with problem behaviors, media exposure, and sleep problems of the primary school children during school closure under COVID-19. @*Methods@#Participants were 217 parents residing in Suwon, South Korea, who had primary school children and responded to a web-based questionnaire on parental concerns from school closure under COVID-19, subjective stress, depression, whether having received mental health services, and family characteristics; children's sleep patterns, problem behaviors, media usage during the online-only class period, and changes in activity level following the pandemic. @*Results@#During school closure, children gained body weight, spent less time in physical activities and more in media usage. Besides online learning content (97.2%), YouTube was highly used content (87.6%), and games followed (78.3%). Parental subjective stress index was highly associated with parental depression (Pearson correlation 0.439, P < 0.001), children's sleep problems (0.283, P < 0.001), tablet time (0.171, P = 0.012) and behavior problems (0.413, P < 0.001). Parental depression was associated with children's sleep problems (0.355, P < 0.001), TV time (0.153, P = 0.024), tablet time (0.159, P = 0.019), and behavior problems (0.524, P < 0.001). Parents who previously received mental services seemed to be more concerned about the problems their children already have getting worse because of COVID-19 than the disease itself. Children's sleep problem was associated with tablet (0.172, P = 0.011) and smartphone time (0.298, P < 0.001), but not its frequency. @*Conclusion@#During COVID-19-related school closures, many parents and children had various difficulties relating to mental health. Ongoing monitoring of mental health of highrisk groups and multiple support systems may need to be expanded to cover those parents having difficulty in caring for their children.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the use of Chinese medicine (CM) in cancer patients in southern China.@*METHODS@#A total of 1,950 cancer patients finished questionnaires in four provinces in southern China. The survey included socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants, dosage forms, efficacy, and side effects.@*RESULTS@#The study results showed that cancer patients with higher education (>12 years) were more likely to accept the treatment of Chinese herbs. There were 54.61% (1,065 cases) of patients chose Chinese herbs for the initial treatment and 14.46% (282 cases) chose Chinese herbs as monotherapy. Most patients (54.51%, 1,063 cases) continuously used CM for more than 6 months, and a few of them (212 cases) used CM for up to 3 years. All kinds of dosage forms of CM had been used, including CM decoction, CM patent prescription and CM injection. Concerning the efficacy in the view of patients, 40.31% (786 cases) believed that it would be effective to take Chinese herbs before they starting the anti-cancer treatment, and the percentage increased to 81.08% after 1-month CM treatment. The effect of Chinese herbs was mainly demonstrated by symptom relief and improvement of quality of life, and 8.31% (162 cases) of patients experienced control of tumor growth and decreased tumor markers. Furthermore, only 14.31% (279 cases) participants reported that they experienced side effects during CM treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#This large scale investigation reflects the current situation of domestic CM usage objectively and comprehensively, which might provide new ways for cancer treatment.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903975

ABSTRACT

The sleep-wake cycle is regulated by the alternating activity of sleep- and wake-promoting neurons. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) secretes 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), promoting wakefulness. Melatonin secreted from the pineal gland also promotes wakefulness in rats. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that daily changes in nitric oxide (NO) production regulates a signaling pathway involving with-no-lysine kinase (WNK), Ste20-related proline alanine rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress response kinase 1 (OSR1), and cation-chloride co-transporters (CCC) in rat DRN serotonergic neurons. This study was designed to investigate the effect of melatonin on NO-regulated WNK-SPAK/OSR1-CCC signaling in wake-inducing DRN neurons to elucidate the mechanism underlying melatonin’s wake-promoting actions in rats. Ex vivo treatment of DRN slices with melatonin suppressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and increased WNK4 expression without altering WNK1, 2, or 3. Melatonin increased phosphorylation of OSR1 and the expression of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 (NKCC1), while potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) remained unchanged. Melatonin increased the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, serotonin-synthesizing enzyme). The present study suggests that melatonin may promote its wakefulness by modulating NO-regulated WNK-SPAK/OSR1-KNCC1 signaling in rat DRN serotonergic neurons.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903713

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic factor implicated in pressure overload-mediated myocardial fibrosis. In this study, we determined the role of predicted CTGF-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) in rat models of aortic stenosis and reverse cardiac remodeling. @*Methods@#Minimally invasive ascending aortic banding was performed in 24 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into three groups. The banding group consisted of eight rats that were sacrificed immediately after 6 weeks of aortic constriction. The debanding group underwent aortic constriction for 4 weeks and was sacrificed 2 weeks after band removal. The third group underwent sham surgery. We investigated the expression of CTGF, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 using ELISA and examined miRNA-26b, miRNA-133a, and miRNA-19b as predicted CTGF-targeting miRNAs based on miRNA databases in 24-hour TGFβ-stimulated and TGFβ- washed fibroblasts and myocardial tissues from all subjects. @*Results@#CTGF was elevated in 24-hour TGFβ-stimulated fibroblasts and decreased in 24-hour TGFβ-washed fibroblasts. miRNA-26b was significantly increased in TGFβ-washed fibroblasts compared with control and TGFβ-stimulated fibroblasts (p < 0.05). CTGF expression was significantly higher in the banding group than that in the sham and debanding groups. The relative expression levels of miRNA-26b were higher in the debanding group than in the banding group. @*Conclusions@#The results of our study using models of aortic banding and debanding suggested that miRNA-26b was significantly increased after aortic debanding. The in vitro model yielded the same results: miRNA-26b was upregulated after removal of TGFβ from fibroblasts.

18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 789-794, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903173

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate the annual incidence and direct medical cost of adjustment disorder in general population using the National Health Insurance Service Database (NHID) in Korea. @*Methods@#To examine the incidence, we selected patients who had at least one medical claim for adjustment disorder and had not been diagnosed in the previous 365 days, from 2010 to 2017. @*Results@#The number of newly diagnosed cases of adjustment disorder from 2011 to 2017 were total 101,922. Annual incidence of adjustment disorder was ranged from 22.0 to 36.8 per 100,000 persons. The incidence of adjustment disorder was found more in female and highest among 70–79 years of age group and medical aid beneficiaries group. Annual prevalence of adjustment disorder was in the range from 95.4 to 116.4 per 100,000 persons. Estimated annual medical cost per person of adjustment disorder was ranged from 162 to 231.4 US dollars. @*Conclusion@#From 2011 to 2017, the annual incidence and direct medical cost of adjustment disorder in Korea were increased. Proper information on adjustment disorder will not only allows us to accumulate more knowledge but also lead to more appropriate therapeutic interventions.

19.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 320-323, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918405

ABSTRACT

Background@#Telemetry is a wireless implanted device that measures biological signals in conscious animals and usually requires surgery for its removal when the study is finished. After removing the device, the animals are either used for other studies or euthanatized.Case presentation: Herein, we report the case of a living cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) that was used for the entire experimental period, instead of euthanasia, after surgical removal of an implanted telemetry system.Radiography was used to determine the status of the implanted telemetry, following which, a repair surgery was performed for removing the system; clinical signs were used to preserve the life of the cynomolgus monkey. Postoperative clinical signs, food consumption, hematology, and serum biochemistry were examined during the 12-month observational period. No abnormal readings or conditions were observed in the subject after implant removal. @*Conclusions@#This study may be a useful case report for living cynomolgus monkeys in telemetry implantations used throughout the study period. We suggest minimizing the suffering and improving the welfare of these animals.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881471

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the current status of multiple antibiotic residues in meat and meat products in Shanghai based on a 5-year surveillance, and perform the health risk assessment. Methods:We performed the examination in accordance with the Manual for National Food Contamination and Harmful Factor Risk Monitoring, and conduct health risk assessment according to the national limit standards on the monitoring data of 2016‒2020. Results:The total detection rate of multiple antibiotics in meat and meat products in Shanghai was determined to be 16.03%, in which the total unqualified rate was 1.97%. Moreover, the detection rate of quinolones was 2.78% and its unqualified rate was 0.83%. The unqualified rate of loxacin in cooked meat products was 2.12%. The detection rate of tetracyclines was 17.06% and its unqualified rate was 0.34%, in which the highest detection rate was identified in doxycycline (11.64%). The detection rate of sulfonamides was 3.16%, in which the highest detection rate was in sulfamethazine (1.05%). The detection rate of florfenicol was 5.15% and its unqualified rate was 0.12%. The difference of ofloxacin residues between diverse food categories (χ2=17.44, P<0.05) and processing links (χ2 =14.10, P<0.05) was statistically significant. In addition, the sum amount of ofloxacin, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in cooked meat products was higher than other food categories; the unqualified rate and residual amount of ofloxacin available in online stores and catering links were both higher. The residual amount of doxycycline and the unqualified rate in the online store link were significantly higher than those in other links. Based on preliminary assessment, the high exposure values in the 97.5 percentile of meat and meat products accounted for a very low proportion of the corresponding acceptable daily intake (ADI) and posed a low health risk to the population. Conclusion:The total detection rate of tetracyclines in meat and meat products is relatively high, which obviously accumulates in the offals of livestock and poultry. In addition, some antibiotics, such as ofloxacin and doxycycline, are relatively high in catering and online stores. It is recommended to strengthen the supervision of quinolones in cooked meat products, especially ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, and improve the supervision of doxycycline in meat and meat products in online stores.

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