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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2021_0330, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387947

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Hyperbaric oxygen intervention has an important effect on the function of the body's oxidation-antioxidant system. Objective To verify the effects of a 4-week micro-hyperbaric oxygen intervention on oxidation-antioxidation system function in skeleton athletes. Methods The experimental group underwent a 1.3 ATA HBO intervention for 4 weeks and the control group underwent natural recovery. The levels of MDA, PC, SOD, CAT, GSH-PX, T-AOC, BU, CK, T, and C of the two groups were measured at Week 0, Week 2, and Week 4. Results The MDA, PC, and CK of the Exp group were significantly lower than Con group (P < 0.05) in Week 4. The SOD, CAT, and T-AOC of the Exp group were significantly higher in Week 4 than in Week 0 (P < 0.05) and significantly higher than the Con group values (P < 0.05). Conclusions A four-week 1.3 ATA HBO intervention decreased the level of oxidative stress, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced the degree of exercise fatigue in skeleton athletes. Level of Evidence II; Therapeutic studies - Investigating treatment results.


RESUMEN Introducción La intervención con oxígeno hiperbárico tiene un efecto importante en la función del sistema oxidación-antioxidación del organismo. Objetivo Verificar los efectos de una intervención con oxígeno micro-hiperbárico durante 4 semanas en la función del sistema oxidación-antioxidación en atletas de skeleton. Métodos El grupo de prueba se sometió a una intervención con oxígeno micro-hiperbárico a 1,3 ATA durante 4 semanas, 4 veces a la semana, y el grupo de control se sometió a una recuperación natural. Se midieron los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA), carbonilo proteico (PC), superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa (CAT), glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-PX), capacidad antioxidante total (T-AOC), urea en sangre (BU), creatina quinasa (CK), testosterona (T), y cortisol (C) en la semana 0, en la semana 2 y en la semana 4 para ambos grupos de atletas. Resultados Los valores de MDA, CP y CK del grupo de prueba fueron significativamente inferiores a los del grupo de control (p <0,05) en la semana 4. Los valores de SOD, CAT y T-AOC fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo de prueba en la semana 4 que en la semana 0 (p < 0,05) y significativamente mayores que los valores del grupo de control (p < 0,05) Conclusión: La intervención con oxígeno hiperbárico a 1,3 ATA durante 4 semanas redujo significativamente los niveles de estrés oxidativo, aumentó la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes y redujo los niveles de fatiga relacionada con el ejercicio en los atletas de skeleton. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapêuticos - Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


RESUMO Introdução A intervenção de oxigênio hiperbárico tem um efeito importante na função do sistema oxidativo-antioxidante do corpo. Objetivo Verificar os efeitos de uma intervenção de oxigênio micro-hiperbárico de 4 semanas na função do sistema oxidante-antioxidante em atletas de skeleton. Métodos O grupo de teste foi submetido a uma intervenção de oxigênio micro-hiperbárico a 1,3 ATA de 4 semanas, 4 vezes por semana e o grupo controle passou por recuperação natural. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), proteína carbonila (PC), superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutationa peroxidase (GSH-PX), capacidade antioxidante total (T-AOC), uréia sanguínea (BU), creatina quinase (CK), testosterona (T) e cortisol (C) foram medidos na semana 0, semana 2 e semana 4 para ambos os grupos de atletas. Resultados MDA, PC e CK do grupo de teste foram significativamente menores do que os valores do grupo controle (p <0,05) na semana 4. SOD, CAT e T-AOC foram significativamente maiores no grupo de teste na semana 4 do que na semana 0 (p < 0,05) e significativamente maiores do que os valores para o grupo controle (p < 0,05). Conclusão A intervenção de oxigênio micro-hiperbárico de 4 semanas a 1,3 ATA reduziu significativamente os níveis de estresse oxidativo, aumentou a atividade enzimática antioxidante e reduziu os níveis de fadiga relacionada ao exercício nos atletas de skeleton. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907149

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the potential mechanism of Erchen decoction in the treatment of obese polycystic ovary syndrome and obese infertility, in order to provide theoretical basis for “treating different diseases with same method”. Methods The active ingredients and targets of Erchen decoction were obtained from TCMSP database, and the targets of obese polycystic ovary syndromes and obese infertility were obtained from GeneCard database. Active ingredient-target network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.1, and protein-protein interaction network and core target were obtained from STRING. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed by Cytoscape 3.7.1 and online software. Results 125 ingredients and 218 targets of Erchen decoction were obtained. There were 2 783 target genes for obese infertility and 2 962 target genes for obese polycystic ovary syndrome. Erchen decoction has a total of 117 target genes in the treatment of obese infertility and obese polycystic ovary syndromes, which proves the principle of “treating different diseases with same method”. Potential active ingredients include quercetin, kaempferol, naringin, baicalin and formononetin. PPI showed that STAT3, JUN, AKT1, MAPK3, MAPK1, MAPK14, IL-6 and FOS were the core targets of “treating different diseases with same method”. Molecular docking results showed that quercetin, kaempferol, etc. had good binding ability with JUN. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway and endocrine resistance might be the key pathways for the “treating different diseases with same method” of Erchen decoction. Conclusion Erchen decoction treating "different diseases with same method" involves same targets and same pathways, which can provide reference for future experimental research.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935246

ABSTRACT

Traditional bulk RNA sequencing assesses the average expression level of genes in tissues rather than the differences in cellular responses. Accordingly, it is hard to differentiate sensitive responding cells, leading to inaccurate identification of toxicity pathways. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) isolated single cells from tissue and subjected them to cell subtypes-specific transcriptome analysis. This technique in toxicological studies realizes the heterogeneous cellular responses in the tissue microenvironment upon chemical exposure. Thus it helps to identify sensitive responding cells and key molecular events, providing a powerful tool and a new perspective for exploring the mechanisms of toxicity and the modes of action. This review summarizes the development, principle, method, application and limitations of scRNA-seq in mechanistic toxicological researches, and discusses the prospect of multi-directional applications.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Gene Expression Profiling , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
4.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 44-50, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933031

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical and mycological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of invasive candidiasis(IC)in the elderly.Methods:This retrospective study included aged patients(≥65 years)admitted to the Peking University First Hospital between January, 2010 and December, 2019, who were diagnosed with IC based on positive culture results.The infecting strains were re-identified and their antifungal drug resistance was tested.The clinical and mycological characteristics, treatment and prognosis information of the elderly patients were collected and compared with those of non-elderly adults.Results:A total of 99 aged patients were included, with a median age of 78(70-83)years and a male-to-female ratio of 2.1∶1.0.The elderly accounted for 62.7%(99/158)of the adult IC patients.Compared with their younger counterparts, elderly patients were more likely to need medium-to long-term hospitalization and intensive care unit(ICU)stay, and to show concurrent heart failure, respiratory failure or renal failure, to require mechanical ventilation, and to show deep-seated bacterial infections and multifocal Candida colonization, especially for those with previous fluconazole exposure( P<0.05). Bloodstream was the most common Candida transmission route(71/99, 71.7%)and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species(47/99, 47.5%). Antifungal resistance was highest for fluconazole(17/117, 14.5%)and voriconazole(15/117, 12.8%). No significant difference was found between elderly patients and non-elderly patients in terms of infected sites, Candida species, and antifungal resistance( P>0.05). A total of 86 patients(86.9%)received systemic antifungal treatment and fluconazole was the most commonly used drug(35/86, 40.7%). The thirty-day all-cause mortality in aged IC patients was 32.6%(29/89), significantly higher than in younger patients( P=0.022). Logistic regression analysis revealed that advanced age( OR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.06-1.20, P<0.001), renal failure( OR=4.81; 95% CI: 1.65-14.03; P=0.004), and a high Candida score( OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.11, P=0.031)significantly increased the risk of death. Conclusions:Elderly patients were the main affected population of IC, and the mortality of IC steadily increases with age.Treatment for aged IC patients should be proactive and cautious.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940633

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo optimize the extraction and purification process of Gardeniae Fructus for industrial production, and to obtain the total iridoid and total crocin extracts. MethodOrthogonal test was used to optimize the water extraction process by taking contents of geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, gardenoside, crocin-1 and crocin-2 as indicators and the decocting time, decocting times and water amount as factors. The purification process was optimized by single factor test, and four different types of macroporous adsorption resins were screened. The process conditions such as resin type, maximum loading amount, water washing amount, ethanol concentration, ethanol dosage, and flow rate of sample loading were mainly investigated. In addition, the drying methods (vacuum drying and spray drying) of the extract were investigated, and a pilot scale-up verification test was carried out. ResultThe optimal water extraction process of Gardeniae Fructus was to add 15, 10 times the amount of water for decocting twice, 1 h each time. The optimal purification process was as follows:the water extract through SP825L macroporous resin column, the amount of crude drug-the amount of resin (1∶1.5), the sample loading flow rate of 3 BV h-1, adding 2 BV of water to remove impurities, adding 4 BV of 30% ethanol to obtain the iridoid part, then adding 3 BV of 70% ethanol to obtain the crocin part, collecting the ethanol lotion, and drying at 70 ℃. Under these conditions, the extraction amount of total iridoids was 590.75 mg·g-1 with the transfer rate of 70.48%, and the yield of dry extract was 8.89%. The extraction amount of total crocins was 83.37 mg·g-1 with the transfer rate of 22.20%, and the dry extract yield was 2.60%. ConclusionThe optimized extraction and purification process is stable and feasible with high extraction rate of active components, which is suitable for the industrial extraction and purification of active parts of Gardeniae Fructus.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940525

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy of sequential syndrome differentiation of Yiqi Huayu Qingre prescription (YHQ) in the treatment of refractory nephrotic syndrome in children. MethodA total of 112 children with refractory nephrotic syndrome were randomly divided into an observation group (57 cases) and a control group(55 cases). The children in the control group were treated with prednisone tablets combined with tacrolimus,and those in the observation group were treated with YHQ by sequential syndrome differentiation on the basis of the control group. The total effective rates of the two groups after treatment were observed. The 24-hour urinary total protein(24 h UTP),plasma albumin(ALB),cholesterol(CHO),triglycerides(TG), and traditional Chinese medicine quality of life scale scores before treatment and after four weeks,eight weeks,16 weeks,24 weeks,32 weeks,40 weeks,and 52 weeks in the two groups were recorded. The total course of treatment and the total accumulation of hormones were compared among the children with reduced or no hormone treatment till 52 weeks during treatment. ResultThe total effective rate in the observation group was higher (Z=-2.052,P<0.05). The observation group had lower 24 h UTP and higher ALB at each follow-up time point than the control group(P<0.05,P<0.01). At four weeks,eight weeks,and 16 weeks of treatment,there was no statistically significant difference in CHO between the observation group and the control group,and the observation group was lower than the control group in CHO at the rest of the time points (P<0.05,P<0.01). For TG, the observation group was not significantly different from the control group at four weeks,eight weeks,16 weeks,and 40 weeks of treatment,but lower at 24,32,and 52 weeks (P<0.05,P<0.01). The total treatment course of hormones in the observation group was shorter(P<0.01), with less total accumulation(P<0.01). At different follow-up time points,the total score of traditional Chinese medicine quality of life scale in the observation group was superior to that in the control group(P<0.05,P<0.01),and the scores of the observation group in the four dimensions (physiological function,independent factor,social factor,and psychological factor) after treatment were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05,P<0.01). ConclusionYHQ under sequential syndrome differentiation has a definite clinical effect in treating children with refractory nephrotic syndrome. It has advantages in shortening the total course of hormone treatment and reducing the total accumulation of hormones,and can improve the quality of life of children with refractory nephrotic syndrome.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940448

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study investigated the mechanism of Wenjingtang in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis (EMT) from the perspective of regulating hypoxia stress and mitochondrial function. MethodPrimary human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) form ectopic endometrial tissues were isolated and cultured, the cells were divided into control group (Control), 5% control serum group (5% KBXQ), 10% control serum group (10% KBXQ), 5% Wenjingtang serum group (5% WJTXQ) and 10% Wenjingtang serum group (10% WJTXQ). ESCs in different groups were detected for proliferation by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis, mitochondrial ultrastructure by transmission electron microscope, mitochondrial function [mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP) and cytochrome C(Cyt C) content] and apoptosis (cell membrane permeability, nuclear fluorescence intensity, nuclear size and cell counts) by high content screening (HCS) assay, apoptosis rate by flow cytometry, and proteins of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X (Bax), Bcl-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (cleaved Caspase-3) by Western blot. ResultCompared with Control group, the 5% KBXQ and 10% KBXQ groups showed increased cell viability (P<0.01), there was no significant change in HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression, transmission electron microscopy showed that the mitochondrial cristae were obvious and the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria were clear, HCS multichannel fluorescence staining showed that there were no significant changes in the expression of MMP, Cyt C and cell membrane permeability, and the nuclei showed uniform light staining, there were no significant changes in apoptosis rate, cleaved Caspase-3 protein expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Compared with Control group and corresponding concentration KBXQ group, the 5% WJTXQ and 10% WJTXQ group showed decreased cell viability (P<0.01) and HIF-1α mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05,P<0.01), the ultrastructure of mitochondria was destroyed, some mitochondria were swollen and the cristae were blurred, moreover, decreased MMP and up-regulated Cyt C release (P<0.05,P<0.01), increased cell membrane permeability (P<0.01), and apoptosis characteristics included nuclear pyknosis, DNA agglutination in nucleus and decrease of cell numbers were observed (P<0.05,P<0.01), increased apoptosis rate (P<0.01), which was consistent with the results of HCS analysis, and up-regulated expression levels of cleaved Caspase-3 protein and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (P<0.05,P<0.01). ConclusionIn conclusion, the results suggest that Wenjingtang can improve hypoxia stress via down-regulating HIF-1α expression in ectopic ESCs, and inhibit cell proliferation, reduce mitochondrial biological activity and induce apoptosis, which might be the internal mechanism of Wenjingtang in preventing and treating EMT.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940351

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study was designed to observe the effect of Didang Xianxiong decoction on the cardiac myocardial microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) injury, and to explore its related mechanism based on the CMECs model induced by high glucose. MethodRat primary myocardial cells were cultured in vitro and 33 mmol·L-1 glucose was added for modeling. After modeling, the rats were randomly divided into model group (final glucose concentration: 33 mmol·L-1), normal group, Didang Xianxiong decoction low dose group (glucose + 5% Didang Xianxiong decoction containing serum), Didang Xianxiong decoction medium dose group (glucose+10% Didang Xianxiong decoction containing serum), Didang Xianxiong decoction high dose group (glucose+20% Didang Xianxiong decoction containing serum) and alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) group (glucose+10% ALT-711 containing serum). The influence of drug-containing serum on the proliferation of CMECs was detected by MTT tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay. The relative mRNA expression of c-Jun was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The protein expression of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (p-JAK1), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (p-STAT1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot. ResultCompared with the conditions in normal group, the mRNA expression of c-Jun and protein expression of p-JAK1, p-STAT1 and TGF-β1 were up-regulated in model group (P<0.01). Compared with model group, all treatment groups had decreased mRNA expression of c-Jun (P<0.01). Didang Xianxiong decoction medium and high dose groups and ALT-711 group showed reduced protein expression of p-JAK1 and p-STAT1 (P<0.05, P<0.01), while there was no significant change in Didang Xianxiong decoction low dose group. TGF-β1 protein expression was lowered in all treatment groups (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the decrease was more significant in Didang Xianxiong decoction medium and high dose groups than Didang Xianxiong decoction low dose group. ConclusionDidang Xianxiong decoction can protect CMECs with high glucose-induced injury, and the mechanism may be related to reducing the activity of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in cells.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion on the regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammatory factors by multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of moxibustion on IBS-D.@*METHODS@#Twelve of 52 newborn rats were randomly selected into a normal group. The remaining rats were made into IBS-D model. A total of 36 rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, a medication group and a moxibustion group, 12 rats in each group. The rats in the medication group were intraperitoneally injected with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). The rats in the moxibustion group were treated with moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) for 20 min each time. All the intervention was given once a day for 7 days. Before and after modeling as well as after intervention, the body mass, loose stool rate and the minimum volume threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) were measured. After intervention, the contents of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were detected by ELISA method; the morphology of colon tissues was observed by HE staining, and the expressions of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in colon tissues were detected by real-time PCR. The expressions of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 protein in colon tissues were detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#After modeling, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold of AWR in the model group were lower than those in the normal group (P<0.01); the rates of loose stool in the model group were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01); after intervention, in the model group, the inflammatory infiltration of colon tissues was obvious, and the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-8 were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05); the expression of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in colon tissues was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.05); the protein expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 was also higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01). After intervention, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold of AWR in the medication group and the moxibustion group were both higher than those in the model group (P<0.05); the loose stool rate in the medication group and the moxibustion group were lower than those in model group (P<0.05); the inflammatory cells infiltration in the colon tissues was less, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 as well as the protein expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in the colon tissues in the medication group and the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of miR-125b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in the medication group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05). The expression of miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a and NF-κB p65 mRNA in the moxibustion group were lower than those in the model group (P<0.05). The miR-155, miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-31, miR-18a were positively correlated with NF-κB p65 mRNA (0<r<1, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The anti-inflammatory mechanism of moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) for IBS-D rats may be related to regulating multiple miRNAs to inhibit NF-κB signal pathway and reduce the expression of inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea/therapy , Interleukin-8/genetics , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , MicroRNAs/genetics , Moxibustion , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924964

ABSTRACT

Guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes have become an important part of clinical practice that improve the quality of care and help establish evidence-based medicine in this field. With rapidly accumulating evidence on various aspects of diabetes care, including landmark clinical trials of treatment agents and newer technologies, timely updates of the guidelines capture the most current state of the field and present a consensus. As a leading academic society, the Korean Diabetes Association publishes practice guidelines biennially and the American Diabetes Association does so annually. In this review, we summarize the key changes suggested in the most recent guidelines. Some of the important updates include treatment algorithms emphasizing comorbid conditions such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease in the selection of anti-diabetic agents; wider application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pump technologies and indices derived from CGM such as time in range; more active screening of subjects at high-risk of diabetes; and more detailed individualization in diabetes care. Although there are both similarities and differences among guidelines and some uncertainty remains, these updates provide a good approach for many clinical practitioners who are battling with diabetes.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938553

ABSTRACT

Crimes committed by the mentally ill may give rise to critical conflicts on whether the criminals should receive punishment or treatment. Therefore, our criminal code has a legal provision for mental handicap and criminal responsibility, which can reduce or exempt the criminal penalty. This process requires a psychiatric evaluation of the defendants as well as normative decisions by judges. The psychiatric evaluation and diagnosis precede the court judgement, and are used by the court to judge the mental handicap of the defendant at the time of the crime. However, judgments on the criminal responsibility of a defendant with mental disorder are very complex and challenging because of time gaps and difficulties faced in the evaluation of human mental ability. We analyzed court rulings in 19 cases where the defendants claimed to be mentally handicapped. The analysis results showed that the mental handicap was recognized in nine cases, rejected in four cases, and not mentioned by the court in six cases. Further, psychiatric evaluation was not performed in three cases. Apart from the result of the evaluation, the judges seem to consider other factors for sentencing, like recidivism risk, premeditation of crimes, and their brutality. These results suggest that the rationale and procedure of court rulings involving mentally handicapped persons may be debatable. We argue that psychiatric evaluations should be made indispensable in judicial procedures for cases involving mentally handicapped persons, and judges should clearly indicate their decision on mental handicap or criminal responsibility in the sentencing.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937837

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Several studies have found that the prevalence of migraine is higher among healthcare professionals than in the general population. Furthermore, several investigations have suggested that the personal experiences of neurologists with migraine can influence their perception and treatment of the disease. This study assessed these relationships in Korea. @*Methods@#A survey was used to investigate the following characteristics among neurologists:1) the prevalence rates of migraine, primary stabbing headache, and cluster headache, and 2) their perceptions of migraine and the pain severity experienced by patients, diagnosing migraine, evaluation and treatment patterns, and satisfaction and difficulties with treatment. @*Results@#The survey was completed by 442 actively practicing board-certified Korean neurologists. The self-reported lifetime prevalence rates of migraine, migraine with aura, primary stabbing headache, and cluster headache were 49.8%, 12.7%, 26.7%, and 1.4%, respectively. Few of the neurologists used a headache diary or validated scales with their patients, and approximately half were satisfied with the effectiveness of preventive medications. Significant differences were observed between neurologists who had and had not experienced migraine, regarding certain perceptions of migraine, but no differences were found between these groups in the evaluation and preventive treatment of migraine. @*Conclusions@#The high self-reported lifetime prevalence rates of migraine and other primary headache disorders among Korean neurologists may indicate that these rates are underreported in the general population, although potential population biases must be considered. From the perspective of neurologists, there is an unmet need for the proper application of headache diaries, validated scales, and effective preventive treatments for patients. While the past experiences of neurologists with migraine might not influence how they evaluate or apply preventive treatments to migraine, they may influence certain perceptions of the disease.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Baicalin is a major flavonoid component of Scutellaria baicalensis, and has been used in the treatment of liver diseases for many years. However, the role of baicalin in estrogen-induced cholestasis (EIC) remains to be elucidated. This present study explored the protective effect of baicalin against estrogen-induced liver injury and further elucidated the mechanisms involved both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS We conducted a series of experiments using 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE) induced cholestatic rats and cultured HepG2 cells. Serum, bile, and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Bile acid composition in liver was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective of baicalin were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting analyses and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Baicalin showed obvious hepatoprotective effects in EIC rats by reducing serum bio?markers and increasing the bile flow rate, as well as by alleviating liver histology and restoring the abnormal composition of hepatic bile acids (BAs). In addition, baicalin protected against EE induced liver injury by up-regulation of the expres?sion of hepatic efflux transporters and down-regulation of hepatic uptake transporters. Furthermore, baicalin increased the expression of hepatic BA synthase (CYP27A1) and metabolic enzymes (Bal, Baat and Sult2a1) in EIC rats. We showed that baicalin significantly inhibited hepatic inflammatory responses in EIC rats through reducing elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB. Finally, we confirmed that baicalin maintains BA homeostasis and alleviates inflamma?tion through Sirt1/HNF-1α/FXR signaling pathway. CONCLUSION Baicalin protects against estrogen-induced cholestatic liver injury, and the underlying mechanism involved is related to activation of the Sirt1/HNF-1α/FXR signaling pathway.

14.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1638-1644, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906545

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the impact of physical activities on cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents in China, and to provide evidence based evidence for relevant research on improving cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents by using physical activities.@*Methods@#CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Springer link and Science Direct database were searched. The time span of 40 articles collected in this study was from the establishment of the database to December 31, 2020.@*Results@#A total of 3 262 research samples were included in 40 articles, including 1 674 in the experimental group and 1 588 in the control group. Meta analysis showed that the total effect WMD value of literature was 121.11, Z =12.37, 95% CI =101.91-140.30 ( P <0.01); the sub group of school age children included 32 literatures, and the combined effect WMD value was 126.05, Z =10.42, 95% CI =102.34-149.76 ( P <0.01); the sub group of adolescents included 8 literatures, the combined effect WMD value was 104.00, Z =9.72, 95% CI =83.02-124.98 ( P <0.01). Compared with the control group, physical activity had a significant positive effect on the cognitive flexibility of Chinese children and adolescents. The source of heterogeneity in school age children group was tested by meta regression method. The results showed that the type of children t =12.77, 95% CI =28.79-39.74( P <0.01) was the primary source of heterogeneity in Meta analysis. The results of egger regression analysis showed that t =0.47, 95% CI =-1.48-2.37( P =0.64), and there was no publication bias.@*Conclusion@#Adolescence is the sensitive period for development of cognitive flexibility, and physical activities have a significant positive impact on the cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906526

ABSTRACT

Tsaoko Fructus is a type of food with the homology of medicine and food,and has a long history of cultivation and application in China. With the deepening of the development and utilization of Tsaoko Fructus,its economic value has appeared obviously,and relevant industries have great potential,with an important role in poverty alleviation in mountainous areas. However,the plants source of Tsaoko Fructus are confused in the process of actual production and resource utilization,and there is a lack of systematic report about the origin of varieties and medicinal history. The paper focused on a textual research for its names,plant sources,changes of the genuine producing areas and traditional efficacy through consulting the herbal works and the analysis of modern literature. The results showed that the medicine of Tsaoko Fructus was first recorded in ancient literatures of the Song dynasty,and there were many aliases and synonyms of the herb, with a great difference between ancient and modern times. In modern records,the medicinal alias names such as Hongcaoguo,Tucaoguo,Caoguoren are similar with the Chinese name of Caoguo,but they are not the same kind of plant and shall be distinguished. In the Ming dynasty,variety and source of the herb was complicated,and it was often recorded as the same class of medicinal materials with Amomi Fructus Rotundus and Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen,until it was listed as a class of medicinal material and distinguished from confounding medicines in the Qing Dynasty. The prescriptions containing Tsaoko Fructus include Caoguoyin,Caoguosan,Caoguowan,Caoguoshushui. Tsaoko Fructus could be used as medicine with peel or only kernel according to different diseases,and mainly processed with water or wine. In addition,there are other processing methods,such as frying,salt-processing, ginger- processing,simmering flour. Ancient literatures have basically the same records on properties,efficacies and indications of Tsaoko Fructus,considering it was warm in nature with the effect in relieving vomiting,eliminating food,intercepting malaria,expelling phlegm. This study provided a theoretical basis for its origin,quality control and resource development and utilization.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906525

ABSTRACT

Objective:Chemical constituents in hypoglycemic effective fractions of Longan Folium were isolated and identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) to clarify the hypoglycemic substance basis of Longan Folium. Method:Chemical constituents in hypoglycemic effective fractions of Longan Folium were isolated on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.9 μm), the mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution and 0.1% formic acid solution (containing and 10 mmol ammonium acetate) for gradient elution. HRMS was operated in the positive and negative ion modes with the scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500. Result:The secondary fragment ion information of target compounds was selected and compared with the compounds reported in the databases and related literature to further confirm these compounds. Nine compounds were identified in the ethanol fraction of Longan Folium, including cynaroside, kaempferol, quercitrin, luteolin, shikimic acid, citric acid, <italic>L</italic>-tyrosine, adenosine and nicotinamide. A total of 11 compounds were determined in the ethyl acetate fraction (cynaroside, quercitrin, kaempferol, luteolin, shikimic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, adenosine, nicotinamide, <italic>L</italic>-phenylalanine and scopoletin), and 10 compounds were identified in the <italic>n</italic>-butanol fraction (cynaroside, kaempferol-3-<italic>O</italic>-rutinoside, kaempferol, astragalin, luteolin, citric acid, gallic acid, adenosine, nicotinamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). And five common compounds were identified in these three hypoglycemic effective fractions. Conclusion:The established UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS can quickly identify chemical constituents in three hypoglycemic effective fractions of Longan Folium, their main chemical constituents are flavonoids and their glycosides, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds, which provides technical support and scientific evidence for the study on pharmacodynamic material basis and quality control of Longan Folium.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906161

ABSTRACT

Zexietang is derived from Jingui Yaolue (《金匮要略》), which is composed of Alismatis Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and has the effect of inducing diuresis and invigorating the spleen to produce water. Compared with western medicine in the treatment of related diseases, Zexietang can not only improve the curative effect, but also reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions, so as to achieve long-term stable administration. The authors sorted out and analyzed the chemical composition, pharmacological effect and clinical application of Zexietang in recent years. It was found that the main active components of Zexietang were alismol A and B, 23-acetyl-alismol B and C, atractylenolides (atractylenolide Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ) and polysaccharides. Pharmacological experiments showed that they had diuretic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and others. And it can be used in the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vertigo, cerebral vascular insufficiency and other diseases combined with other Chinese materia medica, and the curative effect is obvious. By summarizing the research status of Zexietang in recent years, its active components and pharmacological mechanism can be further clarified, which provides the basis for the clinical application of Zexietang and guides the direction of its further research.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906069

ABSTRACT

The small size, moderate drug loading, and targeting properties of nano-preparations make them can be excellent delivery tools for drugs, genes or proteins crossing the cell or blood-brain barrier (BBB). Currently, facilitating drug crossing BBB with innovative nano-drug delivery systems is considered as a strategic approach for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, with the deepening of the research, the adverse reactions and toxicity of nanocarriers have gradually attracted the attention of researchers. Based on this, this paper summarized the situation of BBB-penetrating targeted nano-preparations at home and abroad in recent years from the perspective of classification of types and properties of nanocarriers, and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each carrier. The results showed that nano-preparations with active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as carriers have become a promising way of cancer treatment, but the complexity and diversity of TCM components limited its application to a certain extent. Further studies should be strengthened to lay a foundation for the application and development of TCM nano-preparations in the field of CNS diseases.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906011

ABSTRACT

Polygonati Rhizoma was first recorded in Mingyi Bielu(《名医别录》) as both medicine and food due to its high edible and medicinal values.However,there is no systematic textual research on its use as medicine and food. Polygonati Rhizoma and Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma show similar morphology,so they are often confused.Clematis apiifolia and Polygonatum odoratum are often regarded as the original plants of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma. By reviewing the related records in Chinese herbal books of the past dynasties,this paper aimed to clarify the relationship between Polygonati Rhizoma,C.apiifolia and P.odoratum,trace the historical evolution of Polygonati Rhizoma as medicine and food from the name,harvesting and processing,property,flavor and meridian tropism,efficacy and indications,edible and medicinal records,and contraindications,and summarize its application in ethnic medicine,in order to inherit and develop the ethnic medicine. The findings demonstrated that the name of Polygonati Rhizoma and its synonyms were derived from its pictogram,function,and place of origin,containing a wealth of myth implication and Taoism thought.Polygonati Rhizoma,C.apiifolia and P.odoratum are three species,different from the conclusions in previous textual research. The seedlings,flowers,seeds,and rhizomes of Polygonati Rhizoma all could be used for edible and medicinal purposes,with its edible records exceeding the medicinal records. There were 22 medical books from the ethnic minority groups such as The Annals of National Medicine in Yunnan,Zhongguo Minzu Yaozhi Yao,and Dictionary of Chinese Ethnic Medicine recording the knowledge and application of 12 species in Polygonatum by 26 ethnic minorities.Due to their different living environments,lifestyles,and cultural customs,ethnic minorities have formed their unique medical cultures.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the intervention of phlegm-stasis co-treatment on the myocardial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-<italic>κ</italic>B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B)/nuclear factor-<italic>κ</italic>B inhibitor (I<italic>κ</italic>B) signaling pathway, and to investigate its mechanism in improving myocardial inflammation in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Method:Forty-five male SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group, a phlegm-resolving (Xiao Xianxiongtang, 4.05 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, a stasis-resolving (Xuefu Zhuyutang, 7.02 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, a co-treatment (Didang Xianxiong decoction, 8.10 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, an alagebrium chloride (3 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and a model group. Except for normal group, the other rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg·kg<sup>-1 </sup>streptozotocin (STZ) to establish DM model. After adaptive feeding for three weeks, the rats were treated correspondingly by gavage daily for eight weeks. Rats were sampled under anesthesia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the protein expression of TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) in myocardial tissues. The expression levels of NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65 and I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic> were detected by immunohistochemistry. NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic>, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, and TLR4 mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR). Result:The protein and mRNA levels of TLR4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic>, and TNF-<italic>α </italic>were higher in the model group than those in the normal group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). TLR4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α</italic>, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> protein and mRNA expression levels were reduced to varying degrees in the groups with drug intervention as compared with those in the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The inter-group comparison revealed that the co-treatment group showed more manifest reduction in protein and mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65, I<italic>κ</italic>B<italic>α,</italic> and TNF-<italic>α </italic>than the phlegm-resolving group and the stasis-resolving group (<italic>P</italic><0.05<italic>,P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:The co-treatment of phlegm and stasis can improve myocardial inflammation in DM rats, with superior effect to either the phlegm-resolving method or the stasis-resolving method. The underlying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B/I<italic>κ</italic>B signaling pathway activation.

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